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Anatomy And Physiology Essay

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Biology Exam 1:

Chapter 19:

1. blood: specialized fluid connective tissue
a. contains cells suspended in fluid matrix
b. functions:
i. transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones+ metabolic wastes. 1. Blood carries o2 from lungs to peripheral tissues+ co2 from those tissues back 2 lungs 2. Distributes nutrients

3. Carries hormones from endocrine glands toward target cells. Absorbs+ carries wastes to kidneys 4 excretion ii. Regulating the pH+ion comp of interstitial fluids: 4. Diffusion eliminates local deficiencies or excesses of ions 5. Blood absorbs+ neutralizes acids generated by tissues iii. Restricting fluid [email protected] sites:

6. Blood initiates clotting
7. Blood clot acts as temp patch.prevents future blood loss iv. Defending against toxins+pathogens:
8. Blood transports WBC’s: spec. cells that migrate into other tissues 2 fight infections or remove debris 9. Delivers antibodies: proteins that spec. attack invading organisms or foreign comp. v. Stabilizing body temperature:

10. Blood absorbs heat generated by skeletal muscles. Redistributes it 2 other tissues. 11. If body temp= high, heat lost across skin surface 12. If body temp=low, warm blood is directed 2 brain+other temp-sensitive organs 2. Whole blood:

c. Made up of plasma+ formed elements
d. Blood temp= about 38 degrees C
e. Blood= 5x viscous as water
f. Blood= slightly alkaline. pH= 7.35-7.45
3. Plasma:
g. Makes up greatest volume of whole blood
h. Contents:
vi. Plasma proteins:60% of plasma
13. Albumins: transport fatty acids, thyroid hormones, some steroid hormones, etc. a. Major contributors 2 osmotic pressure of plasma 14. Globulins: 35% . antibodies+ transport globulins. b. Antibodies (immunoglobulins) attack foreign proteins+ pathogens c. Transport globulins: bind small ions, hormones,+ other compounds i. Hormone-binding proteins: provide reserve of hormones in bloodstream ii. Metalloproteins: transport metal ions


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