A Manual for Writers
of Term Papers, Theses,
to &u+, Edtttn~
On Writing, Editing, and Publishing
Getting into Print
Walter W. Powell
Writing for Social Scientists
Howard S. Becker
Chicago Guide for Preparing
Prepared by the Staff of the
University of Chicago Press
Tales of the Field
John Van Maanen
A Handbook of
Frances W. Zweifel
The Craft of Translation
John Biguenet and
Rainer Schulte, editors
Kate L. Turabian
Joseph M. Williams
Mapping It Out
Nancy C. Mulvany
John Grossman and Alice Bennett
Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes
Robert M. Emerson, Rachel I.
Fretz, and Linda L. Shaw
Glossary of Typesetting Terms
Richard Eckersley, Richard
Angstadt, Charles M. Ellerston,
Richard Hendel, Naomi B.
Pascal, and Anita Walker Scott
The Craft of Research
Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G.
Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams
The University of Chicago Press
Chicago and London
Kate L. Turabian (1893-1987) was dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago from 1930 to 1958. John Grossman prepared and Alice Bennett copyedited the fourteenth edition of The Chicugo Munuul of Style. Portions of this book have been adapted from The Chicago Munuul of Style, 14th edition, 0 1969, 1982, 1993 by The University of Chicago, and from A Munuulfor Writers of Term Pupers, Theses, und Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian, revised and expanded for the fifth edition by Bonnie Birtwistle Honigsblum.
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637
The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London
0 1937, 1955, 1967, 1973, 1987, 1996 by The University of Chicago All rights reserved
Sixth edition, published 1996
Printed in the United States of America
04 03 02
01 00 99 98 97 96 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
ISBN: O-226-81626-5 (cloth)
Parts of the Paper
Abbreviations and Numbers
Spelling and Punctuation
Capitalization, Italics, and Quotation Marks
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Turabian, Kate L.
A manual for writers of term papers, theses, and dissertations / Kate L. Turabian.-6th ed. / rev. by John Grossman and Alice Bennett. p. cm.-(Chicago guides to writing, editing, and publishing)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Dissertations, Academic. 2. Report writing. 1. Grossman, John, 1924- II. Bennett, Alice, 1938% III. Title. IV. Series.
@The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of the American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI 239.48-1984.
Parenthetical References and Reference Lists
Comparing the Two Documentation Systems
Preparing the Manuscript
Formats and Sample Layouts
Kate L. Turabian designed this manual as a guide to suitable style for presenting formal papers-term papers, theses, dissertations-in the humanities, social sciences, and natural sciences. Over the course of sixty years the book has become established as one of the basic reference works for undergraduate and graduate students in many disciplines. This sixth edition has been prompted by publication of the fourteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style and by new guidelines on dissertations from the Office of Academic Publications at the University of Chicago. The University of Chicago Press receives many inquiries about Kate Turabian and the history of her manual. A reviewer for Quill and Scroll wrote that Turabian’s name had become “part of the folklore of American higher education,” and she has been called “the Emily Post of scholarship.” So legendary has she become that some believe she is an invention. In fact, Kate Turabian worked for over thirty years at the University of Chicago, where she was dissertation secretary from 1930 to 1958. She died in 1987 at age ninety-four, a few months after publication of the fiftieth anniversary edition of her manual. Commenting on the more than eleven thousand theses and dissertations she inspected for the university, she told the Chicago Tribune, “I learned early that modern young people have ideas of their own on grammar and punctuation.” It was to correct and guide these ideas that she wrote the instruction sheets that were given out to graduate students at the university She later adapted materials from the Press’s Manual of Style to expand the guidelines into a sixty-eight-page booklet, copyrighted by the University of Chicago in 1937 and distributed first by the campus bookstore, then by the Press. The University of Chicago Press published the book under its own imprint in a revised edition issued in 1955. Three years later Kate Turabian retired as dissertation secretary, but she remained involved in the next two revisions of her manual, published in 1967 and 1973. The fifth edition, substantially revised and enlarged by vii
Bonnie Honigsblum, was published in 1987. This sixth edition has been revised by John Grossman, now retired as managing editor of the University of Chicago Press, who also prepared the fourteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, and by Alice Bennett, senior manuscript editor at the Press.
From the beginning Kate Turabian’s book has had a close connection with the Press’s older style manual. Since the tenth edition of the Press’s manual was published in 1937, each new edition has been followed by a revision of “Turabian.” This sixth edition brings Turabian’s manual into conformity with the fourteenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style. The new edition also reflects changes brought about by the increasing use of personal computers for preparing research papers. When Turabian’s manual was last revised in 1987, many students were still using typewriters. Those who worked with computers found that word processing programs were not designed for the special formatting requirements of scholarly papers, such as placing footnotes at the bottom of the page. In less than a decade, the situation has changed dramatically. Not only do many more students have access to computers, but software now addresses the particular needs of scholars and students and offers a typographic sophistication that was not available before. With the help of style sheets, students can reduce the time spent on formatting and concentrate on presenting ideas. Dissertation offices can allow greater flexibility in decisions regarding margins, spacing, emphasis, headings, and general presentation. This new environment is reflected in the current edition, especially in chapter 13 on manuscript preparation and in chapter 14, showing sample pages from typical research papers. Regular users of this manual will find that its basic structure remains much the same as in the fifth edition. Some chapters have been retitled or rearranged, but the same major topics are covered. Chapter 1 describes the parts of a long formal paper. Chapters 2-5 introduce students to the mechanics of writing, including the use of abbreviations, the treatment of numbers, some principles of spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and the use of italics, and the way to present quotations. Chapters 6 and 7 show how to prepare and refer to tables and illustrations. The section on documentation, chapters 8-12, describes two of the most commonly used systems of citation-the humanities style using notes and bibliographical references and the author-date style favored by scholars in the social and natural sciences-and gives many examples.
It is not within the scope of this manual to offer advice on how to select a topic, undertake research, and write up the results. That chal... Vlll
lenge is taken up by three master teachers, Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams, in their recent book The Craft of Research (Chicago, 1995), which is intended as a companion to Turabian’s manual. Students may also need to consult a specialized style manual prescribed by their academic department or discipline. Although many scholarly authors and publishers follow one of the methods of documentation described here, there is not universal acceptance of every detail. Some disciplines follow the citation style of manuals published by learned societies or scholarly journals, listed in the bibliography at the end of this book. The revisers of this edition thank all those who contributed information useful to the preparation of the fifth and sixth editions of Turabian’s Manual. These include the many teachers, dissertation secretaries, and thesis advisers who have written to the Press with suggestions or have answered questionnaires, as well as members of the University of Chicago community who have advised on various items. The revisers have endeavored to continue Turabian’s tradition of selecting the parts of The Chicago Manual of Style that are most useful to students.
Parts of the Paper
Front Matter, or Preliminaries 1.7
Title Page 1.7
Blank Page or Copyright Page 1.8
Table of Contents 1. I 1
List of Illustrations 1.19
List of Tables 1.24
List of Abbreviations 1.27
Editorial Method 1.3 1
Section and Subsection 1.37
Back Matter, or Reference Matter 1.39
Bibliography or Reference List 1.47
The word paper is used throughout this manual for term papers, theses, and dissertations except when referring specifically to one of these. A term paper fulfills one of the require1
Front Matter, or Preliminaries/l.9
l.Z/Parts of the Paper
ments of a course or an undergraduate major. A thesis is a
requirement of a graduate-level course or a master’s degree. A dissertation is one of the requirements for a doctorate. Each kind of research paper must include references giving full publication data for works cited in the text, and each is to be submitted as finished copy rather than as a manuscript prepared for typesetting. Before beginning work on such a research paper, the writer should consult the department or degreegranting institution to determine any special requirements. To the extent that these do not conflict with the guidelines offered in this manual, or if no special requirements exist, the style presented here is recommended.
All the basic text in a dissertation must be double-spaced, and double-spacing is strongly urged for all academic papers. Indented block quotations (5.30-34), however, may be singlespaced. It is also conventional to single-space footnotes, itemized lists, and bibliographies or reference lists, leaving a blank line between notes, items, or entries. Runover lines in tables of contents, lists of tables and illustrations, and subheads may also be single-spaced.
FRONT MATTER, OR PRELIMINARIES
T ITLE P A G E
B LANK P AGE
A paper has three main parts: the front matter, or preliminaries; the text; and the back matter or reference matter. In a long paper, each of these parts may consist of several sections (see below), each beginning a new page.
There are two categories of pagination: the front matter, numbered with consecutive lowercase roman numerals, centered at the bottom of the page, and the rest of the work, numbered
with arabic numerals centered at the bottom of pages that bear titles and centered at the top (or placed in the upper right corner) of all other pages of the text and back matter.
Although all pages are counted in the pagination, some of the preliminaries do not have page numbers typed on them (see
Unless specified otherwise by the conventions of a department or discipline, the order given in the table of contents for this chapter should be observed, though not every paper will require all these parts. Should the paper later be published, the organization required by the publisher may differ from that
Many universities and colleges have their own style of title page for theses and dissertations, and this should be followed exactly for content, capitalization, and position and spacing of the elements. For term papers, if a sample sheet is not provided, a title page might include the name of the university or college (usually centered near the top of the sheet), the full title of the paper, the course (including its department and number), the date, and the name of the writer. Although the title page counts as page i, the number is not shown on it. See sample 14.18 for one style that may be used for theses and dissertations.
C OPYRIGHT P A G E
A blank sheet prevents the text of the following page from
showing through the white space on the title page. The sheet may also be used as a copyright page, with the copyright notice, in the following form, placed near the bottom. Copyright 0 19- by Arthur Author
All rights reserved
In either case the sheet is counted in the pagination, but the page number is not shown. A copyright notice may be included even if the copyright is not registered.
