Essays /

Manual For Writing Term Papers Thesis Essay

Essay preview


A Manual for Writers
of Term Papers, Theses,
and Dissertations

Chicago Guides
to &u+, Edtttn~
and Publishing

On Writing, Editing, and Publishing

Jacques Barzun
Getting into Print

Walter W. Powell
Writing for Social Scientists

Howard S. Becker
Chicago Guide for Preparing
Electronic Manuscripts

Prepared by the Staff of the
University of Chicago Press
Tales of the Field

John Van Maanen
A Handbook of
Biological Illustration

Frances W. Zweifel
The Craft of Translation

John Biguenet and
Rainer Schulte, editors


Kate L. Turabian

Joseph M. Williams
Mapping It Out

Mark Monmonier
Indexing Books

Nancy C. Mulvany

Sixth Edition
Revised by
John Grossman and Alice Bennett

Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes

Robert M. Emerson, Rachel I.
Fretz, and Linda L. Shaw
Glossary of Typesetting Terms

Richard Eckersley, Richard
Angstadt, Charles M. Ellerston,
Richard Hendel, Naomi B.
Pascal, and Anita Walker Scott
The Craft of Research

Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G.
Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams

The University of Chicago Press
Chicago and London


Kate L. Turabian (1893-1987) was dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago from 1930 to 1958. John Grossman prepared and Alice Bennett copyedited the fourteenth edition of The Chicugo Munuul of Style. Portions of this book have been adapted from The Chicago Munuul of Style, 14th edition, 0 1969, 1982, 1993 by The University of Chicago, and from A Munuulfor Writers of Term Pupers, Theses, und Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian, revised and expanded for the fifth edition by Bonnie Birtwistle Honigsblum.

The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637
The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London
0 1937, 1955, 1967, 1973, 1987, 1996 by The University of Chicago All rights reserved
Sixth edition, published 1996
Printed in the United States of America
04 03 02

01 00 99 98 97 96 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

ISBN: O-226-81626-5 (cloth)
O-226-81627-3 (paper)




Parts of the Paper


Abbreviations and Numbers


Spelling and Punctuation


Capitalization, Italics, and Quotation Marks















Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Turabian, Kate L.
A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and dissertations / Kate L. Turabian.-6th ed. / rev. by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. p. cm.-(Chicago guides to writing, editing, and publishing)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Dissertations, Academic. 2. Report writing. 1. Grossman, John, 1924- II. Bennett, Alice, 1938% III. Title. IV. Series.
LB2369.T8 1996
@The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI 239.48-1984.

Parenthetical References and Reference Lists



Comparing the Two Documentation Systems



Public Documents


Preparing the Manuscript


Formats and Sample Layouts
Selected Bibliography





Kate L. Turabian designed this manual as a guide to suitable style for presenting formal papers-term papers, theses, dissertations-in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Over the course of sixty years the book has become established as one of the basic reference works for undergraduate and graduate students in many disciplines. This sixth edition has been prompted by publication of the fourteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style and by new guidelines on dissertations from the Office of Academic Publications at the University of Chicago. The University of Chicago Press receives many inquiries about Kate Turabian and the history of her manual. A reviewer for Quill and Scroll wrote that Turabian’s name had become “part of the folklore of American higher education,” and she has been called “the Emily Post of scholarship.” So legendary has she become that some believe she is an invention. In fact, Kate Turabian worked for over thirty years at the University of Chicago, where she was dissertation secretary from 1930 to 1958. She died in 1987 at age ninety-four, a few months after publication of the fiftieth anniversary edition of her manual. Commenting on the more than eleven thousand theses and dissertations she inspected for the university, she told the Chicago Tribune, “I learned early that modern young people have ideas of their own on grammar and punctuation.” It was to correct and guide these ideas that she wrote the instruction sheets that were given out to graduate students at the university She later adapted materials from the Press’s Manual of Style to expand the guidelines into a sixty-eight-page booklet, copyrighted by the University of Chicago in 1937 and distributed first by the campus bookstore, then by the Press. The University of Chicago Press published the book under its own imprint in a revised edition issued in 1955. Three years later Kate Turabian retired as dissertation secretary, but she remained involved in the next two revisions of her manual, published in 1967 and 1973. The fifth edition, substantially revised and enlarged by vii


Bonnie Honigsblum, was published in 1987. This sixth edition has been revised by John Grossman, now retired as managing editor of the University of Chicago Press, who also prepared the fourteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, and by Alice Bennett, senior manuscript editor at the Press.

From the beginning Kate Turabian’s book has had a close connection with the Press’s older style manual. Since the tenth edition of the Press’s manual was published in 1937, each new edition has been followed by a revision of “Turabian.” This sixth edition brings Turabian’s manual into conformity with the fourteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. The new edition also reflects changes brought about by the increasing use of personal computers for preparing research papers. When Turabian’s manual was last revised in 1987, many students were still using typewriters. Those who worked with computers found that word processing programs were not designed for the special formatting requirements of scholarly papers, such as placing footnotes at the bottom of the page. In less than a decade, the situation has changed dramatically. Not only do many more students have access to computers, but software now addresses the particular needs of scholars and students and offers a typographic sophistication that was not available before. With the help of style sheets, students can reduce the time spent on formatting and concentrate on presenting ideas. Dissertation offices can allow greater flexibility in decisions regarding margins, spacing, emphasis, headings, and general presentation. This new environment is reflected in the current edition, especially in chapter 13 on manuscript preparation and in chapter 14, showing sample pages from typical research papers. Regular users of this manual will find that its basic structure remains much the same as in the fifth edition. Some chapters have been retitled or rearranged, but the same major topics are covered. Chapter 1 describes the parts of a long formal paper. Chapters 2-5 introduce students to the mechanics of writing, including the use of abbreviations, the treatment of numbers, some principles of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and the use of italics, and the way to present quotations. Chapters 6 and 7 show how to prepare and refer to tables and illustrations. The section on documentation, chapters 8-12, describes two of the most commonly used systems of citation-the humanities style using notes and bibliographical references and the author-date style favored by scholars in the social and natural sciences-and gives many examples.

It is not within the scope of this manual to offer advice on how to select a topic, undertake research, and write up the results. That chal... Vlll


lenge is taken up by three master teachers, Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams, in their recent book The Craft of Research (Chicago, 1995), which is intended as a companion to Turabian’s manual. Students may also need to consult a specialized style manual prescribed by their academic department or discipline. Although many scholarly authors and publishers follow one of the methods of documentation described here, there is not universal acceptance of every detail. Some disciplines follow the citation style of manuals published by learned societies or scholarly journals, listed in the bibliography at the end of this book. The revisers of this edition thank all those who contributed information useful to the preparation of the fifth and sixth editions of Turabian’s Manual. These include the many teachers, dissertation secretaries, and thesis advisers who have written to the Press with suggestions or have answered questionnaires, as well as members of the University of Chicago community who have advised on various items. The revisers have endeavored to continue Turabian’s tradition of selecting the parts of The Chicago Manual of Style that are most useful to students.



Parts of the Paper

Introduction 1.1
Front Matter, or Preliminaries 1.7
Title Page 1.7
Blank Page or Copyright Page 1.8
Dedication 1.9
Epigraph 1.10
Table of Contents 1. I 1
List of Illustrations 1.19
List of Tables 1.24
Preface 1.25
Acknowledgments 1.26
List of Abbreviations 1.27
Glossary 1.28
Editorial Method 1.3 1
Abstract 1.32
Text 1.33
Introduction 1.34
Part 1.35
Chapter 1.36
Section and Subsection 1.37
Back Matter, or Reference Matter 1.39
Appendix 1.39
Endnotes 1.46
Bibliography or Reference List 1.47


The word paper is used throughout this manual for term papers, theses, and dissertations except when referring specifically to one of these. A term paper fulfills one of the require1

Front Matter, or Preliminaries/l.9

l.Z/Parts of the Paper

ments of a course or an undergraduate major. A thesis is a
requirement of a graduate-level course or a master’s degree. A dissertation is one of the requirements for a doctorate. Each kind of research paper must include references giving full publication data for works cited in the text, and each is to be submitted as finished copy rather than as a manuscript prepared for typesetting. Before beginning work on such a research paper, the writer should consult the department or degreegranting institution to determine any special requirements. To the extent that these do not conflict with the guidelines offered in this manual, or if no special requirements exist, the style presented here is recommended.




All the basic text in a dissertation must be double-spaced, and double-spacing is strongly urged for all academic papers. Indented block quotations (5.30-34), however, may be singlespaced. It is also conventional to single-space footnotes, itemized lists, and bibliographies or reference lists, leaving a blank line between notes, items, or entries. Runover lines in tables of contents, lists of tables and illustrations, and subheads may also be single-spaced.



A paper has three main parts: the front matter, or preliminaries; the text; and the back matter or reference matter. In a long paper, each of these parts may consist of several sections (see below), each beginning a new page.

There are two categories of pagination: the front matter, numbered with consecutive lowercase roman numerals, centered at the bottom of the page, and the rest of the work, numbered
with arabic numerals centered at the bottom of pages that bear titles and centered at the top (or placed in the upper right corner) of all other pages of the text and back matter.


Although all pages are counted in the pagination, some of the preliminaries do not have page numbers typed on them (see
1.7-l 1).


Unless specified otherwise by the conventions of a department or discipline, the order given in the table of contents for this chapter should be observed, though not every paper will require all these parts. Should the paper later be published, the organization required by the publisher may differ from that

recommended here.

Many universities and colleges have their own style of title page for theses and dissertations, and this should be followed exactly for content, capitalization, and position and spacing of the elements. For term papers, if a sample sheet is not provided, a title page might include the name of the university or college (usually centered near the top of the sheet), the full title of the paper, the course (including its department and number), the date, and the name of the writer. Although the title page counts as page i, the number is not shown on it. See sample 14.18 for one style that may be used for theses and dissertations.



A blank sheet prevents the text of the following page from
showing through the white space on the title page. The sheet may also be used as a copyright page, with the copyright notice, in the following form, placed near the bottom. Copyright 0 19- by Arthur Author

All rights reserved
In either case the sheet is counted in the pagination, but the page number is not shown. A copyright notice may be included even if the copyright is not registered.


Dedications are usually brief and need not include the word
dedicated. To is sufficient:
To Gerald
It is not necessary to identify (or even give the whole name of) the person to whom the work is dedicated or to give such other information as life dates, though both are permissible. Extravagant dedications are a thing of the past, and humorous ones rarely stand the test of time. The dedication, typed in uppercase and lowercase, should be centered on the width of a line about three inches from the top of the page, with no final punc-

Front Mattev, or Preliminaries/l.14

l.lO/Parts of the Paper

essentially an outline by including all the levels. At the other extreme the contents may omit the subheads-even though the
paper carries subheads of one level or more than one-showing only the generic headings and titles of chapters. For many papers, both those with only one level and those with more
than one level of subhead, the table of contents includes the first-level (principal) subheads, with or without the page numbers (sample 14.19). Note that when more than one level of subhead is included in the contents, they must appear in order of rank; that is, it is not permissible to begin with any but the first-level subhead or to skip from the first to the third or fourth level (sample 14.20).

tuation. If to introduces the dedication, it should begin with a capital. A dedication is not listed in the table of contents. No number appears on it, but the page is counted in the pagination of the preliminaries.


An epigraph-a quotation placed at the beginning of a work
or of one of its parts and adumbrating its theme-is not italicized, underlined, or put in quotation marks. When an epigraph heads a whole paper, its format is like that of a dedication (see 1.9). For epigraphs that begin chapters or sections of a paper, see 5.9. The source is given on the line following the quotation and should consist only of the author’s name (just the last name of a well-known author) and, usually, the title of the work. The title should be italicized or underlined or enclosed in quotation marks in accordance with the guidelines in chapter 4. Epigraphs are usually self-explanatory: any explanation should be included in the preface or other introductory matter. An epigraph is not listed in the table of contents. No number appears on it, but the page is counted in the pagination of the preliminaries.




The table of contents, usually headed simply CONTENTS (in full capitals), lists all the parts of the paper except the title page, blank page or copyright page, dedication, and epigraph, which all precede it. No page numbers appear on any of these four, but all are counted in the pagination of the front matter. If the chapters are grouped in parts, the generic headings (e.g.,

PART I) and titles (e.g., EARLY FINDINGS) of the parts also appear in the contents, though the pages carry no numbers in the text (see 1.18). Subheads within the chapters are frequently included in one of various ways (see 14.19-20), or they may be omitted from the table of contents.

In preparing a table of contents for a paper containing one
level or more of subheads (see 1.37), there is great latitude in both the amount of information included and the method of
presenting it. At one extreme the contents may provide what is




First to be listed in the table of contents (see 14.19) are those elements of the front matter that have page numbers shown
(1.19-32). These may include a list of illustrations, list of tables, preface, acknowledgments, list of abbreviations, glossary, editorial method, and abstract, usually in that order. Following the preliminaries, the various elements of the text are listed. Chapters are listed under that generic heading, with chapter numbers aligned at the left and chapter titles aligned on the first letter. If the chapters are divided into groups, or parts, the part title and number are centered above the constituent chapters (14.19). The back matter, or reference matter (appendix, endnotes, and bibliography or reference list; see 1.39-47), is listed last (14.20) and, like the front matter, starts flush left. A line space should be left between items in the table of contents; that is, the items are double-spaced. If an item runs to more than one line, however, the runover lines are single-spaced.


Subheads, when included, are indented a consistent distance
(three spaces, for example) beyond the beginning of the chapter title. If more than one level of subhead is included, each level is indented an additional three spaces. Runovers are indented yet another three spaces, and the spaced periods (leaders) running to the page number (see 1.18) begin at the end of the last runover line. Multiple levels of subheads and a runover subhead are illustrated in example 14.20. If the subheads are short, those of the same level may be run in (run together), with each level, as a block, indented three spaces beyond the preceding one. Run-in subheads may be separated by semicolons, dashes, or periods.



Front Matter, or Preliminaries/l.25

l.lS/Parts of the Paper


Capitalization and wording of the titles of all parts, chapters, and sections should appear exactly as in the body of the paper.


Capitalization of titles in both the table of contents and the body of the paper should be as follows. For the titles of all major divisions (acknowledgments, preface, contents, list of illustrations, list of tables, list of abbreviations, glossary, editorial method, abstract, introduction, parts, chapters, appendix, notes, and bibliography or reference list), capitalize all letters (e.g., PREFACE ). For subheads, use headline style (see 4.6-8), capitalizing the initial letter of the first and last words and of all other words except articles, prepositions, and coordinate conjunctions (sample 14.19), or use sentence style (see 4.9), capitalizing only the initial letter of the subhead and of any proper nouns or proper adjectives (sample 14.20).




Numbers designating parts and chapters should be given as
they appear in the text. Part numbers may be uppercase roman numerals (PART I, PART II, etc.) or spelled-out numbers (PART ONE, PART TWO, etc.). The generic heading may precede the part title on the same line, followed by a period (sample 14.19), or it may be centered above the title and thus need no following punctuation (sample 14.20). Chapter numbers may be arabic

or uppercase roman numerals or spelled-out numbers. The
word chapter may precede each chapter number, or it may be
given only once as a heading above the column listing all the chapter numbers (samples 14.19-20).
Page numbers in a table of contents are usually aligned on the right following a line of spaced periods (leaders) separating the title from the page number on which the part of the paper begins (sample 14.20). Note that only the beginning page number of each chapter or other section is given. Page numbers for

parts need be given only if the part-title page contains some introductory text, but if the page number is given for one part, it must be given for all. Page numbers for subheads may be
omitted (sample 14.19). When they are included with run-in
subheads, page numbers are best placed in parentheses immediately following each subhead. OF IL LUSTR ATIONS

In a list of illustrations, headed simply ILLUSTRATIONS , the figure numbers are given in arabic numerals followed by a period;

the captions follow the period; and the page numbers (in arabit) are usually separated from the caption by leaders. Doublespace between captions, single-space within. 1.20

The figure numbers in the list are aligned on their periods under the word Jigure, and page numbers are listed flush right under the word page, as in sample 14.21.


Figures must not be numbered la, lb, and so forth. A figure
may, however, have lettered parts to which its legend, or descriptive statement, refers. Fig. 1. Digitalis: a, cross section of stem; b,

enlargement of a seed.
Do not include the lettered parts in the list of illustrations. 1.22

The captions in the list of illustrations should agree with those given beneath the illustrations, unless the latter are long (more properly, then, called legends), in which case it is best to shorten them in the list. For a thesis or dissertation, however, consult the dissertation office. Even if a descriptive or explanatory statement follows the caption under an illustration, do not include it in the list of illustrations (sample 14.21).


In this list captions are capitalized headline style (see 4.6-8), as in sample 14.21. Foreign language captions, however, should follow the conventions for the language.



In a list of tables, the table numbers are arabic numerals followed by periods and are aligned on the periods in a left-hand column headed table; the page numbers are listed flush right under the heading page. The table titles begin two spaces after the period following the table number and should agree exactly with the titles above the tables themselves. The titles are capitalized either sentence or headline style (see 4.6-g), and runover lines are indented three spaces. Double-space between items, single-space within (sample 14.22).


In the preface, the writer explains the motivation for the study, the background of the project, the scope of the research, and 7

1.26IParts of the Paper

Front Matter, or Preliminaries/l.32

the purpose of the paper. The preface may also include acknowledgments. If a writer has nothing significant to add to what is covered in the body of the paper and wishes only to
acknowledge the various sorts of assistance and permissions
received, these remarks should be titled ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
rather than PREFACE. A preface appears in the same format as an acknowledgments section (see 1.26).

reading it from beginning to end. Even when a paper includes a list of abbreviations, the spelled-out version should be given the first time a term appears, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses.





