Essays /

American Politics Government Midterm Study Essay

Essay preview

Short Answer - given 7-8 choose 5
ID’s - given 7-8 and choose 5
Essay - given 2 choose 1


• Collective action problem: situation where everyone would be better off if they cooperated, however every individual has an incentive not to cooperate

• Collective dilemma: A situation in which there is a conflict between group goals and individual goals or self interest

• Conformity costs: The cost to the participants to do something they prefer not to. Citizens naturally prefer lower conformity costs.

• Coordination problem: A situation in which two or more people are all better off if they coordinate on a common action but there is more than one course of action to take

• Delegation: principal agent problem
• Direct democracy: a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on, etc.) policy initiatives directly, as opposed to a representative democracy in which people vote for representatives who then decide policy initiatives

• Free riding: benefiting from a public good while avoiding the costs of contributing to it. • Principal agent problem: an instance in which one actor, a principal, contracts another actor, a agent, to act on the principals behalf, but due to difference in preferences the agent can act in ways that the principal cannot observe but would not agree with

• Prisoner’s dilemma: an interaction between two strategic actors in which neither actor has an incentive to cooperate even though both would be better off if they didn’t

• Public goods: a benefit provided to a group of people such that each member can enjoy it without necessarily having to pay for it

• Republic: a political system in which public officials are chosen to represent the people in an assembly that makes decision

• Tragedy of the commons: individuals, acting independently and rationally according to each one's self-interest, behave contrary to the whole group's long-term best interests by depleting some common resource

• Transaction costs: a cost incurred in making an economic exchange (restated: the cost of participating in a market)

The Constitution

• Articles of Confederation: constitution drafted by the continental congress in 1777. It was a weak central government; congress had no power to execute laws

• Bill of Rights: The first 10 amendments to the constitution which enumerate a set of liberties not to be violated by the government and a set of rights to be protected by the government

• Checks and Balances: an arrangement in which no one branch of government can conduct its core business without the approval, tacit or expressed, of other branches

• Commerce Clause: An enumerated power listed in Article 1, section 8, of the constitution that grants congress the power to regulate commerce with foreign as well as state entities

• Connecticut Compromise: An agreement reached at the constitutional convention that there would be a bicameral legislature, upper half equal representation, lower half representation depending on size

• Three Fifths Compromise: deal in the Connecticut compromise that stated slaves counted as 3/5 a regular person when dealing with representation in the house

• Elastic clause: Article 1 section 8, congress can make whatever laws are necessary and proper in order to provide means to carry out its powers

• Electoral Colleges: the electors appointed by each state to vote for the president • Faction: a small, organized, dissenting group within a larger one, esp. in politics • Shay’s Rebellion: Rebellion in which soldiers from the revolution revolted and the country had no means of stopping them because no states wanted to deal with the problem, thus showing the flaws of the Articles of Confederation (1786-87)

• Supremacy Clause: the section of article 6 of the constitution that states the constitution is the supreme law of the land


• Block grants: Sums of money transferred to lower-level governments such that, as long as the general purpose of the grant is met, the lower level government is allowed considerable

freedom in deciding how the money is spent (example Homeland Security Grant, remember that the sum of money that the state receives is often dependent on population)

• Categorical grants: grants that narrowly define how the funds are to be spent. These grants come with conditions that need to be met (the main source of federal aid from the government)

• Coercive federalism: a type of government which centralizes on certain fiscal impact within the government. (Issues under coercive federalism are federal income tax provisions. Another matter is regul...