Dedications are usually brief and need not include the word
dedicated. To is sufficient:
It is not necessary to identify (or even give the whole name of) the person to whom the work is dedicated or to give such other information as life dates, though both are permissible. Extravagant dedications are a thing of the past, and humorous ones rarely stand the test of time. The dedication, typed in uppercase and lowercase, should be centered on the width of a line about three inches from the top of the page, with no final punc-
Front Mattev, or Preliminaries/l.14
l.lO/Parts of the Paper
essentially an outline by including all the levels. At the other extreme the contents may omit the subheads-even though the
paper carries subheads of one level or more than one-showing only the generic headings and titles of chapters. For many papers, both those with only one level and those with more
than one level of subhead, the table of contents includes the first-level (principal) subheads, with or without the page numbers (sample 14.19). Note that when more than one level of subhead is included in the contents, they must appear in order of rank; that is, it is not permissible to begin with any but the first-level subhead or to skip from the first to the third or fourth level (sample 14.20).
tuation. If to introduces the dedication, it should begin with a capital. A dedication is not listed in the table of contents. No number appears on it, but the page is counted in the pagination of the preliminaries.
An epigraph-a quotation placed at the beginning of a work
or of one of its parts and adumbrating its theme-is not italicized, underlined, or put in quotation marks. When an epigraph heads a whole paper, its format is like that of a dedication (see 1.9). For epigraphs that begin chapters or sections of a paper, see 5.9. The source is given on the line following the quotation and should consist only of the author’s name (just the last name of a well-known author) and, usually, the title of the work. The title should be italicized or underlined or enclosed in quotation marks in accordance with the guidelines in chapter 4. Epigraphs are usually self-explanatory: any explanation should be included in the preface or other introductory matter. An epigraph is not listed in the table of contents. No number appears on it, but the page is counted in the pagination of the preliminaries.
The table of contents, usually headed simply CONTENTS (in full capitals), lists all the parts of the paper except the title page, blank page or copyright page, dedication, and epigraph, which all precede it. No page numbers appear on any of these four, but all are counted in the pagination of the front matter. If the chapters are grouped in parts, the generic headings (e.g.,
PART I) and titles (e.g., EARLY FINDINGS) of the parts also appear in the contents, though the pages carry no numbers in the text (see 1.18). Subheads within the chapters are frequently included in one of various ways (see 14.19-20), or they may be omitted from the table of contents.
In preparing a table of contents for a paper containing one
level or more of subheads (see 1.37), there is great latitude in both the amount of information included and the method of
presenting it. At one extreme the contents may provide what is
First to be listed in the table of contents (see 14.19) are those elements of the front matter that have page numbers shown
(1.19-32). These may include a list of illustrations, list of tables, preface, acknowledgments, list of abbreviations, glossary, editorial method, and abstract, usually in that order. Following the preliminaries, the various elements of the text are listed. Chapters are listed under that generic heading, with chapter numbers aligned at the left and chapter titles aligned on the first letter. If the chapters are divided into groups, or parts, the part title and number are centered above the constituent chapters (14.19). The back matter, or reference matter (appendix, endnotes, and bibliography or reference list; see 1.39-47), is listed last (14.20) and, like the front matter, starts flush left. A line space should be left between items in the table of contents; that is, the items are double-spaced. If an item runs to more than one line, however, the runover lines are single-spaced.
Subheads, when included, are indented a consistent distance
(three spaces, for example) beyond the beginning of the chapter title. If more than one level of subhead is included, each level is indented an additional three spaces. Runovers are indented yet another three spaces, and the spaced periods (leaders) running to the page number (see 1.18) begin at the end of the last runover line. Multiple levels of subheads and a runover subhead are illustrated in example 14.20. If the subheads are short, those of the same level may be run in (run together), with each level, as a block, indented three spaces beyond the preceding one. Run-in subheads may be separated by semicolons, dashes, or periods.
Front Matter, or Preliminaries/l.25
l.lS/Parts of the Paper
Capitalization and wording of the titles of all parts, chapters, and sections should appear exactly as in the body of the paper.
Capitalization of titles in both the table of contents and the body of the paper should be as follows. For the titles of all major divisions (acknowledgments, preface, contents, list of illustrations, list of tables, list of abbreviations, glossary, editorial method, abstract, introduction, parts, chapters, appendix, notes, and bibliography or reference list), capitalize all letters (e.g., PREFACE ). For subheads, use headline style (see 4.6-8), capitalizing the initial letter of the first and last words and of all other words except articles, prepositions, and coordinate conjunctions (sample 14.19), or use sentence style (see 4.9), capitalizing only the initial letter of the subhead and of any proper nouns or proper adjectives (sample 14.20).
Numbers designating parts and chapters should be given as
they appear in the text. Part numbers may be uppercase roman numerals (PART I, PART II, etc.) or spelled-out numbers (PART ONE, PART TWO, etc.). The generic heading may precede the part title on the same line, followed by a period (sample 14.19), or it may be centered above the title and thus need no following punctuation (sample 14.20). Chapter numbers may be arabic
or uppercase roman numerals or spelled-out numbers. The
word chapter may precede each chapter number, or it may be
given only once as a heading above the column listing all the chapter numbers (samples 14.19-20).
Page numbers in a table of contents are usually aligned on the right following a line of spaced periods (leaders) separating the title from the page number on which the part of the paper begins (sample 14.20). Note that only the beginning page number of each chapter or other section is given. Page numbers for
parts need be given only if the part-title page contains some introductory text, but if the page number is given for one part, it must be given for all. Page numbers for subheads may be
omitted (sample 14.19). When they are included with run-in
subheads, page numbers are best placed in parentheses immediately following each subhead. OF IL LUSTR ATIONS
In a list of illustrations, headed simply ILLUSTRATIONS , the figure numbers are given in arabic numerals followed by a period;
the captions follow the period; and the page numbers (in arabit) are usually separated from the caption by leaders. Doublespace between captions, single-space within. 1.20
The figure numbers in the list are aligned on their periods under the word Jigure, and page numbers are listed flush right under the word page, as in sample 14.21.
Figures must not be numbered la, lb, and so forth. A figure
may, however, have lettered parts to which its legend, or descriptive statement, refers. Fig. 1. Digitalis: a, cross section of stem; b,
enlargement of a seed.
Do not include the lettered parts in the list of illustrations. 1.22
The captions in the list of illustrations should agree with those given beneath the illustrations, unless the latter are long (more properly, then, called legends), in which case it is best to shorten them in the list. For a thesis or dissertation, however, consult the dissertation office. Even if a descriptive or explanatory statement follows the caption under an illustration, do not include it in the list of illustrations (sample 14.21).
In this list captions are capitalized headline style (see 4.6-8), as in sample 14.21. Foreign language captions, however, should follow the conventions for the language.
In a list of tables, the table numbers are arabic numerals followed by periods and are aligned on the periods in a left-hand column headed table; the page numbers are listed flush right under the heading page. The table titles begin two spaces after the period following the table number and should agree exactly with the titles above the tables themselves. The titles are capitalized either sentence or headline style (see 4.6-g), and runover lines are indented three spaces. Double-space between items, single-space within (sample 14.22).
In the preface, the writer explains the motivation for the study, the background of the project, the scope of the research, and 7
1.26IParts of the Paper
Front Matter, or Preliminaries/l.32
the purpose of the paper. The preface may also include acknowledgments. If a writer has nothing significant to add to what is covered in the body of the paper and wishes only to
acknowledge the various sorts of assistance and permissions
received, these remarks should be titled ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
rather than PREFACE. A preface appears in the same format as an acknowledgments section (see 1.26).
reading it from beginning to end. Even when a paper includes a list of abbreviations, the spelled-out version should be given the first time a term appears, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses.
In the acknowledgments, the writer thanks mentors and colleagues, lists the individuals or institutions that supported the research, and gives credit to works cited in the text for which permission to reproduce has been granted (see 5.1). Although one might wish to acknowledge special assistance such as consultation on technical matters or aid in securing special equipment and source materials, one may properly omit formal thanks for the routine help given by an adviser or a thesis committee. The generic heading ACKNOWLEDGMENTS , which appears only on the first page, is in uppercase and centered over the text. The format of this page should be the same as for the first page of a chapter. Each page of the acknowledgments is numbered in lowercase roman numerals centered beneath the
A list of abbreviations is desirable only if the writer has devised new abbreviations instead of using commonly accepted ones,
such as standard abbreviations of titles of professional journals. A list of abbreviations should be arranged alphabetically by the abbreviation itself, not the spelled-out term. Under the centered generic heading in uppercase, list abbreviations on the left in alphabetical order and leave two to four spaces between the longest abbreviation and its spelled-out term. Align the first letter of all other spelled-out terms and any runover lines with the first letter of the term following the longest abbreviation, and use the longest line in the column to center the list on the page(s). Double-space between items, single-space
within, as in sample 14.32. A list of abbreviations helps the reader who looks at only a portion of the paper instead of
A paper that contains many foreign words or technical terms
and phrases likely to be unfamiliar to the reader should include a list of these, followed by their translations or definitions. The terms should be arranged alphabetically, each typed flush left and followed by a period, a dash, or a colon. The translation or definition follows, with its first word capitalized and ending with a period, unless all definitions consist only of single words or phrases, in which case no fIna punctuation should be used. If a definition extends to more than one line, the runover lines should be indented five spaces from the left margin. Doublespace between items, single-space within, as in sample 14.33. If there is more than one glossary, each should start on a new page.
A glossary placed in the back matter rather than in the front matter follows an appendix, if any, and precedes the bibliography or reference list.
E DITORIAL M E T H O D
Following the same format as does the preface (see 1.25), a
section devoted to editorial method may be included in the
preliminaries to explain the writer’s editorial practice or to discuss variant texts, particularly if the paper is a scholarly edition. In practice, however, this discussion is usually part of the introduction. Short, uncomplicated remarks about editorial
method-such as a note that capitalization and punctuation
have been modernized-may be included in the preface or
placed in a note after the first quotation from the edited work.