In the acknowledgments, the writer thanks mentors and colleagues, lists the individuals or institutions that supported the research, and gives credit to works cited in the text for which permission to reproduce has been granted (see 5.1). Although one might wish to acknowledge special assistance such as consultation on technical matters or aid in securing special equipment and source materials, one may properly omit formal thanks for the routine help given by an adviser or a thesis committee. The generic heading ACKNOWLEDGMENTS , which appears only on the first page, is in uppercase and centered over the text. The format of this page should be the same as for the first page of a chapter. Each page of the acknowledgments is numbered in lowercase roman numerals centered beneath the




A list of abbreviations is desirable only if the writer has devised new abbreviations instead of using commonly accepted ones,
such as standard abbreviations of titles of professional journals. A list of abbreviations should be arranged alphabetically by the abbreviation itself, not the spelled-out term. Under the centered generic heading in uppercase, list abbreviations on the left in alphabetical order and leave two to four spaces between the longest abbreviation and its spelled-out term. Align the first letter of all other spelled-out terms and any runover lines with the first letter of the term following the longest abbreviation, and use the longest line in the column to center the list on the page(s). Double-space between items, single-space

within, as in sample 14.32. A list of abbreviations helps the reader who looks at only a portion of the paper instead of



A paper that contains many foreign words or technical terms
and phrases likely to be unfamiliar to the reader should include a list of these, followed by their translations or definitions. The terms should be arranged alphabetically, each typed flush left and followed by a period, a dash, or a colon. The translation or definition follows, with its first word capitalized and ending with a period, unless all definitions consist only of single words or phrases, in which case no fIna punctuation should be used. If a definition extends to more than one line, the runover lines should be indented five spaces from the left margin. Doublespace between items, single-space within, as in sample 14.33. If there is more than one glossary, each should start on a new page.

A glossary placed in the back matter rather than in the front matter follows an appendix, if any, and precedes the bibliography or reference list.


Following the same format as does the preface (see 1.25), a
section devoted to editorial method may be included in the
preliminaries to explain the writer’s editorial practice or to discuss variant texts, particularly if the paper is a scholarly edition. In practice, however, this discussion is usually part of the introduction. Short, uncomplicated remarks about editorial

method-such as a note that capitalization and punctuation
have been modernized-may be included in the preface or
placed in a note after the first quotation from the edited work.


An abstract, which may or may not be required, briefly summarizes the thesis and contents of the paper. Like the title, it 9

1.33/Parts of the Paper


may be used by information services to create lists of papers organized by subject matter. Since each department or discipline has its own requirements, consult the thesis adviser or dissertation office regarding the content, style, placement, and format of the abstract.

as a numeral (arabic or uppercase roman). Conventionally, the entire heading is centered. Some writers omit the word CHAPTER and use only numerals-roman or arabic-in sequence before the headings of the main divisions. The form of the chapter numbers should be different from that used for part numbers (e.g., PART II, CHAPTER 4). The title, which describes the content of the chapter, is also in uppercase, centered below the generic heading (see samples 14.34 and 14.36).



The body of the paper is usually separated into well-defined divisions, such as parts, chapters, sections, and subsections. The text may also include parenthetical references, footnotes, or superscript numbers keyed to a reference list or to endnotes.

The text usually begins with an introduction, which may be
called chapter 1. If it is short, the writer may prefer to head it simply INTRODUCTION and reserve the more formal generic
heading CHAPTER for the longer sections that compose the
body of the paper. Whether it is called chapter 1 or not, the introduction is equivalent to the first chapter and is not part of the preliminaries. Thus the first page of the introduction is page 1 (arabic numeral) of the paper.


If a work is divided into parts, each comprising one or more chapters, each should be preceded by a part-title page. Parttitle pages display only the generic heading, the part number, and any part title. Since the introduction is to the entire paper, whether it is titled chapter 1 or not, it is not included in part 1. The first part-title page therefore follows rather than precedes the introduction.




In some papers the chapters or their equivalents are divided into sections, which may in turn be divided into subsections, then into sub-subsections, and so on. Such divisions are customarily given titles, called subheads or subheadings, which are differentiated typographically and designated first-, second-, and third-level subheads. The principal, or first-level, subdivision should have greater attention value than the lower levels. Centered headings have more attention value than sideheads

(beginning at the left margin), and italic, underlining, or boldface type has more than text type. Attention value is also enhanced by leaving some blank space above and below all but run-in subheads. A suggested plan for five levels of subheads follows.

First level: centered heading in boldface, italicized, or underlined, capitalized headline style: Traditional Controversy between Medieval
Church anB S tate
Second level: centered heading in text type, capitalized headline style: Reappearance of Religious Legalism

Third level: sidehead in boldface, italicized, or underlined, capitalized headline style: Legalism and the Poets

Fourth level: sidehead in text type, capitalized sentence style: CHAPTER


The body of the paper is divided into chapters, each beginning on a new page. The generic heading CHAPTER is followed by a
number, which may be either spelled out (in capitals) or given

The gospel as it is related to Jesus

Fifth level: run-in heading at beginning of paragraph in boldface, italicized, or underlined, capitalized sentence style with a period at the end:

Back Matter, or Reference Matter/l.47

1.38/Parts of the Paper

be the same for all the appendixes. Documents and case studies may well be single-spaced, whereas explanations of methods
and procedures should be double-spaced like the text.

The gospel legalized in the church. The gospel
that the early Christians preached within the pagan
sects was also a product of their experience.


If fewer than five levels are required, the style of these levels may be selected in any suitable descending order. A page should never end with a subhead. For the layout of subheadings on a page, see samples 14.31 and 14.35.


When photocopied documents, such as previously published
articles, facsimiles of manuscripts, or questionnaires, appear as separate pages in appendixes, a page number should be
added to each photocopy, using arabic numerals within brackets in the upper right corner, indicating their sequence within the pagination of the paper. The brackets show that the page number is not part of the original document. The photocopied documents within an appendix may or may not contain original pagination.


If an appendix contains photocopied material, the photocopies must be of letter quality (see 13.28, 13.37).


An appendix, though by no means an essential part of every
paper, is a useful device to make available material that is relevant to the text but not suitable for inclusion in it. An appendix is a group of related items. Appendixes, for example, may contain tables too detailed for text presentation, a large group of illustrations, technical notes on method, schedules and forms used in collecting materials, copies of documents not generally available to the reader, case studies too long to put into the text, and sometimes figures or other illustrative materials. When a writer gathers all the paper’s illustrations, they are instead included in a group titled ILLUSTRATIONS placed just before the back matter. If some illustrations are placed in the text, however, any that are grouped in the back matter must be put in an appendix.


Materials of different categories should be placed in separate appendixes. When there is more than one appendix, each is
given a number or a letter ( APPENDIX 1, etc.; APPENDM ONE,
etc.; APPENDIX A, etc.).


If there is only one appendix, the writer may or may not give it a title, like a chapter or part title. If a paper has more than one appendix, each must bear a descriptive title, which also appears in the table of contents (see 14.20). On the opening page of each appendix the generic heading and the title are

both centered and typed in full capitals.


All appendixes go at the end of a paper, not at the ends of




Endnotes, which may have the same content as footnotes, are
more common in term papers than in theses or dissertations,
where footnotes have traditionally been preferred and parenthetical references (see 10.2-19) are now often recommended. In term papers, endnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the paper. In longer works that are divided into chapters, however, endnotes are numbered consecutively from 1 within

each chapter. Superscript arabic numerals are used as indicators in text, but full-sized on-line arabic numerals, followed by periods, precede the endnotes themselves (sample 14.38). All endnotes are grouped in the back matter under the generic

heading N OTES, with subheads giving the chapter numbers.




The bibliography or reference list (see chapters 9 and 10) is the last part of the paper (except in those rare instances where a paper carries an index, like a book). Instructions for the layout of these parts are set forth in samples 14.39-42.

Whether an appendix should be single-spaced or doublespaced depends on the nature of the material; spacing need not 13



Abbreviations and Numbers

Abbreviations 2.1
Use of Periods 2.2
Social and Professional Titles and Similar Terms 2.3
Organizations 2.11
Geographical Names 2.13
Measure 2.16
Scholarship 2.18
Parts of a Work 2.18
Unpublished Manuscripts 2.19
Books of the Bible 2.20
Classical References 2.22
General Scholarly Abbreviations 2.23
For Further Reference 2.28
Numbers 2.29
General Rule 2.29
Series 2.3 1
Initial Numbers 2.32
Percentages and Decimals 2.36
Numerals, Symbols, and Abbreviations 2.37
Fractions 2.39
Currencies 2.40
United States Currency 2.40
British Currency 2.42
Other Currencies 2.43
Numbered Parts of Written Works 2.44
Date and Time 2.49
Day, Month, and Year 2.49
Century 2.53
Decade 2.54
Month and Day Names 2.55
Era 2.56

Time of Day 2.57
Numbers and Names 2.58
Monarchs and the Like 2.58
Family Names 2.59
Government Designations 2.60
Churches, Lodges, and Unions 2.61
Street Addresses, Highways, and Telephone Numbers 2.63
Scientific Usage 2.64
Commas within Numbers 2.66
Inclusive Numbers 2.67
Plurals of Numbers 2.68
Numbers in Enumerations 2.70
Enumerations in Text 2.70
Numbers Beginning a New Line or Paragraph 2.72
Outlines 2.73



Though the use of abbreviations in formal writing was traditionally limited to a few prescribed circumstances, during the past few decades abbreviations have been used increasingly in writing of all kinds. In tabular matter, notes, bibliographies, illustrations, and lists, abbreviations are normally preferred and are formed according to a standard list accepted within

any given field. Such forms of address as Mr., Mrs., and Dr. are almost never spelled out. The writer who must form new
abbreviations for a paper should include a list of abbreviations in the front matter (see 1.27). For guidelines on hyphenating and dividing abbreviations, see 3.50.



The trend is strongly away from the use of periods, especially in uppercase abbreviations. In the examples that follow, the periods have been left wherever they have traditionally appeared. Periods may be omitted from many of these examples, but it is well to use periods after lowercase abbreviations that spell words (e.g., in., act., no.). A period and a space are used after the initials of personal names (e.g., E. F Bowman). In an abbreviation with an internal period (e.g., A! Y;, Ph.D., N Dak., US.), however, there should be no space after that period.



2.3/Abbreviations and Numbers





Most social titles are abbreviated, whether used with the full name or the last name only (note that there is no period after Mile and Mme):





The abbreviations Sr, Jr, III, and IV (for Senior, Junior, Third, and Fourth) follow a full name and are not used with the family name alone. The terms are never spelled out when part of a
name. Though a comma has traditionally preceded Jr and Sr.
(but not III and IV), The Chicago Manual of Style now recommends omitting commas in all such cases. Rev. Oliver C. Jones Jr. spoke to the group.
Do you know Ralph Smith Jr.'s address?


Abbreviations for scholarly degrees and titles of respect, which follow full names, are set off by two commas when they are
given in text.
Laura S. Wells, Ph.D., was on the committee.


The Reverend Jesse E. Thorson, S.T.B., was nominated by
the board of trustees.

The following list includes many frequently used abbreviations for scholarly degrees and professional and honorary designations: A.B., Artium Bacclaureus (Bachelor of Arts)
A.M., Artium Magister (Master of Arts)
B.A., Bachelor of Arts
B.D., Bachelor of Divinity
B.F.A., Bachelor of Fine Arts
B.S., Bachelor of Science
D.B., Divinitatis Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Divinity)
D.D., Divinitatis Doctor (Doctor of Divinity)
D.D.S., Doctor of Dental Surgery
D.Min., Doctor of Ministry
D.O., Doctor of Osteopathy
D.V.M., Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
Esq., Esquire

F.A.I.A., Fellow of the American Institute of Architects
F.R.S., Fellow of the Royal Society
J.D., Juris Doctor (Doctor of Law)
J.P., Justice of the Peace
L.H.D., Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor (Doctor of
Litt.D., Litterarum Doctor (Doctor of Letters)
LL.B., Legum Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Laws)
LL.D., Legum Doctor (Doctor of Laws)
M.A., Master of Arts
M.B.A., Master of Business Administration
M.D., Medicinae Doctor (Doctor of Medicine)
M.F.A., Master of Fine Arts
M.P., Member of Parliament
M.S., Master of Science
Ph.B., Philosophiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Philosophy)
Ph.D., Philosophiae Doctor (Doctor of Philosophy)
Ph.G., Graduate in Pharmacy
S.B., Scientiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Science)
S.M., Scientiae Magister (Master of Science)
S.T.B., Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of
Sacred Theology)
Abbreviate doctor (Dr.) before a name, but spell it out when it is not followed by a name:
Dr. Shapiro brought about a total recovery.
The doctor was an expert in her field.


Spell out a civil, military, professional, or religious title when it precedes the family name alone:
Senator Proxmire

General Patton

But use the appropriate abbreviation before a full name:
Sen. William F. Proxmire


Gen. George S. Patton

Spell out Reverend, Honorable, and Colonel if preceded by the; otherwise abbreviate to Rev., Hon., or Col. Never use these titles, either spelled out or abbreviated, with family names alone. Use them only when the title is followed by the person’s full name or by Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms., or Dr. with the family name alone, as may be appropriate:

Col. Arthur Charles reviewed the procedures.
The ceremony was in honor of the Reverend Martin Luther
King Jr. 's birthday observance.


2.9/Abbreviations and Numbers


Rev. Dr. Wilson gave the address.
The Honorable Mr. Collins closed the final session of
the conference.

In notes, bibliographies, parenthetical references, reference lists, and the like, the following abbreviations may be freely (but consistently) used:

Never use:

Bro .

Rev. Bentley
Reverend Bentley
the Rev. Bentley
the Reverend Bentley






Spell out the prefixes of most geographical names (e.g., Fort Wayne, South Orange, Port Arthur) within the text. Saint may be shortened to St., but it must then be abbreviated consistently:

The names of government agencies, network broadcasting
companies, associations, fraternal and service organizations, unions, and other groups are often abbreviated, even in text, preferably after one spelled-out use. Such abbreviations are in full capitals with no periods:





When Saint forms part of a personal name, the bearer’s usage is followed:



Within the text, spell out the names of countries, states, counties, provinces, territories, bodies of water, mountains, and the like, with the exception of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, commonly referred to as the USSR. In lists, tabular matter, notes, bibliographies, and indexes, the following abbreviations for state names may be used (the two-letter form for mailing addresses is often useful in other contexts as well): OH

KS Ohio
AL Kans.
KY Okla.
LA Oreg. or Ore. OR
Amer.Samoa AS
ME Pa.
AZ Maine
AR Md.
CA Mass.
c z Mich.
MN S.Dak.
c o Minn.
CT Miss.
MO Tex.
MT Utah
DC Mont.
NE Vt.
FL Nebr.
NV Va.
GA Nev.
NJ Wash.
NM W.Va.
ID N.Mex.
Wis. or Wise. WI
NC wyo.
IA N.Dak.

Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire
Charles-Camille Saint-Saens
Muriel St. Clare Byrne
Ruth St. Denis




Christian saint:
St. Thomas Aquinas
SS. Augustine and Benedict
But Saint is omitted before the names of apostles, evangelists, and church fathers:




Saint may be abbreviated when it stands before the name of a







Within the text, company names should be given in their full form, without including the terms Inc. or Ltd. and without
capitalizing the word the, even when it is part of a company’s full name:
A. G. Becker and Company was incorporated in 1894.


Mount St. Helens has erupted several times.

The book was published by the University of Chicago

From northeast Paris it is less than an hour to SaintCloud on the Metro.


2.15/Abbreviations and Numbers



Within the text, spell out all the following words. In close-set matter, the abbreviations may be used:

La. or Ln.







But always use the abbreviations NU: NE, SE, and SW where
they follow street names in city addresses:
Lake Shore Drive is safer than the Dan Ryan Expressway,
where there is truck traffic.
He spent several years in Southeast Asia.
The shop is at 245 Seventeenth Street NW.


In nontechnical writing, spell out expressions of dimension, distance, volume, weight, degree, and so on:
five miles



150 pounds

14.5 meters

In scientific and technical writing, standard abbreviations for units of measure are used if the amount is given in numerals. Most guides to scientific and technical writing (several are included in the bibliography) list standard abbreviations acceptable within a given discipline. For a general introduction to the use of abbreviations for units of measure, consult The Chicago Manual of Style, fourteenth edition, 14.36-53. A full explanation of the International System of Units (Systeme international d’unites, abbreviated SZ) appears in General Principles concerning Quantities, Units, and Symbols, compiled by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and published in Geneva in 1981.

Spell out and do not capitalize (unless in a heading or at the beginning of a sentence) the words book, chapter, part, volume, section, scene, verse, column, page, figure, plate, and so on, except when such a term is followed by a number in a note or parenthetical reference, in which case the following abbreviations should be used: bk., chap., pt., vol., sect., S C., v. (vv.), toll., p. (pp.), jig., pt. Add s for the plural unless otherwise shown. Chapter numbers in text references are given in arabic numerals, even when the actual chapter numbers are spelled out or in roman numerals. The words act, line, and table should never be abbreviated.