An abstract, which may or may not be required, briefly summarizes the thesis and contents of the paper. Like the title, it 9
1.33/Parts of the Paper
may be used by information services to create lists of papers organized by subject matter. Since each department or discipline has its own requirements, consult the thesis adviser or dissertation office regarding the content, style, placement, and format of the abstract.
as a numeral (arabic or uppercase roman). Conventionally, the entire heading is centered. Some writers omit the word CHAPTER and use only numerals-roman or arabic-in sequence before the headings of the main divisions. The form of the chapter numbers should be different from that used for part numbers (e.g., PART II, CHAPTER 4). The title, which describes the content of the chapter, is also in uppercase, centered below the generic heading (see samples 14.34 and 14.36).
The body of the paper is usually separated into well-defined divisions, such as parts, chapters, sections, and subsections. The text may also include parenthetical references, footnotes, or superscript numbers keyed to a reference list or to endnotes.
The text usually begins with an introduction, which may be
called chapter 1. If it is short, the writer may prefer to head it simply INTRODUCTION and reserve the more formal generic
heading CHAPTER for the longer sections that compose the
body of the paper. Whether it is called chapter 1 or not, the introduction is equivalent to the first chapter and is not part of the preliminaries. Thus the first page of the introduction is page 1 (arabic numeral) of the paper.
If a work is divided into parts, each comprising one or more chapters, each should be preceded by a part-title page. Parttitle pages display only the generic heading, the part number, and any part title. Since the introduction is to the entire paper, whether it is titled chapter 1 or not, it is not included in part 1. The first part-title page therefore follows rather than precedes the introduction.
In some papers the chapters or their equivalents are divided into sections, which may in turn be divided into subsections, then into sub-subsections, and so on. Such divisions are customarily given titles, called subheads or subheadings, which are differentiated typographically and designated first-, second-, and third-level subheads. The principal, or first-level, subdivision should have greater attention value than the lower levels. Centered headings have more attention value than sideheads
(beginning at the left margin), and italic, underlining, or boldface type has more than text type. Attention value is also enhanced by leaving some blank space above and below all but run-in subheads. A suggested plan for five levels of subheads follows.
First level: centered heading in boldface, italicized, or underlined, capitalized headline style: Traditional Controversy between Medieval
Church anB S tate
Second level: centered heading in text type, capitalized headline style: Reappearance of Religious Legalism
Third level: sidehead in boldface, italicized, or underlined, capitalized headline style: Legalism and the Poets
Fourth level: sidehead in text type, capitalized sentence style: CHAPTER
The body of the paper is divided into chapters, each beginning on a new page. The generic heading CHAPTER is followed by a
number, which may be either spelled out (in capitals) or given
The gospel as it is related to Jesus
Fifth level: run-in heading at beginning of paragraph in boldface, italicized, or underlined, capitalized sentence style with a period at the end:
Back Matter, or Reference Matter/l.47
1.38/Parts of the Paper
be the same for all the appendixes. Documents and case studies may well be single-spaced, whereas explanations of methods
and procedures should be double-spaced like the text.
The gospel legalized in the church. The gospel
that the early Christians preached within the pagan
sects was also a product of their experience.
If fewer than five levels are required, the style of these levels may be selected in any suitable descending order. A page should never end with a subhead. For the layout of subheadings on a page, see samples 14.31 and 14.35.
When photocopied documents, such as previously published
articles, facsimiles of manuscripts, or questionnaires, appear as separate pages in appendixes, a page number should be
added to each photocopy, using arabic numerals within brackets in the upper right corner, indicating their sequence within the pagination of the paper. The brackets show that the page number is not part of the original document. The photocopied documents within an appendix may or may not contain original pagination.
If an appendix contains photocopied material, the photocopies must be of letter quality (see 13.28, 13.37).
BACK MATTER, OR REFERENCE MATTER
An appendix, though by no means an essential part of every
paper, is a useful device to make available material that is relevant to the text but not suitable for inclusion in it. An appendix is a group of related items. Appendixes, for example, may contain tables too detailed for text presentation, a large group of illustrations, technical notes on method, schedules and forms used in collecting materials, copies of documents not generally available to the reader, case studies too long to put into the text, and sometimes figures or other illustrative materials. When a writer gathers all the paper’s illustrations, they are instead included in a group titled ILLUSTRATIONS placed just before the back matter. If some illustrations are placed in the text, however, any that are grouped in the back matter must be put in an appendix.
Materials of different categories should be placed in separate appendixes. When there is more than one appendix, each is
given a number or a letter ( APPENDIX 1, etc.; APPENDM ONE,
etc.; APPENDIX A, etc.).
If there is only one appendix, the writer may or may not give it a title, like a chapter or part title. If a paper has more than one appendix, each must bear a descriptive title, which also appears in the table of contents (see 14.20). On the opening page of each appendix the generic heading and the title are
both centered and typed in full capitals.
All appendixes go at the end of a paper, not at the ends of
Endnotes, which may have the same content as footnotes, are
more common in term papers than in theses or dissertations,
where footnotes have traditionally been preferred and parenthetical references (see 10.2-19) are now often recommended. In term papers, endnotes are numbered consecutively throughout the paper. In longer works that are divided into chapters, however, endnotes are numbered consecutively from 1 within
each chapter. Superscript arabic numerals are used as indicators in text, but full-sized on-line arabic numerals, followed by periods, precede the endnotes themselves (sample 14.38). All endnotes are grouped in the back matter under the generic
heading N OTES, with subheads giving the chapter numbers.
R EFERENCE L I S T
The bibliography or reference list (see chapters 9 and 10) is the last part of the paper (except in those rare instances where a paper carries an index, like a book). Instructions for the layout of these parts are set forth in samples 14.39-42.
Whether an appendix should be single-spaced or doublespaced depends on the nature of the material; spacing need not 13
Abbreviations and Numbers
Use of Periods 2.2
Social and Professional Titles and Similar Terms 2.3
Geographical Names 2.13
Parts of a Work 2.18
Unpublished Manuscripts 2.19
Books of the Bible 2.20
Classical References 2.22
General Scholarly Abbreviations 2.23
For Further Reference 2.28
General Rule 2.29
Series 2.3 1
Initial Numbers 2.32
Percentages and Decimals 2.36
Numerals, Symbols, and Abbreviations 2.37
United States Currency 2.40
British Currency 2.42
Other Currencies 2.43
Numbered Parts of Written Works 2.44
Date and Time 2.49
Day, Month, and Year 2.49
Month and Day Names 2.55
Time of Day 2.57
Numbers and Names 2.58
Monarchs and the Like 2.58
Family Names 2.59
Government Designations 2.60
Churches, Lodges, and Unions 2.61
Street Addresses, Highways, and Telephone Numbers 2.63
Scientific Usage 2.64
Commas within Numbers 2.66
Inclusive Numbers 2.67
Plurals of Numbers 2.68
Numbers in Enumerations 2.70
Enumerations in Text 2.70
Numbers Beginning a New Line or Paragraph 2.72
Though the use of abbreviations in formal writing was traditionally limited to a few prescribed circumstances, during the past few decades abbreviations have been used increasingly in writing of all kinds. In tabular matter, notes, bibliographies, illustrations, and lists, abbreviations are normally preferred and are formed according to a standard list accepted within
any given field. Such forms of address as Mr., Mrs., and Dr. are almost never spelled out. The writer who must form new
abbreviations for a paper should include a list of abbreviations in the front matter (see 1.27). For guidelines on hyphenating and dividing abbreviations, see 3.50.
The trend is strongly away from the use of periods, especially in uppercase abbreviations. In the examples that follow, the periods have been left wherever they have traditionally appeared. Periods may be omitted from many of these examples, but it is well to use periods after lowercase abbreviations that spell words (e.g., in., act., no.). A period and a space are used after the initials of personal names (e.g., E. F Bowman). In an abbreviation with an internal period (e.g., A! Y;, Ph.D., N Dak., US.), however, there should be no space after that period.
2.3/Abbreviations and Numbers
P ROFESSIONAL T ITLES
S IMILAR T E R M S
Most social titles are abbreviated, whether used with the full name or the last name only (note that there is no period after Mile and Mme):
The abbreviations Sr, Jr, III, and IV (for Senior, Junior, Third, and Fourth) follow a full name and are not used with the family name alone. The terms are never spelled out when part of a
name. Though a comma has traditionally preceded Jr and Sr.
(but not III and IV), The Chicago Manual of Style now recommends omitting commas in all such cases. Rev. Oliver C. Jones Jr. spoke to the group.
Do you know Ralph Smith Jr.'s address?
Abbreviations for scholarly degrees and titles of respect, which follow full names, are set off by two commas when they are
given in text.
Laura S. Wells, Ph.D., was on the committee.
The Reverend Jesse E. Thorson, S.T.B., was nominated by
the board of trustees.
The following list includes many frequently used abbreviations for scholarly degrees and professional and honorary designations: A.B., Artium Bacclaureus (Bachelor of Arts)
A.M., Artium Magister (Master of Arts)
B.A., Bachelor of Arts
B.D., Bachelor of Divinity
B.F.A., Bachelor of Fine Arts
B.S., Bachelor of Science
D.B., Divinitatis Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Divinity)
D.D., Divinitatis Doctor (Doctor of Divinity)
D.D.S., Doctor of Dental Surgery
D.Min., Doctor of Ministry
D.O., Doctor of Osteopathy
D.V.M., Doctor of Veterinary Medicine
F.A.I.A., Fellow of the American Institute of Architects
F.R.S., Fellow of the Royal Society
J.D., Juris Doctor (Doctor of Law)
J.P., Justice of the Peace
L.H.D., Litterarum Humaniorum Doctor (Doctor of
Litt.D., Litterarum Doctor (Doctor of Letters)
LL.B., Legum Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Laws)
LL.D., Legum Doctor (Doctor of Laws)
M.A., Master of Arts
M.B.A., Master of Business Administration
M.D., Medicinae Doctor (Doctor of Medicine)
M.F.A., Master of Fine Arts
M.P., Member of Parliament
M.S., Master of Science
Ph.B., Philosophiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Philosophy)
Ph.D., Philosophiae Doctor (Doctor of Philosophy)
Ph.G., Graduate in Pharmacy
S.B., Scientiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of Science)
S.M., Scientiae Magister (Master of Science)
S.T.B., Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureus (Bachelor of
Abbreviate doctor (Dr.) before a name, but spell it out when it is not followed by a name:
Dr. Shapiro brought about a total recovery.
The doctor was an expert in her field.
Spell out a civil, military, professional, or religious title when it precedes the family name alone:
But use the appropriate abbreviation before a full name:
Sen. William F. Proxmire
Gen. George S. Patton
Spell out Reverend, Honorable, and Colonel if preceded by the; otherwise abbreviate to Rev., Hon., or Col. Never use these titles, either spelled out or abbreviated, with family names alone. Use them only when the title is followed by the person’s full name or by Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms., or Dr. with the family name alone, as may be appropriate:
Col. Arthur Charles reviewed the procedures.
The ceremony was in honor of the Reverend Martin Luther
King Jr. 's birthday observance.
2.9/Abbreviations and Numbers
Rev. Dr. Wilson gave the address.
The Honorable Mr. Collins closed the final session of
In notes, bibliographies, parenthetical references, reference lists, and the like, the following abbreviations may be freely (but consistently) used:
the Rev. Bentley
the Reverend Bentley
Spell out the prefixes of most geographical names (e.g., Fort Wayne, South Orange, Port Arthur) within the text. Saint may be shortened to St., but it must then be abbreviated consistently:
The names of government agencies, network broadcasting
companies, associations, fraternal and service organizations, unions, and other groups are often abbreviated, even in text, preferably after one spelled-out use. Such abbreviations are in full capitals with no periods:
When Saint forms part of a personal name, the bearer’s usage is followed:
Within the text, spell out the names of countries, states, counties, provinces, territories, bodies of water, mountains, and the like, with the exception of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, commonly referred to as the USSR. In lists, tabular matter, notes, bibliographies, and indexes, the following abbreviations for state names may be used (the two-letter form for mailing addresses is often useful in other contexts as well): OH
LA Oreg. or Ore. OR
c z Mich.
c o Minn.
DE MO .
Wis. or Wise. WI
Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire
Muriel St. Clare Byrne
Ruth St. Denis
St. Thomas Aquinas
SS. Augustine and Benedict
But Saint is omitted before the names of apostles, evangelists, and church fathers:
G EOGRAPHICAL N A M E S
Saint may be abbreviated when it stands before the name of a
Within the text, company names should be given in their full form, without including the terms Inc. or Ltd. and without
capitalizing the word the, even when it is part of a company’s full name:
A. G. Becker and Company was incorporated in 1894.
Mount St. Helens has erupted several times.
The book was published by the University of Chicago
From northeast Paris it is less than an hour to SaintCloud on the Metro.
2.15/Abbreviations and Numbers
Within the text, spell out all the following words. In close-set matter, the abbreviations may be used:
La. or Ln.
PARTS OF A WORK
But always use the abbreviations NU: NE, SE, and SW where
they follow street names in city addresses:
Lake Shore Drive is safer than the Dan Ryan Expressway,
where there is truck traffic.
He spent several years in Southeast Asia.
The shop is at 245 Seventeenth Street NW.
In nontechnical writing, spell out expressions of dimension, distance, volume, weight, degree, and so on:
In scientific and technical writing, standard abbreviations for units of measure are used if the amount is given in numerals. Most guides to scientific and technical writing (several are included in the bibliography) list standard abbreviations acceptable within a given discipline. For a general introduction to the use of abbreviations for units of measure, consult The Chicago Manual of Style, fourteenth edition, 14.36-53. A full explanation of the International System of Units (Systeme international d’unites, abbreviated SZ) appears in General Principles concerning Quantities, Units, and Symbols, compiled by the International Standards Organization (ISO) and published in Geneva in 1981.
Spell out and do not capitalize (unless in a heading or at the beginning of a sentence) the words book, chapter, part, volume, section, scene, verse, column, page, figure, plate, and so on, except when such a term is followed by a number in a note or parenthetical reference, in which case the following abbreviations should be used: bk., chap., pt., vol., sect., S C., v. (vv.), toll., p. (pp.), jig., pt. Add s for the plural unless otherwise shown. Chapter numbers in text references are given in arabic numerals, even when the actual chapter numbers are spelled out or in roman numerals. The words act, line, and table should never be abbreviated.
When referring to unpublished manuscripts, spell out the
terms used to describe them within the text, but in notes, bibliographies, and reference lists, use the abbreviations listed below. Terms not in this list should always be spelled out. The abbreviations are used by many curators and librarians. See
8.13 l-32, 11.49-50, and 11.52-55 for examples of notes and
reference list entries using abbreviations listed here or using spelled-out forms, as needed.
Autograph letter signed
Typewritten letter signed
Autograph document signed
Typewritten document signed
Autograph manuscript signed
Typewritten manuscript signed
Z.ZO/Abbreviations and Numbers
Autograph card signed
Typewritten card signed
Autograph note signed
whether in text or notes. Often the names of well-known periodicals and reference tools are also abbreviated after being spelled out in the first citation. The most widely accepted standard for such abbreviations is the comprehensive list in the front of the Oxford Classical Dictionary.
Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War 2.40.2-3
Homer Odyssey 9.266-71
Horn. Od. 9.266-71
This list is reprinted, with minor changes, from Modern Manuscripts: A Practical Manual for Their Management, Care, and Use, by Kenneth W. Duckett (Nashville: American Association
for State and Local History, 1975), 143-44, by permission of the publisher. 0 1975 by the American Association for State
and Local History.
GENERAL SCHOLARLY ABBREVIATIONS
When referring to whole chapters or to whole books of the
Bible or the Apocrypha, spell out the names of the books (do not italicize or underline them):
General abbreviations such as etc., e.g., and i.e. should be confined to parenthetical references within the text. The abbreviations ibid., cJ, and S.V. are preferably used only in notes and other scholarly apparatus.
An abbreviation begins with a capital when it is the first word of a note and whenever the usual rules for capitalization apply.
Jeremiah, chapters 42-44, records the flight of the
Jews to Egypt when Jerusalem fell in 586 B.C.
The word sic is italicized or underlined, but not most other Latin words or abbreviations commonly used in footnotes, bibliographies, tabular matter, and so on (see 2.26). See also 5.36.
The following abbreviations and Latin words are commonly
used in scholarly text. Add s for the plural unless otherwise shown.
BOOKS OF THE BIBLE
The Revelation of St. John the Divine, known as
“Revelation, ” closes the New Testament.
When scriptural passages are cited by verse in a paper, whether in text, parenthetical references, or notes, abbreviate the names of the books, using arabic numerals if they are numbered; write the chapter and verse numbers in arabic numerals with either a colon or a period between them; and follow the chapter and verse numbers with the abbreviation for the version of the Bible or Apocrypha from which the passage was taken.
1 Song of Sol. 2.1-5 RSV
Ru 3:14 NAB
For standard biblical abbreviations, see The Chicago Manual
of Style, fourteenth edition, 14.34-35.
In a paper containing many classical references, both the name of the author and the title of the work may be abbreviated after they have been spelled out in full when cited the first time,
ca., circa, about, approximately
cf., confer, compare (Note that confer is the Latin word for “compare”; cJ: must not be used as the abbreviation for
the English “confer,” nor should it be used to mean “see.“) ch., chapter (in law references)
camp., compiler; compiled by
2.261 Abbreviations and Numbers
ed., editor; edition; edited by
e.g., exempli gratis, for example
et al., et alia, and others
etc., et cetera, and so forth
et seq., et sequentes, and the following
fl.,floruit, flourished (for use when birth and death dates are not known)
ibid., ibidem, in the same place
id., idem, the same (used to refer to persons, except in law citations; not to be confused with ibid.)
i.e., id est, that is
1. (el), line (plural, 11.) (Not recommended because the abbreviation in the singular might be mistaken for “one” and the plural for “eleven.“)
n., note, footnote (plural, nn.)
nd., no date
n.p., no place; no publisher
n.s., new series
o.s., old series
P., page (plural, PP.)
passim, here and there
q.v., quod vide, which see (for use with cross-references)
sic, so, thus
supp. or suppl., supplement
s.v., sub verbo, sub vote, under the word (plural, s.w.; used in references to encyclopedias and dictionaries)
trans., translator; translated by
v., verse (plural, w.)
viz., videlicet, namely
vs., versus, against (v. in law references)
In quoting from constitutions, bylaws, and the like within the text, the words section and article are spelled out the first time they are used and abbreviated thereafter, traditionally in uppercase, and arabic numerals are used: SECTION 1. The name of the . . .
SEC. 2. The object of the . . .
ARTICLE 235. It shall be the . . .
ART. 235. It shall be the duty . . .
References in running text should be spelled out in lowercase: In article 256 it is specified that . . .
Standard abbreviations used by many law reviews appear in A
Uniform System of Citation, fifteenth edition (1991).
F OR F U R T H E R R E F E R E N C E
Merriam- Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary includes a great many
abbreviations from all fields, arranged in letter-by-letter alphabetical order. To identify a rare or unfamiliar abbreviation, consult the Reverse Acronyms, Initialisms, and Abbreviations Dictionary, 17th ed., 3 ~01s. (Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1992-94), available at most libraries.