When referring to unpublished manuscripts, spell out the
terms used to describe them within the text, but in notes, bibliographies, and reference lists, use the abbreviations listed below. Terms not in this list should always be spelled out. The abbreviations are used by many curators and librarians. See

8.13 l-32, 11.49-50, and 11.52-55 for examples of notes and
reference list entries using abbreviations listed here or using spelled-out forms, as needed.
Letter signed
Autograph letter signed
Typewritten letter
Typewritten letter signed
Document signed
Autograph document
Autograph document signed
Typewritten document
Typewritten document signed
Autograph manuscript
Autograph manuscript signed
Typewritten manuscript
Typewritten manuscript signed


Z.ZO/Abbreviations and Numbers

Autograph card
Autograph card signed
Typewritten card
Typewritten card signed
Autograph note
Autograph note signed

whether in text or notes. Often the names of well-known periodicals and reference tools are also abbreviated after being spelled out in the first citation. The most widely accepted standard for such abbreviations is the comprehensive list in the front of the Oxford Classical Dictionary.


Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War 2.40.2-3
Thud. 2.40.2-3
Homer Odyssey 9.266-71
Horn. Od. 9.266-71

This list is reprinted, with minor changes, from Modern Manuscripts: A Practical Manual for Their Management, Care, and Use, by Kenneth W. Duckett (Nashville: American Association
for State and Local History, 1975), 143-44, by permission of the publisher. 0 1975 by the American Association for State
and Local History.



When referring to whole chapters or to whole books of the
Bible or the Apocrypha, spell out the names of the books (do not italicize or underline them):

General abbreviations such as etc., e.g., and i.e. should be confined to parenthetical references within the text. The abbreviations ibid., cJ, and S.V. are preferably used only in notes and other scholarly apparatus.


An abbreviation begins with a capital when it is the first word of a note and whenever the usual rules for capitalization apply.

Jeremiah, chapters 42-44, records the flight of the
Jews to Egypt when Jerusalem fell in 586 B.C.


The word sic is italicized or underlined, but not most other Latin words or abbreviations commonly used in footnotes, bibliographies, tabular matter, and so on (see 2.26). See also 5.36.


The following abbreviations and Latin words are commonly
used in scholarly text. Add s for the plural unless otherwise shown.


The Revelation of St. John the Divine, known as
“Revelation, ” closes the New Testament.

When scriptural passages are cited by verse in a paper, whether in text, parenthetical references, or notes, abbreviate the names of the books, using arabic numerals if they are numbered; write the chapter and verse numbers in arabic numerals with either a colon or a period between them; and follow the chapter and verse numbers with the abbreviation for the version of the Bible or Apocrypha from which the passage was taken.

1 Song of Sol. 2.1-5 RSV

Ru 3:14 NAB

For standard biblical abbreviations, see The Chicago Manual

of Style, fourteenth edition, 14.34-35.



In a paper containing many classical references, both the name of the author and the title of the work may be abbreviated after they have been spelled out in full when cited the first time,

act., active
app., appendix
art., article
b., born
bk., book
c., copyright
ca., circa, about, approximately
cf., confer, compare (Note that confer is the Latin word for “compare”; cJ: must not be used as the abbreviation for
the English “confer,” nor should it be used to mean “see.“) ch., chapter (in law references)
chap., chapter
col., column
camp., compiler; compiled by
d., died


2.261 Abbreviations and Numbers

dept., department
div., division
ed., editor; edition; edited by
e.g., exempli gratis, for example
et al., et alia, and others
etc., et cetera, and so forth
et seq., et sequentes, and the following
fig., figure
fl.,floruit, flourished (for use when birth and death dates are not known)
ibid., ibidem, in the same place
id., idem, the same (used to refer to persons, except in law citations; not to be confused with ibid.)
i.e., id est, that is
infra, below
1. (el), line (plural, 11.) (Not recommended because the abbreviation in the singular might be mistaken for “one” and the plural for “eleven.“)
n., note, footnote (plural, nn.)
nd., no date
no., number
n.p., no place; no publisher
n.s., new series
o.s., old series
P., page (plural, PP.)
par., paragraph
passim, here and there
pt., part
q.v., quod vide, which see (for use with cross-references)
SC., scene
sec., section
sic, so, thus
supp. or suppl., supplement
supra, above
s.v., sub verbo, sub vote, under the word (plural, s.w.; used in references to encyclopedias and dictionaries)
trans., translator; translated by
v., verse (plural, w.)
viz., videlicet, namely
vol., volume
vs., versus, against (v. in law references)


In quoting from constitutions, bylaws, and the like within the text, the words section and article are spelled out the first time they are used and abbreviated thereafter, traditionally in uppercase, and arabic numerals are used: SECTION 1. The name of the . . .

SEC. 2. The object of the . . .
ARTICLE 235. It shall be the . . .
ART. 235. It shall be the duty . . .

References in running text should be spelled out in lowercase: In article 256 it is specified that . . .

Standard abbreviations used by many law reviews appear in A
Uniform System of Citation, fifteenth edition (1991).


Merriam- Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary includes a great many

abbreviations from all fields, arranged in letter-by-letter alphabetical order. To identify a rare or unfamiliar abbreviation, consult the Reverse Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations Dictionary, 17th ed., 3 ~01s. (Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1992-94), available at most libraries.


In scientific and statistical material, all numbers are expressed in numerals. In nonscientific material, numbers are sometimes spelled out and sometimes expressed in numerals, according
to prescribed conventions. The general rule followed by many writers and by the University of Chicago Press is to spell out all numbers through one hundred and any of the whole numbers followed by hundred, thousand, hundred thousand, million, and so on. For all other numbers, numerals are used.

At that time the combined population of the three
districts was less than four million.
There are 514 seniors in the graduating class.


Z.jlO/Abbreviations and Numbers


The general rule applies to ordinal as well as cardinal numbers:


On the 122d and 123d days of his recovery, he received
his eighteenth and nineteenth letters from home.

Note that the preferred numeral form of the ordinals second
and third adds d alone (2d, 3d), not nd and rd (2nd, 3rd).



The general rule must be modified when numbers above and
below one hundred appear in a series, or group, applying to
the same kind of thing. Here all are expressed in numerals:
Of the group surveyed, 186 students had studied French,
142 had studied Spanish, and 36 had studied Latin for
three years or m ore.



A sentence

should never begin with a numeral, even when there
are numerals in the rest of the sentence. Either spell out the first number or recast the sentence:
Two hundred and fifty passengers escaped injury; 175
sustained minor injuries: 110 were so seriously hurt
that they required hospitalization.

or better
Of the passengers, 250 escaped injury, 175 sustained
minor injuries, and 110 required hospitalization.


To avoid confusion, you may spell out one set of numbers in
an expression that involves two or more series:
In a test given six months later, 14 children made no
errors; 64 made one to two errors; 97 made three to
four errors.


Although a round number occurring in isolation is spelled out (see 2.29), several round numbers close together are expressed in numerals:
They’shipped 1,500 books in the first order, 8,000 in
the second, and 100,000 in the third; all together
there were now about l,OOO,OOO volumes in the


Very large round numbers are frequently expressed in numerals and units of millions or billions:
This means that welfare programs will require about
$7.8 million per day, compared with $3.2 million spent
each day at the current rate of inflation.



Numerals should be used to express decimal fractions and percentages. The word percent should be written out except in scientific and statistical writing, where the symbol % may be used: With interest at 8 percent, the monthly payment would

amount to $12.88, which he noted was exactly 2.425
times the amount he was accustomed to put in savings
Grades of 3.8 and 95% are equivalent.
When fractional and whole numbers are used in the same sentence or paragraph, both should be expressed as numerals (see also 2.40):
The average number of children born to college
graduates dropped from 2.4 to 2 per couple.
In scientific contexts decimal fractions of less than 1.00 begin with a zero if the quantity expressed is capable of equaling or exceeding 1 .OO:
the ratio 0.85
a mean of 0.73

N U M E R A L S , SY M B O L S ,




Use the symbol for percent (%) only when it is preceded by a number. Note that percentage, not percent or %, is the correct expression when no number is given:
The September scores for students enrolled in summer
school showed an improvement of 70.1% [or 70.1 percent]
over test scores recorded in June. Thus the percentage
of achievers in the second test indicated that summer
school had resulted in higher scores in a majority of
The number preceding either percent or % is never spelled out (except when beginning a sentence):
15 percent




2.39/Abbreviations and Numbers




A fraction standing alone should be spelled out, but a unit
composed of a whole number and a fraction should be expressed in numerals: Trade and commodity services accounted for nine-tenths
of all international receipts and payments.
Cabinets with 101/z-by-321/4-inch shelves were



The general rule (see 2.29) applies in isolated references to amounts of money in United States currency. If the amount is spelled out, so are the words dollars and cents; if numerals are used, the dollar sign ($) precedes them:

Rarely do they spend more than five dollars a week on


The report showed $135 collected in fines.

Fractional amounts of money over one dollar appear in numerals, as do other decimal fractions ($1.75). When both fractional amounts and whole-dollar amounts are used in the same sentence (and only then), the whole-dollar amounts are shown with a decimal point and zeros:

The same article is sold by some stores for $1.75, by
others for $1.95, and by still others for $2.00

The expression of very large amounts of money, which may be
cumbersome whether spelled out or written in numerals,
should follow the rule for large round numbers (see 2.35), using units of millions or billions with numerals preceded by the dollar sign: Japan’s exports to Taiwan, which averaged $60 million
between 1954 and 1958, rose sharply to $210 million i n
1965 and $250 million in 1966.
The deficit that year was $120.4 billion.


British currency is expressed in pounds and pence, very like dollars and cents:
twenty-five pence
two pounds
55 p.
Before decimalization in 197 1, British currency was expressed in pounds, shillings, and pence:
two shillings and sixpence
f12 17s. 6d.
The term billion should not be used for British sums, since billion in British terms equals trillion in United States terminology.

Most currencies follow a system like that of the United States, employing unit symbols before the numerals. They do vary,
however, in their expression of large numbers and decimals.
For papers that deal with sums in currencies other than those of the United States or Great Britain, consult the table “Foreign Money” in the U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (1984).






With few exceptions (see 8.70, 8.126, and 12.25), all the numbered parts of printed works are cited in arabic numerals. A reference to preliminary pages numbered with lowercase roman numerals, however, should also employ that style. Citations to public documents and unpublished manuscript

material should use exactly the kind of numerals found in the source.
In biblical, classical, and many medieval references in text as well as in notes, bibliographies, and reference lists, the different levels of division of a work (book, section, line, etc.) are given in arabic numerals and separated by periods (no spaces pre29

2.47/Abbreviations and Numbers

cede or follow these periods). Note that in biblical references either a colon or a period is acceptable:
Heb. 13:3
2 Kings 11.12
Ovid Amores 1.7.27
Augustine De civitate Dei 20.2








One of the two permissible styles for expressing day, month, and year should be followed consistently throughout a paper. The first, which omits punctuation, is preferred:

In a paper, commas are used between several references to the same level, and a hyphen is used between inclusive numbers:
1 Thess. 4:1, 5
Gen. 25.19-37
Cicero De officiis 1.33, 140


On 28 June 1970 the convocation Pacem in Maribus was
If the alternative sequence month-day-year is used, the year is set off by commas:

Fragments of classical and biblical texts (some only recently discovered) are often not uniformly numbered or may have no
numbering whatever. The same is true of some modern manuscripts. In citing such materials, indicate any ordering of pages that has been added, whether by an individual or an institution holding the collection, by setting added numbering in the exact style in which it is written on the original manuscript (letters, arabic or roman numerals, uppercase or lower case, subscript or superscript, etc.) and enclosing this notation in brackets. Put a space after the final bracket, then give the full name of the person or institution that ordered the text. In subsequent references this name may be abbreviated.


If unpaginated fragments or manuscripts are published in collections, the numbering of the material will be unique to a particular edition. In citing published fragments and other documents unpaginated in the original, do not use brackets around the numbers imposed by an editor or institution. Instead, the first time a collection is referred to, give the editor’s name immediately after the fragment number. In subsequent references, use only initials:

Empedocles frag. 115 Diels-Kranz
Hesiod frag. 239.1 Merkebach and West
Empedocles frag. 111 D.
Hesiod frag. 220 M.-W.


On June 28, 1970, the convocation Pacem in Maribus was

Note that when the day, month, and year are mentioned as in
the foregoing examples, st, d, or th does not appear after the day. When the day alone is given, without the month or the
year, or when the number of the day is separated from the
name of the month by one or more words, the preferred style
is to spell out the day:
The sequence of events of 10 June is unclear.
The sequence of events of the eleventh of June is
The date set was the twenty-ninth.


When month and year alone are mentioned, omit punctuation
between them:
She graduated in December 1985.


In formal writing, references to the year should not be abbreviated (e.g., ‘95).



References to particular centuries should be spelled out, in lowercase. Hyphenate such references only when they serve as adjectives, as in the first and fifth examples below. See also 4.7. seventeenth-century literature

the eighteenth century
the twenty-first century




2_54/Abbreviations and Numbers

Where the context makes it clear whether morning or evening
is meant, these terms need not be expressed.

the mid-twentieth century
late sixteenth-century ideas

The breakfast meeting was set for eight o'clock.


The night operator takes calls from eleven to seven.


Midnight is written as 12:OO

References to decades take two forms. The context sometimes
determines the one chosen:

P. M .,

noon as l2:OO M. rme-

The 1890s saw an enormous increase in the use of
manufactured gas.
During the thirties, traffic decreased by 50 percent.






Spell out the names of months and of days when they occur in text, whether alone or in dates. In notes, bibliographies, tables, and other closely set matter, the following designations are permissible if used consistently: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.; Sun., Mon., Tues., Wed., Thurs., Fri., Sat.

Emperors, sovereigns, or popes with the same name are differentiated by numerals, traditionally capital roman numerals: Charles V
Napoleon III

Henry VIII
Louis XIV

Elizabeth II



For era designations use the abbreviations B.C., A.D., B.c.E., C.E. (“before Christ,” anno Domini, “before the common era,” “of the common era”), in capitals. A.D. precedes the year number; the other designations follow it.

Solomon's Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians in
586 B.C. Rebuilt in 515 B.C., it was destroyed by the
Romans in A.D. 70.

Adlai E. Stevenson III

See also 2.4.



Except when A.M. or P.M. is used, time of day should be spelled out in text matter. Never add in the morning after A.M. or in the evening after P.M., and never use o’clock with either A.M. or P.M. or with numerals:

The train was scheduled to arrive at 7:lO A.M.
The meeting was called for 8:00 P.M.
The meeting was called for eight o'clock in the


Male family members with identical names are sometimes
differentiated in the same way as monarchs:

Particular dynasties, governments, governing bodies, political divisions, and military subdivisions are commonly designated by an ordinal number before the noun. Numbers through one
hundred should be spelled out and capitalized; those over one hundred, written in numerals:
Nineteenth Dynasty
Eighty-first Congress
107th Congress
Fifth Republic
First Continental Congress
Third Reich
Eleventh Ward



2.61 /Abbreviations and Numbers

Editors of some mathematical periodicals have prepared manuals for writers, which give useful suggestions (see the bibliography). See also the chapter “Mathematics in Type” in The Chicago Manual of Style, fourteenth edition. For a brief discussion of equations and formulas in papers prepared on computer systems, see 13.18 in this manual.


Numbers before the names of churches or religious organizations should be spelled out in ordinal form and capitalized: Eighteenth Church of Christ, Scientist
Seventh-Day Adventists


Local branches of fraternal lodges and of unions bear numbers that should be expressed in arabic numerals following the


Typographical Union no. 16


American Legion, Department of California, Leon Robert
Post no. 1248


For the most part, in numbers of one thousand or more, the
thousands are marked off with commas:



No comma is used, however, in page numbers, street addresses, telephone numbers, zip codes, four-digit year numbers, decimal fractions of less than one, and chapter numbers of fraternal organizations and the like:



It is preferable to spell out the names of numbered streets
through one hundred for appearance and ease of reading, but
street (as well as building) addresses, highway numbers, and telephone numbers should be expressed in numerals:

The bibliography is on pages 1012-20.

The address is 500 East Fifty-eighth Street, Chicago,
Illinois 60637. The telephone number is (312) 321-6530.

In the coastal district the peel thickness plus the
pulp diameter of the Eureka lemon was 0.1911 for fruit
from the top of the tree and 0.2016 for fruit from the

The meeting took place at 1040 First National Bank

The Leon Robert Post no. 1248 was established in 1946.

The state will have to repave California 17, Interstate
80, and Route 30 [or U.S. 301.

Note, however, that in year dates of more than four figures, the comma is employed:
10,000 B.C.




Scientific papers call for numbers and numerical units of measurement, making numerals, symbols, and abbreviations more common in scientific writing than in nonscientific writing.
Aside from a few rules set down here, the writer must settle on the scheme to use-preferably when working on the first
draft-and maintain the same usage throughout the paper.
In mathematical text, the demands for the use of symbols and abbreviations, particularly in equations, are so complicated and vary so much from one paper to another that no suggestions can be given here. Students in this field should receive training in correct usage as part of their study of the science.


The term inclusive numbers (or continued numbers) refers to the first and last number of a numerical sequence, such as page
numbers or years. Inclusive numbers in a paper are separated by a hyphen and either given in full (1978-1979) or expressed according to the following scheme, taken from The Chicago
Manual of Style, fourteenth edition, 8.69.
Less than 100

Use all digits

3-10,7 l-72,
96-l 17

Numbers/Z. 72

2.68iAbbreviations and Numbers

100 or multiple of

Use all digits

There were many more twelves and fourteens on sale than
thirty-twos, thirty-fours, and thirty-sixes.

1100-l 123

101 through 109 Use changed part
(in multiples of
only, omitting un1002-6
needed zeros
110 through 199
Use two digits, or
(in multiples of
more if needed 1536-38, 1496100)
504, 14325-28,
The fourteenth edition of the Chicago Manual offers a simpler alternative system for inclusive numbers in which the second number includes only the changed part of the first (8.70):
96-l 17

600-l 3
505-l 7
The principal uses of the foregoing scheme are for page numbers and other numbered parts of written works and for inclusive year dates:

Most of the women were in their thirties or forties.





Numbers (or letters) used to enumerate items in text stand out better when in parentheses:
He gave two reasons for his resignation: (1) advancing
age and (2) gradually failing eyesight.


When enumerated items appear in text that cites items in a
reference list by number (see 10.33) use italic or underlined letters in parentheses for the enumeration rather than arabic numerals:
Haskin's latest theory (2) has several drawbacks: la)
it is not based on current evidence, lb) it has no
clinical basis, and (c) it has a weak theoretical

These cities were discussed on pages 2-14, 45-46, 12526, 200-210, 308-9. He lost everything he owned in the years 1933-36 of the
Great Depression.
This chapter covers the Napoleonic victories of 18001801.




Plurals of numbers expressed in numerals are formed by adding s alone (not apostrophe and s): Many K-70= were being driven on West German roads in
the 1970s.
Pilots of 747s undergo special training.
There was a heavy demand to trade 6% for the new


Plurals of spelled-out numbers are formed like the plurals of other nouns:


When each numbered item in an enumeration without subdivisions starts on a new line, they most often begin with arabic numerals followed by a period. The items may be given paragraph indention with the runover lines starting at the margin: 1. The nature of the relationship between library

quality and library use.

Or the numbers may be flush with the margin, with runover
lines aligned with the first line of substantive matter.
9. Selective initial dissemination of published
material--a direct responsibility of the library
10. Arrangement and organization of the library

In both styles, the periods after the numerals must be aligned. Periods are omitted at the ends of items unless the items constitute complete sentences or whole paragraphs (see 3.57). 37

2.73/Abbreviations and Numbers


Spelling and Punctuation


For an outline or other enumeration with subdivisions, the following scheme of notation and indention is recommended. It is not necessary to use a capital roman numeral for the first level when there are fewer divisions than shown in the example. The first level may well begin with A or with arabic 1:


Wars of the nineteenth century
A. United States
1. Civil War, 1861-65
a) Cause
(1) Slavery
(a) Compromise
i) Missouri Compromise
ii) Compromise of 1850 . . .
b) Result
................ ...........
II. Wars of the twentieth century
A. United States
1. First

Spelling 3.1
Plurals 3.2
Proper Names 3.2
Capital Letters 3.5
Letters and Abbreviations 3.6
Possessives 3.7
Plurals and Possessives of Compounds 3.11
Compound Words 3.12
Division of Words 3.35
General Rules 3.35
Special Rules 3.42
Punctuation 3.54
Period 3.55
Question Mark 3.60
Exclamation Point 3.63
Comma 3.65
Semicolon 3.84
Colon 3.88
Dash 3.91
Parentheses 3.98
Brackets 3.99
Other Punctuation Marks 3.101
Multiple Punctuation 3.103
A Warning for Computer Users 3.111

Headings should be capitalized sentence style (see 4.9).



Spelling in a paper should agree with the best American usage and must be consistent-except, of course, in quotations,
where the original must be followed exactly. The authority rec39

3.2/Spelling and Punctuation


ommended for spelling and for syllabication (division of words at the ends of lines) is Webster’s Third New International Dictionary or its most recent abridgment (currently, MerriamWebster> Collegiate Dictionary, tenth edition), using the first spelling where there is a choice. The spelling of many biographical and geographical names is listed at the back of Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. For further reference consult Webster5 New Biographical Dictionary and Webster’s New Geographical

The A'S, I's, and 2's in the directory were checked by
one group.

. . . ; the as were tested first, the bs second, and
so on.

. . . ; the 5s were tested first, the 5s second, and
so on.


The As, Is, and Ss . . .
The &s, Ls,


The phds of uppercase abbreviations with internal periods



are formed by adding an apostrophe and roman s:

Plurals of the names of persons and of other proper nouns are formed by adding s or es without changing a final y to ie as required for common nouns.
Add s to all names except those ending in s, x, or z, or in c h or sh:
the Andersons
the Bradleys


the Costellos
the Joyces

The B.A.'= and B.S. 's conferred were almost ten times
the number of M.A.'s, M.S.'s, and Ph.D.'s.

abbreviations with a single terminal period usually form
their plurals by adding s before the period:


We used 6 lbs. of pressure.
The patient was 45 yrs. old.

the Frys
the Pettees

Add es to names ending in s, x, or z, or in ch or sh:
the Rosses
the Jenkinses

the Coxes
the Rodriguezes

the Marshes
the Finches




2s . . .


Form the possessive of a proper name in the singular by adding an apostrophe and s:
Jones's book
Stevens's poems
Kinross's farm

Form the plurals of most single and multiple capital letters used as nouns by adding s alone:

Marx's ideology
Diaz's revolt
Finch's candidacy

The three Rs are taught at the two YMCAs.

But see the exceptions noted below (3.8-9).

The plurals of letters, whether lowercase or capital, are often formed with an apostrophe and a roman s, but if the letter is italic or underlined the plural may be formed by adding a roman s without the apostrophe. Either style, of course, must be used consistently.

All the examples were labeled by letter; the a's were
tested first, the b's second, and so on.



The possessive of the names Jesus and Moses is traditionally formed by adding an apostrophe alone:
in Jesus' name

Moses' leadership

Names of more than one syllable with an unaccented ending

pronounced eez are also exceptions based on euphony Many
Greek and hellenized names fit this pattern:
Aristophanes' plays
Charles Yerkes' ideas

Xerxes' victories
R. S. Surtees' novels



3.9/Spelling and Punctuation

For some common nouns as well, euphony dictates adding
only an apostrophe:


Compounds made up of two nouns representing different but
equal functions are hyphenated:

for conscience‘ sake
for appearance' sake
for righteousness' sake



Form the possessive of a plural proper name (the Bradleys, the Costellos, etc.) by adding an apostrophe to the accepted plural (see 3.3-4):
the Bradley=' house
the Costellos' ranch






information technologies
dissertation adviser


The plurals of prepositional-phrase compounds follow the rule governing the first noun of the compound:

Compounds made up of two nouns expressing a single function are either open or closed.

the Rodriguezes' mine
the Finches' yacht




county clerk elect


Most compounds describing a person’s character are hyphenated, but some are open: stay-at-home

The hyphen is used in many compound words, but the trend
now is away from the use, or overuse, of hyphens. Which compound words should be hyphenated, which left open, and which spelled as one word is a difficult question. The unabridged Webster’s dictionary gives the answer for most noun forms and for many adjective forms. Nevertheless, some are

not included. Principles of hyphenation for some of these are given in the following paragraphs.
Relationship compounds are either closed, hyphenated, or
open. Compounds with grand are closed; those with great are
hyphenated; and the rest are open:


parent organization
father figure


Compounds ending with elect should be hyphenated except
when the name of the office is two or more words:





The possessives of the same compound words are formed as



Compounds spelled as one word may be found in most unabridged dictionaries; if not listed, the compound should be open.


my brother-in-law's business
the commander-in-chief's dispatches
the man-of-war's launching



flash in the pan
ball of fire

The numerator and denominator of a spelled-out fractional
number should be separated by a hyphen.unless either already contains a hyphen:


one thirty-second

sixty-five hundredths


Many compounds ending with book have been accepted into
the general English vocabulary as single words and are spelled so in Webster; others are treated as two words:


telephone book

pattern book


3.21 /Spelling and Punctuation





business house

rest house



barely breathing bird
easily seen result

all-encompassing aim
all-powerful ruler
all-pervasive evil

Compounds with better, best, ill, lesser, little, well, and related comparative forms should be hyphenated when they precede
the noun:
better-paid job
best-liked teacher
ill-advised step


little-expected aid
well-intentioned man
lesser-known evil

rosy-cheeked boy
straight-sided dish

A spot of pink made the boy appear rosy cheeked.

The step was ill advised.

The president of the firm was known to be
extremely liberal minded.

It was clear that the man was well intentioned.







Noun forms similarly constructed are generally treated as two words:


Adjective forms ending with the suffix like should be spelled as one word except when they are formed from proper names,
word combinations, or words ending with 1 or 11:

emotion-producing language
thought-provoking commentary
dissension-arousing speeches
vote-getting tactics
foreign-made products
computer-formatted copy

decision making
coal mining

fine-grained powder
open-handed person


As predicate adjectives, they are generally spelled as two

An adjective form composed of a present participle preceded
by its object, or a past participle preceded by a related word, should be hyphenated:

matter-of-fact approach
wage-price controls
fringe-benefit demands

Most adjectival compounds made up of an adjective plus a
noun to which the suffix ed has been added should be hyphenated before the noun they modify and spelled as two words after the noun:

a very well intentioned man


all-round leader
all-inclusive title
it was all-important

Hyphenate phrases used as adjectives before a noun:
six-to-ten-year-old group
on-the-job training
catch-as-catch-can effort


hydrogen sulfide gas
tartaric acid powder

Compounds with all should be hyphenated whether they precede or follow the noun:

Spell as separate words adjective forms composed of an adverb ending in ly plus an adjective or a participle:
highly developed species
newly minted coins


boric acid solution
sodium chloride crystals

The same applies to compounds ending in house:


problem solving
food gathering

Chemical terms used as adjectives are spelled as two or more words, unhyphenated:

adjectival compound composed of a cardinal number and
the word odd should be hyphenated before or after the noun:





An adjectival compound composed of a cardinal number and
a unit of measurement is hyphenated when it precedes a noun: 45


3.32/Spelling and Punctuation
twelve-mile limit
two-inch margin

It is also necessary to distinguish homographs:

eight-space indention
hundred-yard dash



10 percent increase


Adjectival compounds withfold are written as one word unless numerals are used:



Divide words at the ends of lines according to the syllabication shown in a reliable dictionary (preferably Webster’s Third New International Dictionary or Merriam- Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, as suggested in 3.1).


Avoid ending more than two consecutive lines with hyphens.


Word processing programs that produce justified lines hyphenate automatically, sometimes responding to cues set in the copy to indicate preferred breaking points. Do not assume that automatic hyphenation programs always produce correct results. Most are not context sensitive and therefore cannot distinguish between ret-ord and re-cord, for example. Large spaces between words in formatted copy that has been justified by a computer must be closed up in the process of adjusting the

hyphenation. Since an uneven, or ragged, right margin is acceptable for most research papers, it is best to avoid justification programs, which require special proofreading and checking of automatic hyphenation. If a paper is to be submitted for publication, the publisher will no doubt prefer unjustified copy for editing and typesetting.


Divide according to pronunciation rather than derivation. This means that when a word is divided after an accented syllable, the consonant stays with the vowel when the vowel is short:


Noun compounds with quasi should be spelled as two words:
quasi promise

quasi honor

Adjectival compounds with quasi are hyphenated whether they
come before or after the noun:



Nowhere is the trend away from the use of hyphens more evident than in words with such common prefixes as pre, post;

anti; over, under intra, extra; infra, ultra; sub, supen re; un; non; mini, maxi; micro, macro; multi; semi; pseudo; supra:


Adjectives with these prefixes are spelled as one word unless the second element is capitalized or is a numeral:



Or unless the form might be misleading or puzzling:


Or unless the second element consists of more than one word: non-food-producing people
pre-nuclear-age civilization








pres-ent (noun)

But the consonant goes with the following syllable when the
preceding vowel is long:



The consonant goes with the accented syllable, however, in
such cases as the following:

pre-sent (verb)




3.391Spelling and Punctuation

Never divide a combination of letters pronounced as one syllable: pro-nounced



When ing or ed is added to a word whose final syllable contains the liquid 1 (e.g., cir * cle, han - dle), the final syllable of the parent word becomes a part of the added syllable:







In words where a final consonant is doubled before ing and ed, the division comes between the double consonants:


Note that this rule does not apply to words originally ending in a double consonant:

Two-letter divisions are permissible at the end of a line, but two-letter word endings should not be carried over to the next line if this can be avoided:



losses (not loss-es)
money (not mon-ey)


stricken (not strick-en)
fully (not ful-ly)

Avoid dividing hyphenated words or compounds except at the




Avoid dividing a proper name unless the correct division is






A source such as Webster’s New Biographical Dictionary should be consulted before risking division of most proper names.


Some divisions, although syllabically correct, should never be made.


Never make a one-letter division:

Never divide initials used in place of given names. It is best to write given names or initials on the same line as the family name, but it is allowable to place all the initials on one line and the family name on the next:




T. / S. Eliot







Never divide capital letters used as abbreviations for names of countries or states (U.S., N.Y.); for names of organizations (YMCA, NATO); or for names of publications or radio or television stations (PMLA, KKHI, KQED); but two sets of initials separated by a hyphen, such as KRON-FM, may be

divided after the hyphen. Similarly, never divide the abbreviations for academic degrees (B.A., M.S., LL.D., Ph.D., etc.).



Never divide a day of the month from the month, and never
divide any such combinations as the following:


Never divide the following suflixes:






J. B. S. / Haldane


Never divide the syllables able and ible:


J. / B. S. Haldane

T. S. / Eliot







3.52 /Spelling and Punctuation
86 4s. 6d.
245 ml



A.D. 1895
435 B.C.

If the sentence ends with a question mark or an exclamation
point, the abbreviation period is retained:

6:40 P.M.

Never end a line with a divisional mark such as (a) or (1)
a dollar sign, or an opening quotation mark, parenthesis, or bracket; and never begin a line with a closing quotation mark, parenthesis, or bracket.

The meeting adjourned at 5:30 P.M.
Was the committee meeting called for 8:00 P.M.?


For rules on word division in foreign languages, consult The Chicago Manual of Style, fourteenth edition, chapter 9.

The report covers three areas:
1. The securities markets
2. The securities industry
3. The securities industry in the economy
The course has three goals:
1. Emphasis is on the discovery of truth.
2. Emphasis is on the useful.
3. Emphasis is on love of people, especially the
altruistic and philanthropic aspects of love.


Punctuation in some of its specialized uses is treated elsewhere in this manual, in the chapters on abbreviations and numbers (2), quotations (5), tables (6), illustrations (7), notes (8), bibliographies (9), and parenthetical references and reference lists (IO). Here the general use of the various marks of punctuation in the text is dealt with briefly, the primary aim being to answer questions that frequently puzzle writers. The rules are based on The Chicago Manual of Style, fourteenth edition. Note that in running text a single space follows any kind of terminal

punctuation-periods, question marks, and exclamation
points. (But see also under abbreviations, 2.2.)

Periods are omitted at the ends of items in a vertical list or enumeration, unless the items are whole sentences or paragraphs.


Periods are omitted at the ends of all the following: (1) display headings for chapters, parts, and the like; (2) titles of tables; (3) captions of figures, unless the caption is run into a legend (see 7.14); (4) any subheading that is typed on a line by itself; and (5) address and datelines in communications, and also signatures.


A series of periods is used to mark omissions in quoted matter (ellipsis points; see chapter 5), and occasionally to guide the eye from items in one column of a table to relevant items in opposite columns (period leaders). Those who use computer

formatting should be aware that certain programs that justify lines by altering the amount of space between characters or
words on a line may require special steps to create ellipsis points and period leaders with uniform spaces between them.
Such programs may also introduce two spaces after periods
that are at the ends of lines in the unformatted copy, whether these periods end sentences or not.


A period is used to end a declarative statement, a moderately imperative statement, or an indirect question, whether grammatically complete or only a sentence fragment. Kathy sighed when she realized what had to be done.

Carrie began to show signs of impatience.
Please, Carrie, be patient.
Max winked at Ian and asked Carrie if something had
upset her.



A period following an abbreviation and coming at the end of
a sentence may serve also as the closing period of the sentence.


A question mark is used at the end of a whole sentence containing a query or at the end of a query making up part of a sentence:

3.61 /Spelling and Punctuation


Would the teacher-transplant idea catch on in countries
other than Germany? was the question the finalists
were asking.

comma is placed before the conjunction. This is not a hardand-fast rule, however; where the sentence is short and clarity is not an issue, no comma is needed.

The question put by the board was, Would the taxpayers
vote another bond issue that would raise taxes?

Most young Europeans spend their holidays in other
European countries, and many students take vacation
jobs abroad.

The first word of the sentence that asks the question is capitalized, even though it is included in another sentence, and quotation marks are generally unnecessary. 3.61

Courtesy disguises as questions such requests as the following, which should end with a period rather than a question mark:

This silence is not surprising, for in those circles
Marxism is still regarded with suspicion.
John arrived early and Mary came an hour later.


Will you please submit my request to the appropriate


A question mark may be used to indicate uncertainty:

The agencies should design their own monitoring
networks and evaluate the data derived from them.

The Italian painter Niccolo dell'Abbate (1512?-71)
assisted in the decorations at Fontainebleau.


A comma is omitted before a conjunction joining the parts of a compound predicate (two or more verbs having the same

They do not self-righteously condone such societies but
attempt to refute them theoretically.


In a series consisting of three or more elements, the elements are separated by commas. When a conjunction joins the last
two elements, a comma is used before the conjunction.

An exclamation point marks an outcry or an emphatic or ironical comment (avoid overuse). Like the query (3.60), an exclamation may occur within a declarative sentence:

Attending the conference were Farmer, Johnson, and

What havoc was wrought by hurricane Andrew!

We have a choice of copper, silver, or gold.

"Incredible!" he exclaimed. ‘I could hardly believe my
senses. Both houses actually passed major bills on the
opening day!"


Do not use an exclamation point to call attention to an error in a quotation; place the word sic (italicized or underlined) in brackets after the error (see 2.25-26).