G ENERAL R U L E
In scientific and statistical material, all numbers are expressed in numerals. In nonscientific material, numbers are sometimes spelled out and sometimes expressed in numerals, according
to prescribed conventions. The general rule followed by many writers and by the University of Chicago Press is to spell out all numbers through one hundred and any of the whole numbers followed by hundred, thousand, hundred thousand, million, and so on. For all other numbers, numerals are used.
At that time the combined population of the three
districts was less than four million.
There are 514 seniors in the graduating class.
Z.jlO/Abbreviations and Numbers
The general rule applies to ordinal as well as cardinal numbers:
On the 122d and 123d days of his recovery, he received
his eighteenth and nineteenth letters from home.
Note that the preferred numeral form of the ordinals second
and third adds d alone (2d, 3d), not nd and rd (2nd, 3rd).
The general rule must be modified when numbers above and
below one hundred appear in a series, or group, applying to
the same kind of thing. Here all are expressed in numerals:
Of the group surveyed, 186 students had studied French,
142 had studied Spanish, and 36 had studied Latin for
three years or m ore.
INITIAL N U M B E R S
should never begin with a numeral, even when there
are numerals in the rest of the sentence. Either spell out the first number or recast the sentence:
Two hundred and fifty passengers escaped injury; 175
sustained minor injuries: 110 were so seriously hurt
that they required hospitalization.
Of the passengers, 250 escaped injury, 175 sustained
minor injuries, and 110 required hospitalization.
To avoid confusion, you may spell out one set of numbers in
an expression that involves two or more series:
In a test given six months later, 14 children made no
errors; 64 made one to two errors; 97 made three to
Although a round number occurring in isolation is spelled out (see 2.29), several round numbers close together are expressed in numerals:
They’shipped 1,500 books in the first order, 8,000 in
the second, and 100,000 in the third; all together
there were now about l,OOO,OOO volumes in the
Very large round numbers are frequently expressed in numerals and units of millions or billions:
This means that welfare programs will require about
$7.8 million per day, compared with $3.2 million spent
each day at the current rate of inflation.
Numerals should be used to express decimal fractions and percentages. The word percent should be written out except in scientific and statistical writing, where the symbol % may be used: With interest at 8 percent, the monthly payment would
amount to $12.88, which he noted was exactly 2.425
times the amount he was accustomed to put in savings
Grades of 3.8 and 95% are equivalent.
When fractional and whole numbers are used in the same sentence or paragraph, both should be expressed as numerals (see also 2.40):
The average number of children born to college
graduates dropped from 2.4 to 2 per couple.
In scientific contexts decimal fractions of less than 1.00 begin with a zero if the quantity expressed is capable of equaling or exceeding 1 .OO:
the ratio 0.85
a mean of 0.73
N U M E R A L S , SY M B O L S ,
Use the symbol for percent (%) only when it is preceded by a number. Note that percentage, not percent or %, is the correct expression when no number is given:
The September scores for students enrolled in summer
school showed an improvement of 70.1% [or 70.1 percent]
over test scores recorded in June. Thus the percentage
of achievers in the second test indicated that summer
school had resulted in higher scores in a majority of
The number preceding either percent or % is never spelled out (except when beginning a sentence):
2.39/Abbreviations and Numbers
A fraction standing alone should be spelled out, but a unit
composed of a whole number and a fraction should be expressed in numerals: Trade and commodity services accounted for nine-tenths
of all international receipts and payments.
Cabinets with 101/z-by-321/4-inch shelves were
UNITED STATES CURRENCY
The general rule (see 2.29) applies in isolated references to amounts of money in United States currency. If the amount is spelled out, so are the words dollars and cents; if numerals are used, the dollar sign ($) precedes them:
Rarely do they spend more than five dollars a week on
The report showed $135 collected in fines.
Fractional amounts of money over one dollar appear in numerals, as do other decimal fractions ($1.75). When both fractional amounts and whole-dollar amounts are used in the same sentence (and only then), the whole-dollar amounts are shown with a decimal point and zeros:
The same article is sold by some stores for $1.75, by
others for $1.95, and by still others for $2.00
The expression of very large amounts of money, which may be
cumbersome whether spelled out or written in numerals,
should follow the rule for large round numbers (see 2.35), using units of millions or billions with numerals preceded by the dollar sign: Japan’s exports to Taiwan, which averaged $60 million
between 1954 and 1958, rose sharply to $210 million i n
1965 and $250 million in 1966.
The deficit that year was $120.4 billion.
British currency is expressed in pounds and pence, very like dollars and cents:
Before decimalization in 197 1, British currency was expressed in pounds, shillings, and pence:
two shillings and sixpence
f12 17s. 6d.
The term billion should not be used for British sums, since billion in British terms equals trillion in United States terminology.
Most currencies follow a system like that of the United States, employing unit symbols before the numerals. They do vary,
however, in their expression of large numbers and decimals.
For papers that deal with sums in currencies other than those of the United States or Great Britain, consult the table “Foreign Money” in the U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual (1984).
N UMBERED P ARTS
W RITTEN W O R K S
With few exceptions (see 8.70, 8.126, and 12.25), all the numbered parts of printed works are cited in arabic numerals. A reference to preliminary pages numbered with lowercase roman numerals, however, should also employ that style. Citations to public documents and unpublished manuscript
material should use exactly the kind of numerals found in the source.
In biblical, classical, and many medieval references in text as well as in notes, bibliographies, and reference lists, the different levels of division of a work (book, section, line, etc.) are given in arabic numerals and separated by periods (no spaces pre29
2.47/Abbreviations and Numbers
cede or follow these periods). Note that in biblical references either a colon or a period is acceptable:
2 Kings 11.12
Ovid Amores 1.7.27
Augustine De civitate Dei 20.2
DAY, MONTH, AND YEAR
One of the two permissible styles for expressing day, month, and year should be followed consistently throughout a paper. The first, which omits punctuation, is preferred:
In a paper, commas are used between several references to the same level, and a hyphen is used between inclusive numbers:
1 Thess. 4:1, 5
Cicero De officiis 1.33, 140
On 28 June 1970 the convocation Pacem in Maribus was
If the alternative sequence month-day-year is used, the year is set off by commas:
Fragments of classical and biblical texts (some only recently discovered) are often not uniformly numbered or may have no
numbering whatever. The same is true of some modern manuscripts. In citing such materials, indicate any ordering of pages that has been added, whether by an individual or an institution holding the collection, by setting added numbering in the exact style in which it is written on the original manuscript (letters, arabic or roman numerals, uppercase or lower case, subscript or superscript, etc.) and enclosing this notation in brackets. Put a space after the final bracket, then give the full name of the person or institution that ordered the text. In subsequent references this name may be abbreviated.
If unpaginated fragments or manuscripts are published in collections, the numbering of the material will be unique to a particular edition. In citing published fragments and other documents unpaginated in the original, do not use brackets around the numbers imposed by an editor or institution. Instead, the first time a collection is referred to, give the editor’s name immediately after the fragment number. In subsequent references, use only initials:
Empedocles frag. 115 Diels-Kranz
Hesiod frag. 239.1 Merkebach and West
Empedocles frag. 111 D.
Hesiod frag. 220 M.-W.
On June 28, 1970, the convocation Pacem in Maribus was
Note that when the day, month, and year are mentioned as in
the foregoing examples, st, d, or th does not appear after the day. When the day alone is given, without the month or the
year, or when the number of the day is separated from the
name of the month by one or more words, the preferred style
is to spell out the day:
The sequence of events of 10 June is unclear.
The sequence of events of the eleventh of June is
The date set was the twenty-ninth.
When month and year alone are mentioned, omit punctuation
She graduated in December 1985.
In formal writing, references to the year should not be abbreviated (e.g., ‘95).
References to particular centuries should be spelled out, in lowercase. Hyphenate such references only when they serve as adjectives, as in the first and fifth examples below. See also 4.7. seventeenth-century literature
the eighteenth century
the twenty-first century
2_54/Abbreviations and Numbers
Where the context makes it clear whether morning or evening
is meant, these terms need not be expressed.
the mid-twentieth century
late sixteenth-century ideas
The breakfast meeting was set for eight o'clock.
The night operator takes calls from eleven to seven.
Midnight is written as 12:OO
References to decades take two forms. The context sometimes
determines the one chosen:
P. M .,
noon as l2:OO M. rme-
The 1890s saw an enormous increase in the use of
During the thirties, traffic decreased by 50 percent.
MONARCHS AND THE LIKE
MONTH AND DAY NAMES
Spell out the names of months and of days when they occur in text, whether alone or in dates. In notes, bibliographies, tables, and other closely set matter, the following designations are permissible if used consistently: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.; Sun., Mon., Tues., Wed., Thurs., Fri., Sat.
Emperors, sovereigns, or popes with the same name are differentiated by numerals, traditionally capital roman numerals: Charles V
For era designations use the abbreviations B.C., A.D., B.c.E., C.E. (“before Christ,” anno Domini, “before the common era,” “of the common era”), in capitals. A.D. precedes the year number; the other designations follow it.
Solomon's Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians in
586 B.C. Rebuilt in 515 B.C., it was destroyed by the
Romans in A.D. 70.
Adlai E. Stevenson III
See also 2.4.
TIME OF DAY
Except when A.M. or P.M. is used, time of day should be spelled out in text matter. Never add in the morning after A.M. or in the evening after P.M., and never use o’clock with either A.M. or P.M. or with numerals:
The train was scheduled to arrive at 7:lO A.M.
The meeting was called for 8:00 P.M.
The meeting was called for eight o'clock in the
Male family members with identical names are sometimes
differentiated in the same way as monarchs:
Particular dynasties, governments, governing bodies, political divisions, and military subdivisions are commonly designated by an ordinal number before the noun. Numbers through one
hundred should be spelled out and capitalized; those over one hundred, written in numerals:
First Continental Congress
2.61 /Abbreviations and Numbers
Editors of some mathematical periodicals have prepared manuals for writers, which give useful suggestions (see the bibliography). See also the chapter “Mathematics in Type” in The Chicago Manual of Style, fourteenth edition. For a brief discussion of equations and formulas in papers prepared on computer systems, see 13.18 in this manual.
CHURCHES, LODGES, AND UNIONS
Numbers before the names of churches or religious organizations should be spelled out in ordinal form and capitalized: Eighteenth Church of Christ, Scientist
Local branches of fraternal lodges and of unions bear numbers that should be expressed in arabic numerals following the
Typographical Union no. 16
American Legion, Department of California, Leon Robert
Post no. 1248
For the most part, in numbers of one thousand or more, the
thousands are marked off with commas:
No comma is used, however, in page numbers, street addresses, telephone numbers, zip codes, four-digit year numbers, decimal fractions of less than one, and chapter numbers of fraternal organizations and the like:
STREET ADDRESSES, HIGHWAYS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBERS
It is preferable to spell out the names of numbered streets
through one hundred for appearance and ease of reading, but
street (as well as building) addresses, highway numbers, and telephone numbers should be expressed in numerals:
The bibliography is on pages 1012-20.
The address is 500 East Fifty-eighth Street, Chicago,
Illinois 60637. The telephone number is (312) 321-6530.
In the coastal district the peel thickness plus the
pulp diameter of the Eureka lemon was 0.1911 for fruit
from the top of the tree and 0.2016 for fruit from the
The meeting took place at 1040 First National Bank
The Leon Robert Post no. 1248 was established in 1946.
The state will have to repave California 17, Interstate
80, and Route 30 [or U.S. 301.
Note, however, that in year dates of more than four figures, the comma is employed:
S CIENTIFIC U S A G E
Scientific papers call for numbers and numerical units of measurement, making numerals, symbols, and abbreviations more common in scientific writing than in nonscientific writing.
Aside from a few rules set down here, the writer must settle on the scheme to use-preferably when working on the first
draft-and maintain the same usage throughout the paper.
In mathematical text, the demands for the use of symbols and abbreviations, particularly in equations, are so complicated and vary so much from one paper to another that no suggestions can be given here. Students in this field should receive training in correct usage as part of their study of the science.
INCLUSIVE N U M B E R S
The term inclusive numbers (or continued numbers) refers to the first and last number of a numerical sequence, such as page
numbers or years. Inclusive numbers in a paper are separated by a hyphen and either given in full (1978-1979) or expressed according to the following scheme, taken from The Chicago
Manual of Style, fourteenth edition, 8.69.
Less than 100
Use all digits
2.68iAbbreviations and Numbers
100 or multiple of
Use all digits
There were many more twelves and fourteens on sale than
thirty-twos, thirty-fours, and thirty-sixes.
101 through 109 Use changed part
(in multiples of
only, omitting un1002-6
110 through 199
Use two digits, or
(in multiples of
more if needed 1536-38, 1496100)
The fourteenth edition of the Chicago Manual offers a simpler alternative system for inclusive numbers in which the second number includes only the changed part of the first (8.70):
The principal uses of the foregoing scheme are for page numbers and other numbered parts of written works and for inclusive year dates:
Most of the women were in their thirties or forties.
ENUMERATIONS IN TEXT
Numbers (or letters) used to enumerate items in text stand out better when in parentheses:
He gave two reasons for his resignation: (1) advancing
age and (2) gradually failing eyesight.
When enumerated items appear in text that cites items in a
reference list by number (see 10.33) use italic or underlined letters in parentheses for the enumeration rather than arabic numerals:
Haskin's latest theory (2) has several drawbacks: la)
it is not based on current evidence, lb) it has no
clinical basis, and (c) it has a weak theoretical
These cities were discussed on pages 2-14, 45-46, 12526, 200-210, 308-9. He lost everything he owned in the years 1933-36 of the
This chapter covers the Napoleonic victories of 18001801.
Plurals of numbers expressed in numerals are formed by adding s alone (not apostrophe and s): Many K-70= were being driven on West German roads in
Pilots of 747s undergo special training.
There was a heavy demand to trade 6% for the new
Plurals of spelled-out numbers are formed like the plurals of other nouns:
NUMBERS BEGINNING A NEW LINE OR PARAGRAPH
When each numbered item in an enumeration without subdivisions starts on a new line, they most often begin with arabic numerals followed by a period. The items may be given paragraph indention with the runover lines starting at the margin: 1. The nature of the relationship between library
quality and library use.
Or the numbers may be flush with the margin, with runover
lines aligned with the first line of substantive matter.
9. Selective initial dissemination of published
material--a direct responsibility of the library
10. Arrangement and organization of the library
In both styles, the periods after the numerals must be aligned. Periods are omitted at the ends of items unless the items constitute complete sentences or whole paragraphs (see 3.57). 37
2.73/Abbreviations and Numbers
Spelling and Punctuation
For an outline or other enumeration with subdivisions, the following scheme of notation and indention is recommended. It is not necessary to use a capital roman numeral for the first level when there are fewer divisions than shown in the example. The first level may well begin with A or with arabic 1:
Wars of the nineteenth century
A. United States
1. Civil War, 1861-65
i) Missouri Compromise
ii) Compromise of 1850 . . .
II. Wars of the twentieth century
A. United States
Proper Names 3.2
Capital Letters 3.5
Letters and Abbreviations 3.6
Plurals and Possessives of Compounds 3.11
Compound Words 3.12
Division of Words 3.35
General Rules 3.35
Special Rules 3.42
Question Mark 3.60
Exclamation Point 3.63
Other Punctuation Marks 3.101
Multiple Punctuation 3.103
A Warning for Computer Users 3.111
Headings should be capitalized sentence style (see 4.9).
Spelling in a paper should agree with the best American usage and must be consistent-except, of course, in quotations,
where the original must be followed exactly. The authority rec39
3.2/Spelling and Punctuation
ommended for spelling and for syllabication (division of words at the ends of lines) is Webster’s Third New International Dictionary or its most recent abridgment (currently, MerriamWebster> Collegiate Dictionary, tenth edition), using the first spelling where there is a choice. The spelling of many biographical and geographical names is listed at the back of Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. For further reference consult Webster5 New Biographical Dictionary and Webster’s New Geographical
The A'S, I's, and 2's in the directory were checked by
. . . ; the as were tested first, the bs second, and
. . . ; the 5s were tested first, the 5s second, and
The As, Is, and Ss . . .
The &s, Ls,
The phds of uppercase abbreviations with internal periods
are formed by adding an apostrophe and roman s:
Plurals of the names of persons and of other proper nouns are formed by adding s or es without changing a final y to ie as required for common nouns.
Add s to all names except those ending in s, x, or z, or in c h or sh:
The B.A.'= and B.S. 's conferred were almost ten times
the number of M.A.'s, M.S.'s, and Ph.D.'s.
abbreviations with a single terminal period usually form
their plurals by adding s before the period:
We used 6 lbs. of pressure.
The patient was 45 yrs. old.
Add es to names ending in s, x, or z, or in ch or sh:
2s . . .
Form the possessive of a proper name in the singular by adding an apostrophe and s:
Form the plurals of most single and multiple capital letters used as nouns by adding s alone:
The three Rs are taught at the two YMCAs.
But see the exceptions noted below (3.8-9).
LETTERS AND ABBREVIATIONS
The plurals of letters, whether lowercase or capital, are often formed with an apostrophe and a roman s, but if the letter is italic or underlined the plural may be formed by adding a roman s without the apostrophe. Either style, of course, must be used consistently.
All the examples were labeled by letter; the a's were
tested first, the b's second, and so on.
The possessive of the names Jesus and Moses is traditionally formed by adding an apostrophe alone:
in Jesus' name
Names of more than one syllable with an unaccented ending
pronounced eez are also exceptions based on euphony Many
Greek and hellenized names fit this pattern:
Charles Yerkes' ideas
R. S. Surtees' novels
3.9/Spelling and Punctuation
For some common nouns as well, euphony dictates adding
only an apostrophe:
Compounds made up of two nouns representing different but
equal functions are hyphenated:
for conscience‘ sake
for appearance' sake
for righteousness' sake
Form the possessive of a plural proper name (the Bradleys, the Costellos, etc.) by adding an apostrophe to the accepted plural (see 3.3-4):
the Bradley=' house
the Costellos' ranch
The plurals of prepositional-phrase compounds follow the rule governing the first noun of the compound:
Compounds made up of two nouns expressing a single function are either open or closed.
the Rodriguezes' mine
the Finches' yacht
county clerk elect
Most compounds describing a person’s character are hyphenated, but some are open: stay-at-home
The hyphen is used in many compound words, but the trend
now is away from the use, or overuse, of hyphens. Which compound words should be hyphenated, which left open, and which spelled as one word is a difficult question. The unabridged Webster’s dictionary gives the answer for most noun forms and for many adjective forms. Nevertheless, some are
not included. Principles of hyphenation for some of these are given in the following paragraphs.
Relationship compounds are either closed, hyphenated, or
open. Compounds with grand are closed; those with great are
hyphenated; and the rest are open:
Compounds ending with elect should be hyphenated except
when the name of the office is two or more words:
C OMPOUND W O R D S
The possessives of the same compound words are formed as
Compounds spelled as one word may be found in most unabridged dictionaries; if not listed, the compound should be open.
my brother-in-law's business
the commander-in-chief's dispatches
the man-of-war's launching
flash in the pan
ball of fire
The numerator and denominator of a spelled-out fractional
number should be separated by a hyphen.unless either already contains a hyphen:
Many compounds ending with book have been accepted into
the general English vocabulary as single words and are spelled so in Webster; others are treated as two words:
3.21 /Spelling and Punctuation
barely breathing bird
easily seen result
Compounds with better, best, ill, lesser, little, well, and related comparative forms should be hyphenated when they precede
A spot of pink made the boy appear rosy cheeked.