Although the comma signals the smallest interruption in continuity of thought or sentence structure, when correctly used it contributes greatly to ease of reading and ready understanding. In sentences containing two or more independent clauses

joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for), a


No commas should be used, however, when the elements in a

series are all joined by the same conjunction:
For dessert the menu offered a choice of peaches or
strawberries or melon.


A series of three or more words, phrases, or clauses ending
with the expression and so forth or and so on or and the like or etc. customarily has required commas both before and after
the expression:
The management can improve wages, hours, conditions,
benefits, and so on, as part of the settlement package.

In its fourteenth edition, however, The Chicago Manual of
Style accepts treating expressions like etcetera as the final item in the series and therefore not requiring a following comma. Manfred regarded apologies, excuses, and the like as


3.71 /Spelling and Punctuation


When commas occur within one or more of the elements of a
series, semicolons should separate the elements:
Three cities that have had notable success with the
program are Hartford, Connecticut; Kalamazoo, Michigan;
and Pasadena, California.


The next leg of our trip was to take us to Springfield,
Illinois, and promised to be the most rewarding.


Commas are used to set a nonrestrictive dependent clause off from an independent clause. A clause is nonrestrictive if omitting it will not alter the meaning of the independent clause:

Nevertheless, it is a matter of great importance.
It is, perhaps, the best that could be expected.

These books, which are placed on reserve in the
library, are required reading for the course.

Here omitting the dependent clause yields “These books are required reading for the course.” But in the following sentence, the dependent clause identifies the books placed on reserve as “required reading for the course,” and the clause is therefore restrictive. No commas should be used:

But note that when such elements do not break the continuity and do not require a pause in reading, the commas should be
It is therefore clear that no deposits were made.


The books that are required reading for the course are
placed on reserve in the library.


A word, phrase, or clause in apposition to a noun may also be restrictive or nonrestrictive. When nonrestrictive, it is set off by commas:


A onetime officer in the foreign legion, the man hoped
to escape further military duty.

A comma follows namely, that is, for example, i.e., and e.g. There must be a punctuation mark before each of these expressions, but the kind varies with the nature and complexity of the sentence:
Many people feel resentful because they think they have
suffered an unjust fate; that is, they look on illness,
bereavement, or disrupted domestic or working
conditions as being undeserved.

If, however, the appositive limits the meaning of the noun and is therefore restrictive, no commas should be used:

Restrictions on the sulfur content of fuel oil are
already in effect in some cities (e.g., Paris, Milan,
Rome, and Stockholm), and the prospect is that limits
will be imposed sooner or later in most cities.

The Danish philosopher Kierkegaard asked, "What is
The motion picture Becket was adapted from the play by
Jean Anouilh.

A title or position following a person’s name should be set off with commas:

In using commas to set off a parenthetical element in the middle of a sentence, remember to include both commas: The bill, you will be pleased to hear, passed at the
last session.

His brother, a Harvard graduate, transferred to
Princeton for a program in theology.


Interjections, conjunctive adverbs, and the like are set off with commas when they cause a distinct break in the flow of


When a dependent clause or a long participial or prepositional phrase begins a sentence, it is followed by a comma:

Norman Cousins, former editor of the Saturday Review,
wrote the editorial ‘Lunar Meditations."


The individual elements in addresses and names of places are set off with commas, except for zip codes:

After spending a week in conferences, the commission
was able to write a report.

The address is 340 Forest Avenue, Palo Alto,
California 94023.


If the insurrection is to succeed, the army and the
police must stand side by side.

Having accomplished his mission, he returned to



3.80/Spelling and Punctuation

But a comma is usually unnecessary after a short prepositional phrase:


For recreation the mayor fishes or sails.


Although productivity per capita in United States
industry is almost twice that in West European
industry, Western Europe has an increasingly well
educated young labor force; and the crucial point is
that knowledge, which is transferable between peoples,
has become by far the most important world economic

When each of several adjectives preceding a noun modifies the noun individually, the adjectives should be separated with
It was a large, well-placed, beautiful house.
We strolled out into the warm, luminous night.

However, if the last adjective ident$es the noun rather than merely modifying it, no commas should precede it:

If the clauses of a compound sentence are very long and have commas within them, they should be separated with semicolons even though they are connected by a conjunction:


His is the large brick house on the corner.

There are those who think of freedom in terms of social
and economic egalitarianism; thus, reformist
governments of the Left are inherently viewed with
greater favor than the regimes of the Right.

The harder we run, the more we stay in the same place.

Clauses introduced by the transitional adverbs yet and so are preceded by a comma:

She delighted in, but was also disturbed by, her new
leisure and freedom.

Elizabeth was out of the office when I called, so I
left a message.

It is a logical, if harsh, solution to the problem.


Use commas to set off contrasted elements and two or more
complementary or antithetical phrases or clauses referring to a single word following:
The idea, not its expression, is significant.


When used transitionally between the clauses of compound
sentences, the words hence, however, indeed, then, and thus
should be preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma:

There was some increase in intensity, yet the
hypothesis was not confirmed.

Use a comma to separate two identical or closely similar


For the use of the semicolon instead of a comma, see also 3.71.

They marched in, in twos.
Whatever is, is good.


A comma is sometimes necessary to prevent misreading:
After eating, the lions yawned and then dozed.


A semicolon marks a greater break in the continuity of a sentence than does a comma. A semicolon should be used between the parts of a compound sentence (two or more independent clauses) when they are not connected by a conjunction: More than one hundred planned communities are in

various stages of completion: many more are on the
drawing board.



The colon indicates a discontinuity of grammatical construction greater than that marked by the semicolon. Whereas the semicolon separates parts of a sentence that are of equal significance, the colon is used to introduce a clause or phrase that expands, clarifies, or exemplifies the meaning of what precedes it: Europe and America share similar problems: their labor

forces cannot compete with those of Third World
nations, and they depend on the Third World for
critical raw materials.
People expect three things of their governments: peace,
prosperity, and respect for civil rights.



3.89/Spelling and Punctuation

A colon should be placed at the end of a grammatical element introducing a formal statement, whether the statement is
quoted or not. A colon is also used after following or as follows or in sum followed by illustrative material or a list:

certainly did feel; so I answered him with a contented

The qualifications are as follows: a doctorate in
physics; five years' experience in a national
laboratory; and an ability to communicate technical
matter to a lay audience.

"Agatha," he said anxiously, 'I never . . . no, no,
please believe me . . . but how can you think such a

Faltering speech, especially in fictional dialogue, may also be indicated by three spaced ellipsis dots:


These immigrants all shared the same dream: they
thought they could create the City of God on earth in
their own lifetimes.

He asked where wisdom was to be found--"the wisdom
that is above rubies."

For the use of numbers to enumerate items in text, see 2.72. 3.90

As noted elsewhere in this manual, a colon is used between
chapter and verse in scriptural references (2.46) between hours and minutes in notations of time (2.57), between the title and subtitle of a book or article (4.10 and 8.39) between place and publisher in footnotes and bibliographical references (8.55) and between volume and page numbers in citations (8.80,8.99, 8.101, and 10.14).



One is expected to cram all this stuff into one's
mind--cram it all in, whether it's likely to be useful
or not.


The dash, which in printing is an elongated hyphen called an em dash, in typescript consists of two hyphens with no space between or on either side of them.

H----h? (Hirsch?]

In transcribing from incomplete texts in languages other than English, it may be customary to indicate the length of the
break by using one hyphen for each missing or illegible character. In such cases, follow the practice set by scholars and editors within the discipline.

Rutherford--how could he have misinterpreted the



Use six hyphens to indicate a whole word omitted or to be supplied: The vessel left the ------ of July.

Interruptions or faltering speech may be indicated by dashes: Later in chapter 25, Jane Eyre again answers only with
a gesture: ‘I reflected, and in truth it appeared to me
the only possible one: satisfied I was not, but to
please him I endeavored to appear so--relieved, I


Use four hyphens to indicate missing letters (e.g., in citing from a text that is mutilated or illegible), leaving no space between the first and last hyphens and the existing part of the word: We ha---- a copy in the library.

A dash or a pair of dashes enclosing a phrase may indicate a sudden break in thought that disrupts the sentence structure:

Some of the characters in Tom Jones are "flat"--to use
the term E. M. Forster coined--because they
unfailingly act in accordance with a set of qualities
suggested by a literal interpretation of their names
(e.g., Squire Allworthy).

In a sentence that includes several elements referring to a word that is the subject of a final, summarizing clause, a dash may precede the final clause:
The statue of the man throwing the discus, the
charioteer at Delphi, the poetry of Pindar--all show
the culmination of the great ideal.



A dash may introduce an element that emphasizes or explains
the main clause through repetition of one or more key words:


The principal uses of parentheses in the text of a paper are (1) to set off parenthetical elements, (2) to enclose the source 59

3.99/Spelling and Punctuation

of a quotation or other matter when a footnote is not used for the purpose, and (3) to set off the numbers or letters in an enumeration (as in this sentence). The first use is a matter of choice, since both commas and dashes are also used to set off parenthetical material. In general, commas are used for material closely related to the main clause, dashes and parentheses for material more remotely connected:

The conference has (with some malice aforethought) been
divided into four major areas.
It is significant that in the Book of Revelation (a
book Whitehead did not like because of its bloody and
apocalyptic imagery), the vision of a new heavenly city
at the end of time has the divine light shine so that
the nations walk by it, and the "kings of the earth
shall bring their glory into it" (Rev. 21:22-26).
Each painting depicted some glorious, or vainglorious,
public occasion of the last hundred years; in each--a
formal diplomatic banquet, a victory parade, the
opening of the Burbank Airport in 1931 (clouded by a
phalanx of tiny Ford Trimotors)--the crowds of people
were replaced by swarms of ants.


Brackets are used (1) to enclose any interpolation in a quotation (see 5.37) and (2) to enclose parenthetical matter within parentheses:
The book is available in translation (see J. R. EvansBentz, The Tibetan Book of the Dead [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 19271).


Brackets may be used to enclose the phonetic transcription of a word:
He attributed the light to the phenomenon called
gegenschein ['gl-gan-shin].


Read more


+1 -1 -10 -100 -102 -103 -104 -105 -106 -11 -119 -12 -120 -13 -138 -14 -15 -1500 -153 -1571 -16 -1600 -17 -1780 -1795 -18 -1860 -1897 -19 -1900 -1914 -1942 -1946 -1950 -1960 -1965 -1979 -1984 -1987 -2 -20 -206 -21 -210 -22 -2204 -226 -23 -24 -240738 -25 -26 -27 -28 -29 -3 -3.2 -30 -304 -31 -313 -32 -33 -330 -34 -35 -351 -36 -37 -38 -388 -39 -4 -4.21 -40 -400 -402 -41 -42 -43 -43267 -44 -45 -46 -47 -48 -49 -5 -50 -504 -51 -512 -52 -53 -532 -55 -56 -57 -58 -5801 -59 -6 -60 -61 -613 -615 -62 -63 -64 -65 -6530 -655 -66 -68 -69 -7 -70 -71 -72 -73 -75 -77 -78 -79 -8 -8.117 -803 -81 -81626 -81627 -82 -83 -84 -85 -86 -87 -88 -89 -9 -90 -91 -92 -94 -96 -97 -98 -981 -99 .. /2 /abbreviations /apj/v452n2/5309/5309.html; /bibliographies /capitaiization /capitalization /city_of_bits/ /comparing /formats /iliustrations /illustrations /notes /parenthetical /parts /preparing /public /quotations /spelling /z-by-11-inch 0 0.1911 0.2016 0.73 0.85 0.918 00 000 01 012 01s 02 02pdc20 03 04 042 05 086 1 1.00 1.1 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.133 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.2 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.240 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.3 1.3.32 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.4 1.40 1.41 1.411 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.5 1.53 1.6 1.7 1.7.27 1.75 1.8 1.8.3 1.83 1.9 1.95 10 10.1 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.2 10.20 10.21 10.22 10.221 10.23 10.24 10.25 10.26 10.2630 10.27 10.28 10.2829 10.29 10.3 10.30 10.31 10.32 10.33 10.34 10.4 10.4.31 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 100 1002 101 101/z-by-321/4-inch 1012 1013 10182 102 102/notes 103 104 1040 1046 105 10575 106 107 107th 108 109 10s 11 11.1 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 11.14 11.1415 11.15 11.16 11.1617 11.17 11.18 11.19 11.2 11.20 11.21 11.22 11.23 11.24 11.25 11.26 11.2627 11.27 11.28 11.29 11.3 11.30 11.31 11.32 11.33 11.34 11.35 11.36 11.37 11.38 11.39 11.3940 11.39940 11.4 11.40 11.41 11.42 11.43 11.44 11.4445 11.45 11.46 11.4647 11.47 11.48 11.49 11.5 11.50 11.51 11.52 11.53 11.54 11.55 11.56 11.5657 11.57 11.58 11.59 11.6 11.60 11.61 11.62 11.63 11.63364 11.6364 11.64 11.65 11.66 11.67 11.68 11.7 11.8 11.9 110 1100 1103 1104 1105 111 1111 111111 112 113 114 115 1155 11564 116 117 118 119 11th 12 12.1 12.10 12.11 12.12 12.13 12.14 12.15 12.16 12.17 12.18 12.19 12.191 12.2 12.20 12.21 12.22 12.23 12.24 12.25 12.26 12.27 12.28 12.29 12.3 12.30 12.31 12.32 12.33 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 12.88 12.8818 12.9 120 120.4 1204 121 122 122d 123 123d 124 1248 125 12526 126 127 1273 128 129 1298 129a 13 13.1 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 13.17 13.18 13.19 13.2 13.20 13.21 13.22 13.23 13.24 13.25 13.26 13.27 13.28 13.29 13.3 13.30 13.31 13.32 13.33 13.34 13.35 13.36 13.37 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 130 131 132 133 1338 134 1340 1341 135 1359 136 137 13729 13792 138 139 14 14.1 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 14.14 14.15 14.16 14.17 14.18 14.19 14.2 14.20 14.21 14.22 14.23 14.24 14.25 14.26 14.27 14.28 14.29 14.3 14.30 14.31 14.32 14.33 14.34 14.35 14.36 14.37 14.38 14.39 14.4 14.40 14.41 14.42 14.5 14.6 14.67 14.7 14.8 14.9 140 141 142 143 14325 144 145 146 1462 147 1477 148 1485 149 1496 1496100 14th 15 15.374 15.395 150 1500 1500.1 15001 151 1512 152 153 1536 154 1540 1542 156 157 1571 158 1581 1582 1587 1588 159 15th 16 16.176 16.184 160 1608 162 163 164 165 167 1678 168 169 16u.s 17 17.107 17.109 17.113 170 1700 1707 171 172 1725 173 17321 174 1746 175 176 177 1776 178 178312 1789 17891897 179 1790 17s 17th 18 18.38 180 1800 18001801 1801 18011809 181 1816 1818 1819 182 1820 183 1830 18301 18311 1833 1838 184 1846 1847 1848 1849 185 1850 1850s 1855 186 1861 1863 1868 187 1871 1872 1879 188 1884 1886 1888 189 1890s 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 189613 189633 1896a 1899 19 190 1900 1904 1905 1907 1909 191 1910 1916 1917 1918 1919 192 1920 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 19271 1928 19281 1929 193 1930 1930b 1931 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 193oc 194 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 195 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 196 1960 19601 1961 1962 1963 1964 19641 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 197 1970 1970s 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 198 1980 1980s 1981 1981a 1982 198283 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 198os 199 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 19allen 1atwrers 1ml 1s 1st 2 2.00 2.1 2.10 2.103 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.1617 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.2 2.20 2.20.5 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 2.26 2.261 2.27 2.28 2.29 2.3 2.30 2.31 2.310 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.3435 2.35 2.36 2.37 2.38 2.39 2.4 2.40 2.40.2 2.40142 2.4042 2.41 2.42 2.425 2.43 2.44 2.4448 2.45 2.46 2.4647 2.47 2.48 2.49 2.5 2.50 2.51 2.52 2.53 2.54 2.55 2.56 2.57 2.58 2.59 2.6 2.60 2.61 2.62 2.63 2.64 2.6465 2.65 2.66 2.67 2.68 2.69 2.7 2.70 2.71 2.72 2.73 2.8 2.9 2.91 2/3 2/4 2/x 20 20.1456 20.2 20.34 20/preparing 200 200th 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 21 21.5 210 2100 2106 211 212 2124 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 22 220 2201 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 23 23.0 23.1 230 231 232 233 233277 234 235 236 237 238 239 239.1 239.48 23martin 24 24.5 240 2401 240461 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 248700 249 25 25.19 25.6 25.8 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 25bruno 26 26.5 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 2687 269 27 27.7 27.9 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 28 28.4 28.6 280 281 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 29 29.6 29.9 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 299 29roland 2a 2charles 2d 2david 2encyclopedia 2ernst 2hansard 2helmut 2hom 2house 2ludwig 2max 2michael 2nd 2paul 2robin 2s 2samuel 2senate 2thomas 3 3.1 3.10 3.100 3.101 3.102 3.103 3.104 3.105 3.106 3.107 3.108 3.109 3.11 3.110 3.111 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.2 3.2.1 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.3 3.30 3.31 3.32 3.33 3.34 3.35 3.36 3.37 3.38 3.39 3.391 3.4 3.40 3.41 3.42 3.43 3.44 3.4445 3.45 3.46 3.47 3.48 3.49 3.5 3.50 3.51 3.52 3.53 3.54 3.55 3.56 3.57 3.58 3.59 3.6 3.60 3.61 3.62 3.63 3.64 3.65 3.66 3.67 3.68 3.69 3.7 3.70 3.71 3.72 3.73 3.739.9.10 3.74 3.75 3.76 3.77 3.78 3.79 3.8 3.80 3.81 3.82 3.83 3.84 3.85 3.86 3.87 3.88 3.89 3.9 3.90 3.91 3.92 3.93 3.94 3.95 3.96 3.97 3.98 3.99 30 30.0 30.3 30.4 30.5 30.6 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 31 31.0 31.1 31.4 31.5 31.8 312 314 317 319 31report 32 32.2 32.8 321 325 329 33 33.6 331 34 34.1 34.2 34.4 34.5 34.6 34.8 340 341 348 349 35 35.1 35.2 35.7 35.8 3516 352 3578a 359 36 36.3 36.5 360 362 367 37 37.1 37.4 370 372 376 3781 3787 379 37richard 38 381 382 3832 385 39 39.3 390 391 395 398 3columbia 3congress 3d 3lake 3rd 3samuel 3sr 3susan 4 4.1 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.14127 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.2 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 4.27 4.28 4.2833 4.29 4.3 4.30 4.31 4.32 4.33 4.4 4.5 4.5.17 4.527 4.6 4.67 4.7 4.8 4.9 4/2 40 402 407 40xford 41 41.2 414 415 418 41columbia 41og 42 42.3 42170 425 43 43.0 435 44 44.9 45 450 450/3 45013 452 4553 45a 46 460 463 464 47 47/notes 475 48 482 49 4f6 4f6-4flo 4flo 4norwald 4plowman 4s 4sdwight 4th 5 5.0 5.1 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.181 5.19 5.2 5.2.215 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29 5.3 5.30 5.31 5.32 5.33 5.34 5.35 5.36 5.37 5.38 5.381 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 50 500 50053 5009 504 505 508 51 5133 514 5142 515 52 52/notes 523 52325 524 525 53 535 53d 53robert 54 54/abbreviations 540 5433 545 55 55.1 55susan 56 57 5713/2 57ralph 58 586 59 593 59n 5geoffery 5h 5ibid 5review 5s 5th 5the 5u.s 6 6.1 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.2 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 6.24 6.25 6.26 6.261 6.27 6.28 6.29 6.3 6.30 6.31 6.32 6.33 6.34 6.35 6.36 6.37 6.38 6.39 6.4 6.40 6.41 6.42 6.43 6.44 6.45 6.46 6.4647 6.46647 6.47 6.48 6.49 6.5 6.50 6.51 6.52 6.53 6.54 6.55 6.56 6.57 6.58 6.59 6.6 6.60 6.61 6.62 6.63 6.64 6.65 6.7 6.8 6.9 60 60.7 600 601558 60637 61 611 61g 62 62.6 62.9 628 63 63thomas 64 64.3 64.8 646 65 65.5 66 66.4 67 67a 68 681985 684 685923 6869 69 69.0 69.4 69.5 69.6 69.7 691 6d 6douglas 6th 7 7.1 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.18826 7.19 7.2 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.231 7.24 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29 7.3 7.30 7.31 7.32 7.33 7.34 7.35 7.36 7.37 7.38 7.39 7.4 7.41 7.42 7.43 7.44 7.4446 7.45 7.46 7.48 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.81 7.9 70 70.0 70.1 705 70th 71 7189 71a 71a-f15 72 722 726 73 738 739 74 74/notes 744 746 747s 75 752 758 76 77 77.0 77th 78 79 792 7e 7i/2 7mrs 7report 8 8.1 8.10 8.100 8.101 8.102 8.103 8.104 8.105 8.106 8.10619 8.107 8.108 8.109 8.11 8.110 8.111 8.112 8.113 8.114 8.1141 8.115 8.116 8.117 8.118 8.119 8.12 8.120 8.121 8.122 8.123 8.124 8.125 8.126 8.127 8.128 8.129 8.13 8.130 8.13047 8.131 8.13132 8.132 8.133 8.134 8.135 8.136 8.137 8.138 8.139 8.14 8.140 8.141 8.142 8.143 8.1431 8.144 8.14445 8.145 8.146 8.147 8.148 8.149 8.15 8.150 8.1501 8.151 8.152 8.153 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.2 8.20 8.21 8.210 8.22 8.23 8.24 8.25 8.26 8.27 8.28 8.29 8.3 8.30 8.31 8.32 8.33 8.34 8.35 8.36 8.37 8.3738 8.38 8.39 8.4 8.40 8.41 8.42 8.43 8.44 8.45 8.46 8.47 8.48 8.49 8.5 8.50 8.51 8.52 8.53 8.54 8.55 8.56 8.57 8.58 8.59 8.6 8.60 8.61 8.62 8.63 8.631 8.64 8.65 8.66 8.67 8.68 8.69 8.7 8.70 8.71 8.72 8.73 8.74 8.75 8.76 8.77 8.78 8.79 8.8 8.80 8.81 8.82 8.83 8.84 8.85 8.851 8.86 8.87 8.88 8.89 8.9 8.90 8.91 8.92 8.93 8.94 8.95 8.96 8.97 8.98 8.99 8.999103 80 80102 808 81 82 83 84 85 852 856 86 86th 87 87/notes 88 884 886 888 89 8l/2 8th 8the 9 9.1 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.121 9.13 9.14 9.1426 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.181 9.19 9.2 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.246 9.25 9.26 9.266 9.27 9.28 9.2829 9.29 9.3 9.30 9.31 9.32 9.33 9.336 9.34 9.35 9.36 9.361 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.713 9.8 9.9 90 901 91 92 926 928 93 930 9394 94 94023 946 94th 95 96 97 97/notes 97th 98 99 993 995 99th 9cie a-emitt a-mong a.b a.d a.m a2 aaa aag ab abbat abbrevi abbreviations/2.19 abbreviations/2.26 abbreviations/z.14 abbreviations/z.2 abbreviations/z.8 abd abdul abelson abil abl abolit abraham abridg abriel abroad absenc absent absolut absorb abstract abu abund ac academ accent accept access accommod accompani accomplish accord account accroiss accroissem accur accuraci accustom acheson achiev achill achtert acid acid-fre acknowledg acquir acquisit acr acronym across act acta action action-structur activ activiitton actor actual ad ad-al45 adam adapt add add- addington addit address ade adequ adglic adher adhes adio adjac adject adjectiv adjectives-adject adjourn adjunct adjust adlai administr admir adolf0 adopt adult adumbr advanc advantag adventist adverb advic advis affair affect afl afl-cio aforesaid aforethought africa african agatha agazin age agenc agency-photograph agenda agin agn agre agreement agricultur ahmad ahr ai aid aii aim ainti aircraft airport ak akazawa aken al al-a al-al al-hakim al-jam al45 ala alan alanbrook alaska albeit albeniz albert alberta albion album alderf ale alexand alexandr alexandria alfr alia alic alien align alison alist aliz alkalin all-encompass all-import all-inclus all-pervas all-pow all-round allegor allen allianc allison allow allow- allowa allowa-bl allworthi almost alnhabetizin alon along alpha alpha-emitt alphabet alreadi also alter altern although alto altruist alway am ama amadeus amaz amazon ambigu ambridg ambros ame amend amer.samoa america american americana americaneuropean amic amlysc among amor amount ampersand ampl amplif amplifi amss amsterdam an an-ow ana ana-maria analect analys analysi analyz anatol anb anchor anchor/doubleday ancient anderson andinth andmay andpercentsign andr andrew androgen andthebibliographi andwhit angel angl anglic anglo anglo-american angstadt anguag anim anita ann annapoli anngel anniversari anno annot announc announcement-even annual annul annunzio anonym anoth anouilh ansi answer answerliesinth ant antholog anthologies-ar anthropolog anthroualoaist anti anti-utopian antib antibiot anticip antigon antiquit antirevolutionari antithet anton anuscript anxieti anxious anyon anyplac anyth anywher ap apart ape ape-man apeman aperback apit apocalypt apocrypha apollo apolog apostl apostol apostolica apostroph app app1iqudees appar apparatus appear appeared-wheth append appendic appendix appendm appleton appleton-century-croft appli applianc applic applied-and apposit appoxim appreci appro approach appropri approv approxim apr april aquina ar arab arabic-in arabit arb arbitrari arbitrarili arbor arcel archaic archi architect architect-paint architectur archiv arden area arealign arenthes argin argument aris aristocraci aristophan aristotelian arithmet ariz arizona ark arliamentari arm armada armament armand armi aronofski around arous arrang array arriv art arthrit arthur articl artifact artioli artist artist-inventor artium artwork arvard as-phalt ascent ascertain asia asiat asid ask aspect asselin assembl assign assimil assist associ assum assur asterisk astronomi astrophys astruc ate ateri athen atheneum atherin atin ation atlant atlanta atlas atom attach attack attempt attend attent attitud attribut au aubign aubrey auden audienc audio audiotap audiovisu auditor aug august augustin augustus auotat auspic austin australian austria auteur author author-crit author-d authorit authorship autobiographi autobiographiqu autograph autom automat automobil autumn avail ave avenu averag avoid avren awar award away awholeissuei axe axi aye az b b.a b.c b.c.e b.d b.f.a b.s babi babylon babylonian baccalaureus bacclaureus bach bachelor back background background-wheth backup baker balanc baldwin ball ballard baltimor bambara ban bank bannerman banquet bar barb barbar barbara barbier bare baron baroqu barrel barrel-lik barrow barth barzun base bashevi basi basic basin basl bassd bat bataill bathtub battleship baugh baxter bbreviat bear beard bearer bearer-or beatric beauti beauvoir beaux beaux-art becker becket becom beech beef beethoven began begin begun behavior behind beincl beineck belgipu belgiqu belief believ belknap bell belles-letm bellour bellworthi belong beneath benedict benefit benjamin benjoseph bennett bentley beowulf ber bere bereav bergstrom berkeley bernstein beseech besid best best-lik bet betadecay bethesda bettelheim better better-known better-paid beuv beyl beyond bibl biblic biblio bibliografia bibliograph bibliographi bibliographica big biguenet bill billion bind binder binghamton biograph biographi biolog biomed bird birth birthday birtwistl bit bizet bk black black-and-whit black-andwhit blais blake blank bldg ble bless blic blight blitzstein block blood bloodi bloomington blue blunt blur blvd blynken bnergi bo board bobb bobbs-merril bober boca bodi bodies/l2.33 bodonski body-a body-parlia body-th boldfac bombay bomi bond bond-field bone boni bonni book bookkeep booklet books.tbe books/11.24 books/11.28 books/11.37 books/a.40 books/i1.33 books/ll.9 books/ll.l4 books/ll.l9 books111.3 books18.46 bookstor booth boric borland born bost boston bot botani bottom boucot bought boulderi boulevard bound bourgeoi bowker bowl bowman box boy boyer br brace bracket bracketsfollowingthepseudonymifdesir bradley brain branch brand brand-new brandenburg braqu brari bras braun breadth break breakfast breath bredehoft bremer bresson breviat brhulst brick bridg brief briefli brillouin bring bris bris-tl britain britannica british britten bro broad broadcast broader broadsid brochur brockholst broder broken brolent bront brook broom bros brother brother-in-law brothers-in-law brought brow brown brown-eith brownel bruce bruno brunswick brussel brux bryan bryce bryn bs bstract btain buber bublic bud budgen budget buffer build bull bulletin bulletir burbank burden bureau bureaus burmes burn burnish bush busi butmanylargemetropolitanpap butmanylargemetropolitanpapers-esp buttlar bwv by-l bye bylaw bylin byrn byssh bythatnam c c.e c.z c3 ca cabinet cabl cade caedmon cage cal calai calcul calcutta calendar calif california call callan calli callinico calm cambridg came camera cameron camill camp campbel campbell-bannerman camplik campus canada canadian candidaci candl cane cannel canning cannot canon canterburi canto canva caoital cap capabl capac capit capita capitalization/l.6 capitalization14.13 caplin caption captur card cardin care career caribbean carl carleton carmen carpent carr carri carriag carryvoltun carter carthi cartier cartier-bresson cartographi cartoon cartoonist cartright caruso casa casazza case casey casper cassett cassir cast castelnuovo castelnuovo-tedesco catalog cataloging-in-publ catalogu catch catch-as-catch-can categor categori cathedr catta caught caus causal cbe cbi cbs ccawzat ccession ccuraci cd cd-rom ceas cede celebr cell census cent center central centuri ceon ceous ceram ceremoni certain certainti cetera cf cfc ch chadwyck chairman chal challeng chamber chanakya chang chant chao chap chapman chapt chapter charact characterist chardin charg chariot charl charles-augustin charles-camill charlott charm charpentrat chart chart-i chase chaucer check checkbook cheek chekhov chemic chemotherapi cheng cher chester chi chicaao chicago chicugo chief chiefli chien chiera child children chillingworth chime chin chines chlorid choic cholarship choos chosen chretienn christ christian christoph chronolog chronological-i chronolopi chs chuck chuck-l church churchil chusid cial cialli cicero cie cientif cigarett cincinnati cinderella cinderella-lik cinema cinguecento cio cion cip cir cir-cl circa circl circul circular circumst cislindex cit citat citation-th citations/i2.3 cite citedin citi citizen city-st civil civilis civit cj cl cladisc cladog clare clarendon clarif clarifi clariti clark class classic classif classifi classiqu claus clay cle clean clear cled clegg clergi cleric clerk cleveland climat cling clinic clock clockwis close close-set close-up closest cloth cloud club clubhous cm cmd cmnd cnd co co-evolut co-op coal coast coastal coat coauthor cobol cochran code cohen coi coin col cola cold coleridg collabor collag colleagu collect colleg collegi collin collodon colloqui colo cologn colomb colon colonel color color-but color-rel columbia column columnar columns-introduc comar comaroff combin come comeinwhatev comi comm comma command commander-in-chief commanders-in-chief comment commentari commerc commerci commiss commit committe commod common communic communiti commut comnar compact compagni compani companion compar comparison compat compens compet compil complementari complet complex complic compon compos composer-director composit compound comprehens compress compris compromis comput computer computer-aid computer-format computer-gener comwr comwsificm con con-trol-l