The step was ill advised.
The president of the firm was known to be
extremely liberal minded.
It was clear that the man was well intentioned.
Noun forms similarly constructed are generally treated as two words:
Adjective forms ending with the suffix like should be spelled as one word except when they are formed from proper names,
word combinations, or words ending with 1 or 11:
As predicate adjectives, they are generally spelled as two
An adjective form composed of a present participle preceded
by its object, or a past participle preceded by a related word, should be hyphenated:
Most adjectival compounds made up of an adjective plus a
noun to which the suffix ed has been added should be hyphenated before the noun they modify and spelled as two words after the noun:
a very well intentioned man
it was all-important
Hyphenate phrases used as adjectives before a noun:
hydrogen sulfide gas
tartaric acid powder
Compounds with all should be hyphenated whether they precede or follow the noun:
Spell as separate words adjective forms composed of an adverb ending in ly plus an adjective or a participle:
highly developed species
newly minted coins
boric acid solution
sodium chloride crystals
The same applies to compounds ending in house:
Chemical terms used as adjectives are spelled as two or more words, unhyphenated:
adjectival compound composed of a cardinal number and
the word odd should be hyphenated before or after the noun:
An adjectival compound composed of a cardinal number and
a unit of measurement is hyphenated when it precedes a noun: 45
3.32/Spelling and Punctuation
It is also necessary to distinguish homographs:
10 percent increase
Adjectival compounds withfold are written as one word unless numerals are used:
Divide words at the ends of lines according to the syllabication shown in a reliable dictionary (preferably Webster’s Third New International Dictionary or Merriam- Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, as suggested in 3.1).
Avoid ending more than two consecutive lines with hyphens.
Word processing programs that produce justified lines hyphenate automatically, sometimes responding to cues set in the copy to indicate preferred breaking points. Do not assume that automatic hyphenation programs always produce correct results. Most are not context sensitive and therefore cannot distinguish between ret-ord and re-cord, for example. Large spaces between words in formatted copy that has been justified by a computer must be closed up in the process of adjusting the
hyphenation. Since an uneven, or ragged, right margin is acceptable for most research papers, it is best to avoid justification programs, which require special proofreading and checking of automatic hyphenation. If a paper is to be submitted for publication, the publisher will no doubt prefer unjustified copy for editing and typesetting.
Divide according to pronunciation rather than derivation. This means that when a word is divided after an accented syllable, the consonant stays with the vowel when the vowel is short:
Noun compounds with quasi should be spelled as two words:
Adjectival compounds with quasi are hyphenated whether they
come before or after the noun:
Nowhere is the trend away from the use of hyphens more evident than in words with such common prefixes as pre, post;
anti; over, under intra, extra; infra, ultra; sub, supen re; un; non; mini, maxi; micro, macro; multi; semi; pseudo; supra:
Adjectives with these prefixes are spelled as one word unless the second element is capitalized or is a numeral:
Or unless the form might be misleading or puzzling:
Or unless the second element consists of more than one word: non-food-producing people
But the consonant goes with the following syllable when the
preceding vowel is long:
The consonant goes with the accented syllable, however, in
such cases as the following:
3.391Spelling and Punctuation
Never divide a combination of letters pronounced as one syllable: pro-nounced
When ing or ed is added to a word whose final syllable contains the liquid 1 (e.g., cir * cle, han - dle), the final syllable of the parent word becomes a part of the added syllable:
In words where a final consonant is doubled before ing and ed, the division comes between the double consonants:
Note that this rule does not apply to words originally ending in a double consonant:
Two-letter divisions are permissible at the end of a line, but two-letter word endings should not be carried over to the next line if this can be avoided:
losses (not loss-es)
money (not mon-ey)
stricken (not strick-en)
fully (not ful-ly)
Avoid dividing hyphenated words or compounds except at the
Avoid dividing a proper name unless the correct division is
A source such as Webster’s New Biographical Dictionary should be consulted before risking division of most proper names.
Some divisions, although syllabically correct, should never be made.
Never make a one-letter division:
Never divide initials used in place of given names. It is best to write given names or initials on the same line as the family name, but it is allowable to place all the initials on one line and the family name on the next:
T. / S. Eliot
Never divide capital letters used as abbreviations for names of countries or states (U.S., N.Y.); for names of organizations (YMCA, NATO); or for names of publications or radio or television stations (PMLA, KKHI, KQED); but two sets of initials separated by a hyphen, such as KRON-FM, may be
divided after the hyphen. Similarly, never divide the abbreviations for academic degrees (B.A., M.S., LL.D., Ph.D., etc.).
Never divide a day of the month from the month, and never
divide any such combinations as the following:
Never divide the following suflixes:
J. B. S. / Haldane
Never divide the syllables able and ible:
J. / B. S. Haldane
T. S. / Eliot
3.52 /Spelling and Punctuation
86 4s. 6d.
If the sentence ends with a question mark or an exclamation
point, the abbreviation period is retained:
Never end a line with a divisional mark such as (a) or (1)
a dollar sign, or an opening quotation mark, parenthesis, or bracket; and never begin a line with a closing quotation mark, parenthesis, or bracket.
The meeting adjourned at 5:30 P.M.
Was the committee meeting called for 8:00 P.M.?
For rules on word division in foreign languages, consult The Chicago Manual of Style, fourteenth edition, chapter 9.
The report covers three areas:
1. The securities markets
2. The securities industry
3. The securities industry in the economy
The course has three goals:
1. Emphasis is on the discovery of truth.
2. Emphasis is on the useful.
3. Emphasis is on love of people, especially the
altruistic and philanthropic aspects of love.
Punctuation in some of its specialized uses is treated elsewhere in this manual, in the chapters on abbreviations and numbers (2), quotations (5), tables (6), illustrations (7), notes (8), bibliographies (9), and parenthetical references and reference lists (IO). Here the general use of the various marks of punctuation in the text is dealt with briefly, the primary aim being to answer questions that frequently puzzle writers. The rules are based on The Chicago Manual of Style, fourteenth edition. Note that in running text a single space follows any kind of terminal
punctuation-periods, question marks, and exclamation
points. (But see also under abbreviations, 2.2.)
Periods are omitted at the ends of items in a vertical list or enumeration, unless the items are whole sentences or paragraphs.
Periods are omitted at the ends of all the following: (1) display headings for chapters, parts, and the like; (2) titles of tables; (3) captions of figures, unless the caption is run into a legend (see 7.14); (4) any subheading that is typed on a line by itself; and (5) address and datelines in communications, and also signatures.
A series of periods is used to mark omissions in quoted matter (ellipsis points; see chapter 5), and occasionally to guide the eye from items in one column of a table to relevant items in opposite columns (period leaders). Those who use computer
formatting should be aware that certain programs that justify lines by altering the amount of space between characters or
words on a line may require special steps to create ellipsis points and period leaders with uniform spaces between them.
Such programs may also introduce two spaces after periods
that are at the ends of lines in the unformatted copy, whether these periods end sentences or not.
A period is used to end a declarative statement, a moderately imperative statement, or an indirect question, whether grammatically complete or only a sentence fragment. Kathy sighed when she realized what had to be done.
Carrie began to show signs of impatience.
Please, Carrie, be patient.
Max winked at Ian and asked Carrie if something had
A period following an abbreviation and coming at the end of
a sentence may serve also as the closing period of the sentence.
Q UESTION M A R K
A question mark is used at the end of a whole sentence containing a query or at the end of a query making up part of a sentence:
3.61 /Spelling and Punctuation
Would the teacher-transplant idea catch on in countries
other than Germany? was the question the finalists
comma is placed before the conjunction. This is not a hardand-fast rule, however; where the sentence is short and clarity is not an issue, no comma is needed.
The question put by the board was, Would the taxpayers
vote another bond issue that would raise taxes?
Most young Europeans spend their holidays in other
European countries, and many students take vacation
The first word of the sentence that asks the question is capitalized, even though it is included in another sentence, and quotation marks are generally unnecessary. 3.61
Courtesy disguises as questions such requests as the following, which should end with a period rather than a question mark:
This silence is not surprising, for in those circles
Marxism is still regarded with suspicion.
John arrived early and Mary came an hour later.
Will you please submit my request to the appropriate
A question mark may be used to indicate uncertainty:
The agencies should design their own monitoring
networks and evaluate the data derived from them.
The Italian painter Niccolo dell'Abbate (1512?-71)
assisted in the decorations at Fontainebleau.
E XCLAMATION P O I N T
A comma is omitted before a conjunction joining the parts of a compound predicate (two or more verbs having the same
They do not self-righteously condone such societies but
attempt to refute them theoretically.
In a series consisting of three or more elements, the elements are separated by commas. When a conjunction joins the last
two elements, a comma is used before the conjunction.
An exclamation point marks an outcry or an emphatic or ironical comment (avoid overuse). Like the query (3.60), an exclamation may occur within a declarative sentence:
Attending the conference were Farmer, Johnson, and
What havoc was wrought by hurricane Andrew!
We have a choice of copper, silver, or gold.
"Incredible!" he exclaimed. ‘I could hardly believe my
senses. Both houses actually passed major bills on the
Do not use an exclamation point to call attention to an error in a quotation; place the word sic (italicized or underlined) in brackets after the error (see 2.25-26).
Although the comma signals the smallest interruption in continuity of thought or sentence structure, when correctly used it contributes greatly to ease of reading and ready understanding. In sentences containing two or more independent clauses
joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for), a
No commas should be used, however, when the elements in a
series are all joined by the same conjunction:
For dessert the menu offered a choice of peaches or
strawberries or melon.