conbin concentr concept concern concert concerto conclus concluston concret condicion condit condon condor conduct conductor cone confer confess configur confin confirm conflict conform confucius confus cong congress congression conjonct conjunct conn connect connecticut conscienc conscious consecut consequ conserv consi consid consider consist consistent-except conson constitu constitut construct consult contain contat contaynyg contemporan contemporari content context contigu continent continu continuous-ton contract contractor contrast contribut contributor control controversi conveni convent convers convert convinc convoc cook cooper coordin copi copper copublish copyedit copyright cor cord cormnun corner coron corp corpor correct correspond corrsspo corvelli cosmic cost costello costwn cosyn cosyns-carr could council counsel count counterpart counti countri coupl courier cours court courtesi cousin cov cover coverag cowley cowri cox cp1619 cpl cps craft cram crane cratic crave creas creat creation creativ creator credit creeley cressida cri crime crimin criptur crisi criteria critic critiqu crl2 croft cross cross-hatch cross-refer cross-referenc crossrefer crossreferenc crouch crowd crucial crust crystal cslls ct ction cue culmin cultur cum cumbersom curat currenc current currer curri curs cursor curtain curv cuss customari customarili cut cut-in cutberto cuthbert cuyahoga cyclopaedia cz.11 czs/zndex d d.b d.c d.d d.d.s d.min d.o d.v.m d000163 da dag dagger daid daili daisi dajc2.57 dak dale damag dan danger danhurst daniel danish dark darker darvin das dash data databas date datelin david davidson day dc de de1 de84780322 dead deal dealt dean death debat deborah debt dec decad decay deceiv decemb decid decim decis decisivelv deck declar declaratori decor decreas dedic deem defeat defenc defend defer deficit defin definit degre degree-gr degreegr dei del delay delet delhi delight deliv dell della delorl delphi demand demo demo-crat democ democ-raci democraci demolit demon demonstr demsetz deni denmark denni denomin denonno densiti dent dental denver depart depend depict deposit depositori depress dept deputi der deriv derrida des descend describ descript design desir desk desktop dessert destini destroy detail deterior determin detroit deutschen deuxibm dev devant develop developm devent deviat devic devil devis devot dex dgtrnr di di-pol diacrit diagnos diagram dialog dialogu diamet dian diari diaz dichotomi dichotomies-ent dick dictat dictionari dictionnair didier die diel diels-kranz diffbr differ differenti difficult difficulti digest digit digital-input digitali dill dimaggio dimens dimension diplomaci diplomat dipper dir direct director directori dis disabl disappear disc disciplin discontinu discourag discov discoveri discredit discret discus discuss discussion-in diseas disguis dish disk diskett dispar dispatch dispersim display display-for disposit disregard disrupt diss dissemin dissens dissension-ar dissert dissertations-in distanc distinct distinguish distort distribut district disturb dite dition ditor ditori div divi divi-s divid divin divinitati divis division divorc dle dled dling dmso dnb dnite doberstein doc doctor doctorow documem document documentari documents/12.13 documents/12.27 documents/12.30 documents/id.16 documents/id.9 documents/l2.20 documents/l2.25 documents/l2.8 documents/z2.18 documents/zz.zz dodd doe dogcatch doliar doll doll-lik dollar domain domelley domenick domest domingo domini dominican donald done donnelley dont door dot doubl double-fac double-ink double-spac doublespac doubt dougla downsview downward doze dr draft draft-and dram drama dramat draw drawback drawn dread dream dri drive driven droit droits-de-l drop drug dry-mount dryden ds dsbe dss dtpferec du dublin duckett duct duction dulin duncan dunlap dunton duplic durat durrett duti dwight dynasti e e-flat e-nough e.g ea eachmainpart ead eamon ear earbook earli earlier earliest earnest earth eas easi easier easiest easili east east-west eastern eastin eastman easur eat eater ebat echnic echo eck eckersley eclipm ecolog econdari econom economi ection ed edg edic ediev edit editions-ar editor editori edmund edr edtttn eduard educ education-rel edward edwin eevi eez efcat efer effect effici effort egal egalitarian egend egypt eight eight-spac eighteen eighteenth eighteenth-centuri eighth eighti eighty-first eilipses/5.25 eisenhow either el eleanor elect electr electron element elements-author elements/6.25 elements/6.43 elements/b.43 elements16.34 elev eleven eleventh elevis elia elicit elid elimin eliot eliz elizabechan elizabeth elizabethan ell ellen ellerston elli ellipci ellips ellipsi ellmann elm eln elong els elsewher em embellish emerson emicolon emili emin emitt emot emotion-produc empedocl emperor emphas emphasi emphat empir emploi employ employe emur en en-chant ena enabl enact enchant enclos encompass encount encyclopaedia encyclopedia end end-of-lin endeavor endnot ener energi enforc eng engin engineers/aime england english engrav enhanc enl enlarg enlighten enorm enough enplish enrol ensembl ensur ent entail enter entertain entir entireti entirety-a entiti entomolog entomologist entri entropi enumer enunci envi environ environment environment-a eograph epigraph epigraph-a episod epistl eport eprint eq equal equat equilibrium equip equival er era eras erasing/l3.34 erasur ercentag erenc erform ergonomist eri eric eriod ernest ernesto erron error erson ertic erupt es escap esi esolut esp especi espi esq esquir essay essenti essey ession est establish esteem et et6 etc etcetera eter ethnograph etienn etter euhemerus eulog euphoni eur eureka europ european eva evalu evangelist evansbentz even event eventhoughtheymay ever everi everybodi everyday everyman everyth evi evid eview evil evo1ueio evok evolut ew ewal ewer ewspap ex ex-traor-di-nari exact examin exampl exaswl exceed excel except excerpt excess exchang exclaim exclam exclud exclus excurs excus execut exempli exemplifi exercis exist expand expect expens experi expert explain explan explanatori explicit expon export expos expositori express expressway ext extend extens extent extra extract extramur extravag extrem ey eye eyesight eyr eystrok f f.2d f.a.i.a f.r.s f12 f12.17.6 f15 f3.50 fa faber face facial facil facsimil fact facto factori faeri fahrenheit fail failur fair fairi faith fall fall-wint fallout falter famili familiar famin fantasi far farley farm farmer farms/8.131 farms/8.140 farms/8.142 farms/8.146 farrar farther fashion fast faster fatal fate father faulti faust favor feasibl featur feb februari fed feder feed feeder feel feet fell fellow felt femal females-al femin fenelon fenner fern fernzo festiv fetch fewer ff fich fiction fid field field-marsh fieldnot fields-linguist fifteen fifteen-hundred-odd fifteen-year fifteenth fifth fifti fiftieth fifty-eighth fifty-nin fifty-two fig fight figur file files/l3.14 fill filleul film filmstrip fina final finalist financ financi finch find fine fine-grain finish finit finnish finnonian fiorello fir fire firenz firm first first-level first-ment fisbman fiscal fish fisher fishhook fishman fit five fix fl fla flag flake flash flat flax flender flexibl flight flood florenc floruit flourish flow floyd fluid flush fm focus fold folk folker folklor folksong folktal foll follow font fontain fontainebleau food fool foolish foot foot-candl footer footnot footnotes16.53 forc ford fore forego foreign foreign-mad forest foreword forgotten form form-f form-in form-percentag formal format former forms/b136 formuh formula forster fort fortelevis forth forthcom fortheindividualvolum forti fortran fortun forty-eight forty-first forty-odd forum fossil foulk found foundat fountain four four-digit four-spac four-track fourteen fourteenth fourth fowl fowler fox fraction frag fragment frame franc francais francesco franci francisco francoi frank frankenstein frankfath frankfurt franklin frapp fraser fratern frazer freder frederick free freedom freeli freez freie french frequent frere fresh fretz freud fri friend frighten fring fringe-benefit front frontispiec fruit frys ftc fuel ful ful-li fulfil full full-pag full-siz full-text fuller fulli function fundament funk furnish futur g g.b ga gabler gabriel gail gale galleri gallimard gambl game gamer gan gap garcia garden gare garland garlick garnett garza garzk gas gasset gate gather gatti gatti-casazza gauden gaull gave gay gegenschein gemiitlichkeit gen gender genera general generallynotlistedin generat generic genesi genet geneva genius gentilhomm geo geoffroy geograph geographi geolog geolwic geometr geon geophys georg georgia geous geowrit gerald gerhard german germani geronimo ges gestur get gettysburg gial giant gibaldi gibb gilbert0 gilberto gile ginn gion gious giovanni giulio giusepp giv give given givesti gl gl-gan-shin glass/index.html glaze glenn glenview glori gloria glorious glossari glossi glossolalia gloucest glue gm gmayor go goal god goe gogel gogh gold gollancz gone good goodenough gordon gortz gospel gounod gov gov-er-nor-elect govern government-sponsor gower gpo grace grade gradual graduat graduate-level graeca grain gram grammar grammat grand grandmoth grant grante graph graphic grass grati gratuit grave grayish great great-grandmoth greater greatest grecgu grecian greek green greenberg greenhous greg gregori grimm grosset grossman grou ground group group/line grove grow growth grummnr gu guam guarante guardia guardian gue guid guidanc guidelin guilford guinea gulf gull gunnar guthri guzman gypsi gzzide h h-extend h.r h8353 h8353-h8486 h8485 h8486 ha habitu hain hair hakim haldan half half-lif half-spac halfton hall hallberg hallinan halt hamburg hamid hamilton hamlet hammarskjiild hammarskjijld hammarskjold hammond han han-dl hand hand-drawn handbook handicap handl handlett handmad handwork hang hanna hansard hansardg hanslick hansurd hanunarskjijld happen harbaga harcourt hard hard-to-find hardand hardand-fast harder hardwar harmon harold harper harpsichord harri harrisburg harsh hart hart-david hartford harvard harvest haskin hatch hate hathwel haven havoc hawaii hawaiian haworth haxthausen hay hayden head head-a header headin headings/l4.17 headlin headline-styl headlineor headnot headquart health hear heath heaven heavi heb hebrew heet hefner heidelberg heinrich held helen hell hell-bound hellen heller help hen henc henceforth hendel hennig henri henri-mari herbert hercul hereaft heresi hero hesi hesiod hesit hi hiawatha hideki higdon high higham higher highland highlight highway hilair hill hillebrand hincliff hindenburg hindu hip hiram hirsch histogram histoir histor histori historia hit hmisi hms hmso ho hoffmam hogarth holc hold holder holi holiday holland hollow hollow-cast holt home homer homm homograph hon honesti hong honigsblum honolulu honor honorari honun hook hoover hope hopkin horac horizont horn horrid hospit hotel hotograph hotson houghton houlton hour hous household houthak howard howel howev hree hscht hubert hugo hull human humaniorum humaniti humbl humor humorist hundr hundred-yard hundredth hungarian hunstead hunt hurrican hurt husayn hush hutchinson hydrogen hypertens hyphen hyphen.unless hypnosi hypoth hypoth-esi hypothesi hypothet hysteri i.11 i.8 i.e i/notes i2 i5 i959 ia iabbrevi iabraham iai ian ibid ibid.may ibidem ibl ibliographi ibm ibn ic icant icasso ick icompar icroform icrosoft id idaho idea ideal idem ident identif identifi ideolog ideorecord idetail ie ieee ierr if/o ifferson iftherei ign ignor igor ii ii.b.2 ii.spec iibermensch iii ijoann ijohn ik ike il ill ill-advis illeg illinoi illumin illunin illustr illustrations-map ilm ilrcn iluthor ilya imag image/music image/music/text imageri imagin imaginari imari imilar imit immedi immers immigr immun immunodefici immut impact impati imper impli implic implicit import important-th impos impract impress impression-bi imprint improv in-stall- in155 inal inatextreferencetoaworkbytwoauthorswiththesamelast inc incalcul inch incid incident includ include-in inclus inclusivefirst incom incomplet inconsist incorpor incorrect increas incred ind inde indebt indent independ index index-wheth india indian indianapoli indic indirect individu indonesian industri ine ineithercaseth inequ inevi inevi-t inevita inevita-bl inexperienc infa infecti infinit inflat inflex influenc infobahn infomatio inform informa infra infrar infrastructur ing ingl inher initi injuri ink ink-absorb input inquir inquiri inscript inscription insert insid inspect inspir inspirit instal instanc instead instinct institut institutions-especi instruct instrument insular insur insurrect int intableofcont intanr intellect intellig intem intend intens intent inter inter-american interact interchang interest interfac interim interior interject intern international internationald internet interpol interpolations/5.37 interpret interrel interrupt interspers interst interv interven interview intimit intra intramur intrc introduc introduct introductori invas invent inventor invers invert invest investig invis invitet involv io io.261 io.2630 io.31 ioffic iolo iolog ior ioumal iowa ip ipablo iparliamentari ipart iphigeneia ippolitov ippolitov-ivanov ipubl ira irenaeus iri irish iron ironiqu irrit irst is0 isaac isbn isidor isl iso isol isotop israel issawi issert issu ist ital itali italian italiana italic itat item items-gr itl itzak iv ivan ivanov ivis iw iwdmvior ix ix-xii iy ize izzuto j j.d j.p jack jackson jacob jacobus jacqu jacques-laur jacquet jam jamal jame jan jane janet januari japan japanes jastrow javanes jay jean jean-henri jeann jefferson jeffrey jenkin jenkins jeremiah jerom jerusalem jess jesus jew ji jig jigur joachim joann job jobhold joe joel johann john john-son johnson join joint jolli jonathan jone jonson jose joseph jour journal jove joyc jpe jr juan judgment judici judiciari juli juliet julius june junior juri justic justif justifi k k-captur k.1 k.i kalamazoo kallman kami kamuf kan kane kansa karen karl kass kastan kate kathi katz kazimierz keat keep keith keller kempi kendrick kennan kennedi kennedy.a kenneth kentucki kept key keyboard keystrok kid kierkegaard kiiln kind king kingdom kinross kinship kirkman kirshner kitchen kitchen-cabinet-lik kkhi klein km knopf know knowledg known kohn komatos kong koon koran korea kornei kqed krael kranz krausthomson kreuger kron kron-fm ks kubi kunstgeschicht kupisch kurland kurosawa kusnierek ky l l-inch l-l l.h.d l.lo l.lo/parts l.z/parts l2 l95 l95-l98 l98 la label labell labor laboratori lafontain lagiar lake lambert land landi landscap lane lang langer langley languag language-thos language/area lanham lank laps lardner larg larger lark laser lassic last lat late later latest lath latin latitud latter laubreaux laughlin laughter launch laura laurenc laurent law lawrenc lawyer lay layhous layout lb lb2369.t8 lbs ld.14 ldag ldvance le le.9 lead leader leadership leaf leagu leap learn learning-gener leas least leav leave8 lectron lectur led left left-hand leg legal legend legend-everyth legendari legibl legion legisl legitim legum lehn leibel leisur lemon lemur lencyclopaedia lend leng length lengthi lengthwis leo leon leonard lepeaux les lesli less lesser lesser-known let letm letter letter-by-lett letter-qu leumann leumann-hoffmam lev levant level levenson li liabil lian liber librari librarian libretto lie life lifetim light lighter lightweight lignment like like-and like-ar like-can like-usu likeran likewis lillian lillinoi limit lincoln lind linda line line-group linear linebaugh ling linguist link lion lionel liquid lisdbsok4 lisl lism list listentrymustbeinclud liter literari literatur lith lithic lithicm litt.d litterarum litteratura littl little-expect littleton litwack live liveright livingston lizard ll ll.b ll.d ll.l5/comparing ll8.70 llcaddmi llipsi llj lll/notes lloui lloyd llustrat llvo ln lnind lnt lo lo.l4/parenthetical loami loanword lobbi local locat location-pag lock lodg loeb loeving log logic logicallysimilarshouldb loi london lone long long-establish long-open long-term longer longest longestablish longstreth loo look loop loos loose-leaf lopent lorado lord lorenzo los lose loss loss- lossari lost lot lotteri loui louis louis-mari louisvill love lovel lover lower lowercas lowerqu lowest lpseud.1 lrcn ls lsb lsiu lsnguag lso lstersl lsttres ltd lttezn luca lucil luke luli lulnu lumin lunar lural lure lust lustr luther luthuli lw lwilliam lx4 ly lycida lyme lynd lyon lyoo1950 lysi m m.a m.b.a m.d m.f.a m.p m.s ma maanen mabi mac macalist macarthur macaulay machiavellian machin macmi11 macmillan macro macroeconom mad made made-fortelevis magazin magil magist magnet magnificentia mail mailer main maintain majesti major make makepeac maker makerid malcolm male malic mamet man man-i man-of-war manag manchest mandarin mandat manfr mani manipul mankind manner manpow manstic manteia manual manualfor manuelra manufactur manuscript map mapmak mar marc marcel march margin mari maria mariann maribus marie-henri marin mario mark market markham marki marks-lett marks/s marks/s.17 marriag marsh marshal martin martyr marx marxism mass massachusett massi massiv master masterpiec match materi materials/ii.56 materials/ll.52 matern math mathemat mathematicaloperationalsign matiss matrix matt matte-surfac matter matter-of-fact matter/l.47 mattev matthew maureen mawr max maxi may mayor mc mcadoo mcallist mcauley mccumber mcdougal mcginni mcgraw mcgraw-hil mckemev mckenney mcneill md mdthdm me-restor mea mead mean meaning meaningless meant measur mechan mecklermedia media median medic medicin medicina mediev medit medium meet melchior melissa melodrama melon melvill melvin member memento memoir memorandum memori men men-of-war mend menschen ment mention mentor menu mer mercuri mere merg merkebach merl merri merriam merriam-webst merriamwebst merril merton mesh messag messr mest met metamorpho metaphor meter method method-such methuen metro metropolitan metzner mexico meyer mfor mgler mha mi mich michael michaylovich michel michigan micro microfich microfilm microform microsoft mid mid-atlant mid-twentieth middl middle-class middletown midnight midway mifflin might mihalyi miinchen mikhail milan milano mile milieu militari militarv mill miller millimet millington million millwood milton mimeograph min minault mind mine miner mini miniatur minimum minist ministr ministri minn minneapoli minnesota minor mint minut miranda mire mirror miscellan misinterpret mislead misread miss mission missouri misspel mistak mistake.s mistaken mistreat misunderstood mit mitchel mix ml mla mlle mln mm mme mn mo mobi mode model modem moder modern modernized-may modifi modifiersflat moistur molecul moli mon mon-ey monarch monasteri mond monetari money mong mongo mongo-lian monitor monmoni monograph mont montgomeri month month-day-year montreal montreaux moodi moor mora moral moral1 morehead morgan morn morri morrow mort mose mosquito moth mother motif motion motiv motor mount mountain mous mouselik move movi mozart mr mrs mrslf ms mst mt mtiqa mtur much mud muhammad multi multiauthor multifold multilater multipl multitud multivolum mulvani munich munro munuul munuulfor murder muriel murray muse museum museumlik music music/text musician must musurillo mutil mutual mvu myrdal mysteri myth mythologi n n-from n.c n.d n.dak n.h n.j n.mex n.p n.s n.y naacp nab nafta nake name name-in names/9.24 names19.17 nanci naner naomi napoleon narasimhiah narenthet nari narrow nashvill nast nathan nation nationwid nato natur naturalist naughtinton naval nbc nbi nc ncyclopedia nd ne near