A series of three or more words, phrases, or clauses ending
with the expression and so forth or and so on or and the like or etc. customarily has required commas both before and after
The management can improve wages, hours, conditions,
benefits, and so on, as part of the settlement package.
In its fourteenth edition, however, The Chicago Manual of
Style accepts treating expressions like etcetera as the final item in the series and therefore not requiring a following comma. Manfred regarded apologies, excuses, and the like as
3.71 /Spelling and Punctuation
When commas occur within one or more of the elements of a
series, semicolons should separate the elements:
Three cities that have had notable success with the
program are Hartford, Connecticut; Kalamazoo, Michigan;
and Pasadena, California.
The next leg of our trip was to take us to Springfield,
Illinois, and promised to be the most rewarding.
Commas are used to set a nonrestrictive dependent clause off from an independent clause. A clause is nonrestrictive if omitting it will not alter the meaning of the independent clause:
Nevertheless, it is a matter of great importance.
It is, perhaps, the best that could be expected.
These books, which are placed on reserve in the
library, are required reading for the course.
Here omitting the dependent clause yields “These books are required reading for the course.” But in the following sentence, the dependent clause identifies the books placed on reserve as “required reading for the course,” and the clause is therefore restrictive. No commas should be used:
But note that when such elements do not break the continuity and do not require a pause in reading, the commas should be
It is therefore clear that no deposits were made.
The books that are required reading for the course are
placed on reserve in the library.
A word, phrase, or clause in apposition to a noun may also be restrictive or nonrestrictive. When nonrestrictive, it is set off by commas:
A onetime officer in the foreign legion, the man hoped
to escape further military duty.
A comma follows namely, that is, for example, i.e., and e.g. There must be a punctuation mark before each of these expressions, but the kind varies with the nature and complexity of the sentence:
Many people feel resentful because they think they have
suffered an unjust fate; that is, they look on illness,
bereavement, or disrupted domestic or working
conditions as being undeserved.
If, however, the appositive limits the meaning of the noun and is therefore restrictive, no commas should be used:
Restrictions on the sulfur content of fuel oil are
already in effect in some cities (e.g., Paris, Milan,
Rome, and Stockholm), and the prospect is that limits
will be imposed sooner or later in most cities.
The Danish philosopher Kierkegaard asked, "What is
The motion picture Becket was adapted from the play by
A title or position following a person’s name should be set off with commas:
In using commas to set off a parenthetical element in the middle of a sentence, remember to include both commas: The bill, you will be pleased to hear, passed at the
His brother, a Harvard graduate, transferred to
Princeton for a program in theology.
Interjections, conjunctive adverbs, and the like are set off with commas when they cause a distinct break in the flow of
When a dependent clause or a long participial or prepositional phrase begins a sentence, it is followed by a comma:
Norman Cousins, former editor of the Saturday Review,
wrote the editorial ‘Lunar Meditations."
The individual elements in addresses and names of places are set off with commas, except for zip codes:
After spending a week in conferences, the commission
was able to write a report.
The address is 340 Forest Avenue, Palo Alto,
If the insurrection is to succeed, the army and the
police must stand side by side.
Having accomplished his mission, he returned to
3.80/Spelling and Punctuation
But a comma is usually unnecessary after a short prepositional phrase:
For recreation the mayor fishes or sails.
Although productivity per capita in United States
industry is almost twice that in West European
industry, Western Europe has an increasingly well
educated young labor force; and the crucial point is
that knowledge, which is transferable between peoples,
has become by far the most important world economic
When each of several adjectives preceding a noun modifies the noun individually, the adjectives should be separated with
It was a large, well-placed, beautiful house.
We strolled out into the warm, luminous night.
However, if the last adjective ident$es the noun rather than merely modifying it, no commas should precede it:
If the clauses of a compound sentence are very long and have commas within them, they should be separated with semicolons even though they are connected by a conjunction:
His is the large brick house on the corner.
There are those who think of freedom in terms of social
and economic egalitarianism; thus, reformist
governments of the Left are inherently viewed with
greater favor than the regimes of the Right.
The harder we run, the more we stay in the same place.
Clauses introduced by the transitional adverbs yet and so are preceded by a comma:
She delighted in, but was also disturbed by, her new
leisure and freedom.
Elizabeth was out of the office when I called, so I
left a message.
It is a logical, if harsh, solution to the problem.
Use commas to set off contrasted elements and two or more
complementary or antithetical phrases or clauses referring to a single word following:
The idea, not its expression, is significant.
When used transitionally between the clauses of compound
sentences, the words hence, however, indeed, then, and thus
should be preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma:
There was some increase in intensity, yet the
hypothesis was not confirmed.
Use a comma to separate two identical or closely similar
For the use of the semicolon instead of a comma, see also 3.71.
They marched in, in twos.
Whatever is, is good.
A comma is sometimes necessary to prevent misreading:
After eating, the lions yawned and then dozed.
A semicolon marks a greater break in the continuity of a sentence than does a comma. A semicolon should be used between the parts of a compound sentence (two or more independent clauses) when they are not connected by a conjunction: More than one hundred planned communities are in
various stages of completion: many more are on the
The colon indicates a discontinuity of grammatical construction greater than that marked by the semicolon. Whereas the semicolon separates parts of a sentence that are of equal significance, the colon is used to introduce a clause or phrase that expands, clarifies, or exemplifies the meaning of what precedes it: Europe and America share similar problems: their labor
forces cannot compete with those of Third World
nations, and they depend on the Third World for
critical raw materials.
People expect three things of their governments: peace,
prosperity, and respect for civil rights.
3.89/Spelling and Punctuation
A colon should be placed at the end of a grammatical element introducing a formal statement, whether the statement is
quoted or not. A colon is also used after following or as follows or in sum followed by illustrative material or a list:
certainly did feel; so I answered him with a contented
The qualifications are as follows: a doctorate in
physics; five years' experience in a national
laboratory; and an ability to communicate technical
matter to a lay audience.
"Agatha," he said anxiously, 'I never . . . no, no,
please believe me . . . but how can you think such a
Faltering speech, especially in fictional dialogue, may also be indicated by three spaced ellipsis dots:
These immigrants all shared the same dream: they
thought they could create the City of God on earth in
their own lifetimes.
He asked where wisdom was to be found--"the wisdom
that is above rubies."
For the use of numbers to enumerate items in text, see 2.72. 3.90
As noted elsewhere in this manual, a colon is used between
chapter and verse in scriptural references (2.46) between hours and minutes in notations of time (2.57), between the title and subtitle of a book or article (4.10 and 8.39) between place and publisher in footnotes and bibliographical references (8.55) and between volume and page numbers in citations (8.80,8.99, 8.101, and 10.14).
One is expected to cram all this stuff into one's
mind--cram it all in, whether it's likely to be useful
The dash, which in printing is an elongated hyphen called an em dash, in typescript consists of two hyphens with no space between or on either side of them.
In transcribing from incomplete texts in languages other than English, it may be customary to indicate the length of the
break by using one hyphen for each missing or illegible character. In such cases, follow the practice set by scholars and editors within the discipline.
Rutherford--how could he have misinterpreted the
Use six hyphens to indicate a whole word omitted or to be supplied: The vessel left the ------ of July.
Interruptions or faltering speech may be indicated by dashes: Later in chapter 25, Jane Eyre again answers only with
a gesture: ‘I reflected, and in truth it appeared to me
the only possible one: satisfied I was not, but to
please him I endeavored to appear so--relieved, I
Use four hyphens to indicate missing letters (e.g., in citing from a text that is mutilated or illegible), leaving no space between the first and last hyphens and the existing part of the word: We ha---- a copy in the library.
A dash or a pair of dashes enclosing a phrase may indicate a sudden break in thought that disrupts the sentence structure:
Some of the characters in Tom Jones are "flat"--to use
the term E. M. Forster coined--because they
unfailingly act in accordance with a set of qualities
suggested by a literal interpretation of their names
(e.g., Squire Allworthy).
In a sentence that includes several elements referring to a word that is the subject of a final, summarizing clause, a dash may precede the final clause:
The statue of the man throwing the discus, the
charioteer at Delphi, the poetry of Pindar--all show
the culmination of the great ideal.
A dash may introduce an element that emphasizes or explains
the main clause through repetition of one or more key words:
The principal uses of parentheses in the text of a paper are (1) to set off parenthetical elements, (2) to enclose the source 59
3.99/Spelling and Punctuation
of a quotation or other matter when a footnote is not used for the purpose, and (3) to set off the numbers or letters in an enumeration (as in this sentence). The first use is a matter of choice, since both commas and dashes are also used to set off parenthetical material. In general, commas are used for material closely related to the main clause, dashes and parentheses for material more remotely connected:
The conference has (with some malice aforethought) been
divided into four major areas.
It is significant that in the Book of Revelation (a
book Whitehead did not like because of its bloody and
apocalyptic imagery), the vision of a new heavenly city
at the end of time has the divine light shine so that
the nations walk by it, and the "kings of the earth
shall bring their glory into it" (Rev. 21:22-26).
Each painting depicted some glorious, or vainglorious,
public occasion of the last hundred years; in each--a
formal diplomatic banquet, a victory parade, the
opening of the Burbank Airport in 1931 (clouded by a
phalanx of tiny Ford Trimotors)--the crowds of people
were replaced by swarms of ants.
Brackets are used (1) to enclose any interpolation in a quotation (see 5.37) and (2) to enclose parenthetical matter within parentheses:
The book is available in translation (see J. R. EvansBentz, The Tibetan Book of the Dead [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 19271).
Brackets may be used to enclose the phonetic transcription of a word:
He attributed the light to the phenomenon called
O THER P UNCTUATION M...