near-at-hand nearbi nearnuclear neb nebo nebr necessari need needless negat negro neighbor neil neither nel neotrop neriod nerson nerw network neuf neutral neutral-ph neutron nev never nevertheless new new-born newcar newli news newspap newsweek next nfl nft nh niagara niccolo nichol nichola nietzsch night nimh nine nine-tenth nineteenth nineti ninety-degre ninety-four ninth nite nj nm nmover nn nne nobel nobl nodd nois nomin non non-christian non-food-produc non-latin nonarthrit nonbal nonbook none nonetheless nonfict nonfunct nongovern nonlatin nonpareil nonprint nonrestrict nonscientif nonsexist nonsmok nonstandard nontechn nontreat nonwestern noon nor-wel nord noriaki normal norman north north-holland northeast northholland northwest norton norway norwel nos notabl notat note note-bibliographi note-to notenumb notes/8.149 notes/9.11 notes/a.16 noth notic noticethatibid notin notion notitalic notnecessarili nough noun nounc nouns-ar nounsth nouv nouvell nov novel novelist novello novelsaretr novemb nowconsideranothermultivolumework nowher noyal np npublish nr nrf ns nsf nsign nternet nterview ntis nu nuclear nucledr null num num183 number number-must number-th numberinth numbers/2.29 numbers/2.46 numbers/2.67 numbers/2.s3 numbers/lo.33 numbers/z numbers/z.38 numbers/z.60 numer numerals-roman nuncio nutrit nv nw o o-jan o.m o.s o/public oat object objectif objectivefor obscura observ obtain obvious occas occasion occup occupi occur occurr ocean ocial oct octob octopus ocument od odd ode odyssey oehser oelberg oen oeuvr of1 ofa ofabbrevi ofajournalor ofapublicationi ofat ofessay off-loop offer offic offici officii ofgeneralinterest ofgiven ofperiod ofplowman ofpubl ofpublc ofpublish oftabl often ofth oftwar ofwork oh ohio ohrlin oi oil oilspil ojici ok okla ol old older olga oliv ollect ollow olum olumn omer omiss omit omma ommend ompil omplet ompon ompound omput on-alway on-appear on-lin on-the-job once-simpl ondisc one one-half one-inch one-lett one-show oneself onesyl onetim ongo ongression onlin ont ontain ontario onto ontolog oo ook ool ooo oosit ootnot op opec open open-fil open-hand oper opera operetta ophi opinion opposit optim optimum option opyright oral orang oratori orbit orchestra ord orden order order-for order-given ordin ordinari ordinarili ore oreg oreign organ ori orient orientalist origin orizont ork orm ormor ornament orphan orrect orson ortega orthodox ortothatus oryx oscar osit ossess osteopathi ostraca ot ote other otherwis otion ottawa otto ou oublic ought ounctuat ound ount ourc outcri outlin output outrag outsid ove overal overcom oversimplifi oversuppli overus ovid ow own owner ownership oxcroft oxford oxid oxyrhynchus oy p p-decay p-h p-m p.m p.r pa pac pace pacem pacif packag padova padua pagan page pagelayout pagin paid paillard paint painter pair palo pamphlet pan panel panner pantheon papaci papanek paper paper-al paper-entir paperback papers-term papnanek papua papyri par para parad paradis paragraph paragraph-end parallel param param-et parasit parc pardon pare paren parent parenthe166 parenthes parenthesi parenthet pari park parkway parliament parliamentari parole parrish part part-titl parte parti partial particip participi participl particl particular particular-carri partita parttitl pasadena pascal pass passag passeng passenger-carri passengercarri passim passion past paternaland path pathway patient patrick pattern patton paul paus payment pb84 pbs peac peach peal pearc pearl pebbl pecial peculiar peech peed peel peer peg peggi peloponnesian pemberton pen pen-and-ink penc pencil pennel pennsylvania penros pense peopl per per-mit-t percent percentag perci pere perfect perfect4 perfor161 perform pergamon perhap peril period periodicalnamei perlman perman permi permis-s permiss permissi permissi-bl permit perrin person perspect pertain pertin pertinent pervas peter pette peu pf33mz ph ph.b ph.d ph.g phalanx phalt pharmaci phds phenomena phenomenologi phenomenon philadelphia philanthrop philip philo philo-soph philolog philos-ophi philosoph philosophi philosophia phoenix phonet photo photocopi photodupl photograph photograph-i photographi photostat phrase phrases/l.30 physic physiqu pi pi-e piaget piano piav picasso pictur pie piec pierpont pierr pilot pilttern pin pin-f pindar pink pinto pinyin pioneer pire pitch pix pkwi pl place place-nam placement places-ar placid0 plagiar plagu plain plaintiff plaisanc plan plate play player playhous pleas pleasethyou plenum plimpton plotsopthedata plotter plowman plural plus plywood pmla po po0 poach pod poem poet poetic poetica poetri poetry/s point poland pole polic polici policymak polit pollak pollitt pollock pont pope popul popular porkola poros port porter portfolio portion portland portrait pose posit possess possibl post post-world postal postfir postop potenti potteri pouillon poulenc pound pourtant powder powel power poxi pp pp.opemtbs ppendix pr pr/cr prace practic pragmatism pragu praha prai pray pre pre-nuclear-ag pre-sent pre29 preach preced precis predat predic predicate-el predict predomin prefac prefer prefix preliminari preliminaries/l.14 preliminaries/l.25 preliminaries/l.32 preliminaries/l.9 premium prenupti prepar preparatori preposit prepositional-phras pres pres-ent prescrib prescript prese presenc present preserv presid president-elect presidenti press press-appli presser pressur prevent previous priat price pricr priest prim primari primarili prime princeton princip principl print printer printing-for printing/13.27 printout prior prison privat privi pro pro-arab pro-choic pro-nounc probabl problem procedur proceed process processor proch proclaim proclam prod produc product profession professor program progress proguest prohibit project prolifer prometheus promis prompt pronounc pronunci proofread proper properti propithecus proport propos proposit propriet prose prosodi prospect prosper protect prove provid provinc provinci provis provok proxmir psacharopoulo pseud pseudo pseudonym pseudoreligi psycho psycho-analysi psycholog psychomotor pt ptocb pts pub public publication-differ publication-qu publications-book publicationusu publish puerto pull pulp puls punc punctuat punctuating-that punctuation-for punctuation-period punctuation/3.106 punctuation/3.79 punctuation/j.60 punctuation13.70 punctuation13.98 punctuationin punctuatioru3.88 punctuution/3.111 puper pupil purchas purdah puritan purpos put puzzl pyle pyramid pyre q q.v qemitt qristotl qu quadraphon qualif qualifi qualiti quand quantif quantit quantiti quarter quasar quasi quasi-polit quasi-religi queen queri question questioni questionnair quian quick quiet quill quinci quit quo quod quot quotat quotation-to quotations/5.30 r r.i ra.t race rachel raci racism racket raction radio radioact radium radium-uranium rafael rag raggedright rainer rais ralph ram ranch rand randal random rang rank ranslat rare rasito1opy rat rate rather ratherthanth ratio ratiqu raton rattoii raw ray raymond rca rch rd re re-cord re-cov re-establish reach read readabl reader readers6 readership readerwillfind readi readili ready-mad real realiti realiz reallexikon realli realm reappear rearrang reason rebel rebuilt rec39 recal recast receipt receiv recent receptor recidiv recip recipi recollect recommend recompens reconsid record recordmg recov recoveri recreat red redit redmond redraw reduc reduct reek reenact ref refac refer referenc reference-sidney referencemark referencestoth referencestothatsam reflect refmenc refold reform reformat reformist refut regard regardless regenstein regi regim regimen region regist regnal regneri regret regul regular rehabilit reich reiger reign reinforc reissu rekey rel relat relationship releas relev reli reliabl reliev religi religion remain remap remark rememb remot remov remuner renaiss renam rench render renew rensen renssela rent renumb reorgan repav repeat repertori repetit rephras replac repli report repres represent reprint reproduc reproduct republ request requir require1 requiredher rernt res research resembl resent reserv resid resign resist resolut resourc respect respond respons ressembl rest restor restrict result ret ret-ord retain retir retitl retort retouch retrac retriev retrospect return retyp rev reveal revel revellier revelliere-lepeaux reverend revers review reviews/ll.47 revis revolt revolut revu reward rewrit rey rg rganiz rhecori rhetor rhythm rhythmic ri ribbon ricardo rice richard richardson rick ricordi ridian right right-hand righteous rigoletto rinehart ring rint rinter riot ripen rire risk ristic rite riter ritish ritten ritual ritualist rivat rive1 river rl rl/cr rlicr rm rme road roadsid robbia robert robinson robot robson rochest rock rock-a-by rocki rodger rodriguez roduc roemer rofession roger rogram roland role roll rom roma romain roman romana romanc rome romeo romplet ronald rond ronsard room roosevelt roper rosa rosabel rose rosecr rosi ross rosy-cheek round rout routin row rowel roy royal rrang rrangement rs rsiti rsv rticl ru rubi rudolf rudolph rueset rule ruler ruling/6.65 run run-in runov runthewidth rupp rural russia ruth rutherford rv rvrded rwer ryan s-franc s.b s.c s.dak s.j s.m s.t.b s.v s.w sabroski sacr sacra sade saen safe safer safeti said sail saint saint-gauden saint-hilair saint-saen saintcloud sainte-beuv sake sale salem salignac salmagundi salt sam samaritan samelevelar samnl sampl samuel san sanction sand sandra sang santa sarah saranac sartr sartrean sat satir satisfactori satisfactorili satisfi saturday satz save saver saw say sbakeepear sc scale scan scar scatter scene schachter schatz schedul scheider scheinman scheme schenker schirmer schmalz schmeckebi schmidt scholar scholar-poet scholarship scholast school schools-govern schriften schult schuman schyberg scienc sciences-and sciences-perman scientia scientif scientij scientist scientz scongress scope score scott screen scribner script scriptur scriptures-b scriutur scroll scrutin scullard sd se sea search season seattl sebastian sec second second-level secondari secretari secretariat sect section secur sedentisn sedi see seed seek seem seen segal segment segment-from seldom select self self-correct self-esteem self-evi-d self-explanatori self-right selfcontain sell semi semicolon semiconsci sen senat senior senn sens sensibl sensit sent sentenc sentence-styl sentencestyl separ sept septemb seq sequel sequenc sequent ser seri serial seriat serious sermon serv servant servic ses sesam seshagiri sess session set set-t settl settlement setton seudonym seven seventeenth seventeenth-centuri seventh seventh-day sever sewal sex sexual sh shabani shade shading-such shadinga shadow shake shakeep shakespear shall shalt shape shapey shapiro share sharp sharper sharpli shaw shear shedd sheet shell shelley shelv shepard shepherd shifa shigeru shih shih-fa shill shin shine ship shoot shop shore short shorten shorter shortest shortridg shouldb shout show shown si sial sianner sibl sic side sidehead sideway sidney siegel sigh sign signal signatur signif signif-ic signific silenc silv silver silverstein simenon similar similarlyphras simon simpl simpler simplest simpli simplifi simultan sinc sincer singer singl single-spac single-weight singlespac singular sinker sinpli sion sir sire sit situat sive six six-to-ten-year-old sixpenc sixteen sixteenth sixteenth-centuri sixth sixti sixty-eight-pag sixty-f size sjean sjean-paul sk skelton sketch sketchbook skip slash slavdom slave slaveri slavin sleev slide slight slip sloan slomczynski slperci small smaller smallest smart smile smith smithson smithsonian smo smoke smoke/don smoker smoking-wheth smooth smudg sname snd sneed snell social socialist societi socioloeistn sociolog sodium softwar softwarefirst sol sola sold soldier solicit solid solomon solti solut solv somehow someon someth sometim sometimesitbear somewhat son sonata song sontag sooner sophic sophist sorrow sort sotop soul sound sourc source-dict south southeast southeastern southern southwest souw sovereign soviet sp space spacecraft spain span spanish spanner spatrick speak speaker speci special specialist specif specifi specifiedin speck spectra spectrum speculum speech speed spell spelled-out spelling/3.31 spelling/3.38 spelling/3.51 spelling/3.8 spelling13.20 spend spent spieth spirit spitzer split spoke sponsor spot spread spread-sheet spreadsheet spring springfield spss sq squaie squar squir sr ss st staatsop staff stage stall stand standard stanford stanza star starr start stat state statement station stationeri statist statu status statut stay stay-at-hom stdri ste stedelijk stedlijk steel steel-reinforc steep steer stellar stem stendahl step step-by-step stephani stephen stepp stereo sterl steven stevenson stick stick-in-the-mud still stilling stimulus stipul stitch stock stockholm stockwel stoic stole stole-schmalz stone stop store stori storia storm stotz stoval straight straight-sid strand strang strategi stratford stravinski strawberri street strength stress stretch strewn strick strick-en stricken strier strike string strip stroll strong stronger strtluch struck structur strunk sttue stu stu-dent stuart stub stuckey student studi stuff sturler stvle style style/lo.25 style/lo.zl sub sub-subsect subatom subcent subcommitte subdivid subdivis subhead subheads-even subheadsin subjecl subject submit subscrib subscript subsect subsequ subsidiari substant substanti substantiv substitut subtitl subtot suburb succeed success sudden suffer suffici suffix suflix suggest suit suitabl sulfid sulfur sum summar summari summer sun sunday supen superimpos superior superiorlett superpow superscript superson supervis supp suppl supplement supplementari suppli supplier support suppos supra supramundan suprem sur sure surfac surgeon surgeri surpris surreal surte survey surviv susan suspicion sustain suzann suzunerautumn svmbol svstem sw swanson swarm swartkran swedenberg swidher swift swillsworth switch switzerland sy syllab syllabl symbol symbol-and symbolsar symphoni symposia symposium syndrom synod synopt syntact syntax system system/lo.13 systemat systemm systewlttc systtm sz t17321 t4sr.v tab tabl table-may tables/13.19 tables/6.8 tabul tabular tabulation-f tactic taft tag tage taha tailor taiwan take taken tale talli talmud tamer tammani tan tanner tanzania tapa tape tartar task tate tauber taught tauroi tawfiq tawflq tax taxpay taylor tc tcs td tds te teach teacher teacher-transpl teap2r teatro techmlcgi technic techniqu technolog ted tedesco teilhard telephon televis tell temperatur templ templat ten ten-point tend tendenc tenfold tenn tens tension tenth tentli term termin terminolog terr terrac terribl territori test testament testi tex text text-fich text-specif text/13.8 text/14.9 text/l.37 textbook textbut textf textfich textu textual th thackeray thai thank thaori theater theatr thee theirs.7 thelegendfrequentlyconsist themat theme theme-i theodor theolog theologia theologian theology-it theoret theori ther thereaft therefor these thesi thess thi thick thielick thigh thin thing think third third-level third-year thirteen thirteenth thirti thirty-four thirty-second thirty-six thirty-two thom thoma thompson thomson thor thorough thorson thou though thought thought-provok thousand threaten three three-dimension three-fourth throu throughout throuph throw thucydid thud thunder thur thus thyself ti tia tial tiananmen tibetan tie tiger tillich tim tim-depend time time-z ting tini tint tion tious tiqu tire tissu titl titleofwork titlepag titles/4.20 titles/9.35 tl tled tling tllinoi tls tms tmss tn tnousand togeth tojo tol told toledo toll tom tomb tomorrow ton tone toner tongu toni tonson took tool top topeka topic tore toronto torrington tortois total touch toward town township tr trace tracer track tract trade tradit tradition-a traffic train trait tran transcrib transcript transfer transform transit translat transliter transplant transport traor trati travaux travel treat treati treatis treatment tree trend tri tribun trill trillion trim trimotor trip tripledinth triumph troilus trol trop troublesom truck true truste truth ts tschniqu tseng tt ttern ttt tuainu tuainu-iai tuation tub tucker tucson tue tulsa turabian turkey turn tva tvm twain twelv twelve-mil twelve-point twenti twentieth twentieth-centuri twenty-f twenty-first twenty-five-hundred-odd twenty-four twenty-ninth twenty-on twentyninth twice two two-column two-inch two-lett two-syl two-third twos tx tyburn tyle tyler type typefac typescript typeset typewrit typewritten typic typograph u u-nit u.k u.s ubhead ublic ublish ubsequ uclear ueriod uess uestion ulatio ull ulso ultipl ultra ultraviolet ulyss umber umbrellalik umi umi-proguest un un-american un1002 unabridg unacc unaccept unbound uncbrtatntt uncert uncertain uncertainti unclear uncompl unconcern unctuat und undat underdevelop underestim undergo undergradu underlin underscor understaf understand undertak undertaken undeserv une unesco uneven unfail unfamiliar unflinch unfold unformat unhyphen uniform union uniqu unit univers universitair unjust unjustifi unjustzji unknown unless unlik unlimit unmask unnecessari unnublish unnumb unpagin unpublish unquiet unrestrict unrul unsign unspeak unwant unwin uotat up-divid upanishad updat upescal upper uppercas upset uranium urban urg url urn urrenc us usag use use-prefer useless user usic usingfl ussr ustin usual ut utah uthor util utopian utron uublic uumber ux v v.he va vacat vadi vainglori val valera valeur valley valu van vari variabl varianc variant variat varieti various vase vaughan vaughn vector veda vehicl vendor ver verb verbo verdi vere verlag verreauxi vers version versus vertic vessel veterinari veto vi vict victori vide videlicet video video-gam videocassett videorecord vienna vietnames view vii viii vika vike vincent vine vinson vintag violin virgil virgul vis vis-a-vi vise vision visual viz vlll vo1utfon vocabulari voelk vol volum voluntari von vote vote-get voter vowel voyag vri vs vt vv w wa wade wade-gil wage wage-pric wagner waley walk walker wall wallac walt walter wander wang want war war-tim ward wardrob warehous warm warn warrant warren wash wash-ing-ton washbourn washington wast watch water watkin watt watts-dunton way wayn weak weapon webb webber weber webster webster5 wed week weep weidenborn weight weinberg welfar well well-arrang well-balanc well-defin well-in-ten-t well-intent well-known well-plac weltschmerz wendel went went-worth wernher west western westport wh whatev wheel whenev wherea whereabout wherev whether whichev whichhasan whitak white whitehead whither whitman whole whole-dollar whose wi wide wider widow width wien wife wilberton wild wiley willem willi william wilson wind wink winslow winston winter winterthur wis wisdom wise wish witchel withfold within without witt wizmer woeful wolff wolfgang wolfhard wollstonecraft woman women wood woodcut wooden word worddivis work work-a worker works-compil world worth worthwhil would woven wrcrmetric wright wright-smart write writer written wrong wrote wrought wrplosion wtomdogisc wtomolooy wu wu-chi wuji; wxld0 wynken wyo wyse x xact xavier xclamat xerx xi xia xii xiv xv xxiii xyz y yacht yale yard yarealphabetizedunderthepaternalname.manynames yawn year yearbook yeat yerk yet yield ymca ymcas ympho york yorker yoshida young youth ypefac ypewritten yr yrs yu yu-chin yu-ho yves z z.jlo z.jlo/abbreviations z.zo z.zo/abbreviations zambia zd zdana zebadiah zeisel zeitung zengyouh zenith zeolit zero zf zhoa zidag zip zipurski znin zrevis zukofski zulch zur zweifel ~12 ~ce ~eare ~ic ~oses ~ples ~py ~r ~rman ~u