Read more


-4 -8 -87 1 10 1777 1786 1820 1857 1868 1870 1876 1890 1896 1921 1925 1954 1962 1964 1965 1970s 1973 2 2000 2010 2012 20th 3 3/5 30ʹ 36 5 6 7 8 9 abort abroad absolut accommod accord account accus acquir acreag act action activ actor actual address administr adopt advanc advantag affair african agenc agent agre agreement aid aka allow also although amend amendatori america american annual anoth answer anti anti-slaveri appli applic appoint appropri approv area argu arm arrang articl assembl assign assist associ attack attempt attract audit author avoid balanc bank barack barrel base basi bear becom behalf behav belief benefit benefit best better beyond bicamer bill bitter black block bodi boe boundari branch bring broad brown budget bush busi cabinet cake call campaign candid cannot care carri case casework categor categori caus central centuri certain chang charg check chicago chief china choic choos chosen citizen citizenship civil claim claus close clotur coattail coerciv collect colleg collegi color come command commander-in-chief commerc commit committe common compet compos compromis concern condit conduct confeder conflict conform congress congression congressmen connecticut consensus consent consider consist consolid constitu constitut consumpt content contest continent contracept contract contrari contribut control convent confirm conflict cooper coordin cop core cost could council count countri cours court creat creation credit credit-claim crimin crop crow current cut dahl dc deal debat decid decis decisi declar deem defenc defens defin degre delay deleg delib democraci deni depend deplet depress deriv derogatori describ design desir destroy determin defin didn differ dilemma direct disagre discretionari discrimin disput dissent distribut district divid doctrin domin draft dred drive dual due duti e e-mail e.g earlier earmark econom educ effect either elast elect elector element elig eman emerg enabl enact enclav encourag end enforc engag engel english enjoy ensur entir entiti enumer equal esp especi essay establish etc even everi everyon exact exampl except excess exchang execut exercis exist explicit express extend facil faction faith fall farm farmer fashion favor fax februari feder ferguson fifteenth fifth filburn filibust fine first fiscal flaw follow forc foreign form formal former fourteenth framework franc free freedom frequent fulfil full function fund g gain general generat get gibbon give given go goal good gore gov govern government grant great gridlock grievanc griswold ground group grow guarante half happen hard head held heller help hierarchi holder home homeland hous howel howev id idea immedi impact impeach implement impli implic import impos incent includ incom incorpor increas incumb incur independ individu inform initi insofar instanc institut intend intent interact interest interfer intermedi intern interst introduct invalid investor involv influenc ipo issu jame jim joint judici juli jurisdict jurisprud keep kernel kingdom known land landmark larger last later latter law lead leader leadership legal legisl legislatur length lesser letter level liberti like limit list litig local logrol long long-term louisiana lower lower-level made mail main maintain major make manag mandat mani marbl marit market maryland matter may mayhew mcculloch mcdonald mean meant measur medicar member met midterm militari minist missouri mix model modern money monro most much multipl must narrowli nation nation-st natur necessari necessarili need neither neustadt new non non-incumb north notwithstand obama object observ obstruct obtain occasion offer offici often offic officer official ogden ohio on-farm one open oper oppon oppos oppress order organ origin other otherwis outcom outlaw overrid overturn owe own owner parallel part parti particip particular partisan pass passag pay peopl perform perman permit person persuas phone phrase piec place plessi polici polit politician popul popular pork pork-barrel portion posit position-tak possess possibl power practic prayer prefer prenumbra prescrib presid presidenti previous price primarili princip principl prior prison privaci privat pro pro-slaveri problem process produc product program prohibit project promulg pronounc proper propos protect provid provis public punish purpos pursuanc push question quo race racial rank rare rather ratifi ration ratifi reach rebellion receiv recit recogn reconstruct record refer regain regard region registr regul regular regulatori reimburs relat relev reli religion rememb remov report repres represent republ requir reserv resid resolut resourc respect respons restat restrict result review revolt revolut ride right roe rosco rule russia sandford scandal scholar school scott scrutini seat second section secur seek segreg self self-defens self-interest selfdefens sell senat send senior separ serv servic servitud set sex shall shape share shay short show sign signific simpl sinc situat size slave slaveri small social societi soldier sole someon someth sometim sought sourc southern sovereign specif specific speech spend spent sphere sponsor staff stand standard stapl state state-sponsor statement status statut statutori stop strateg strict stringent struck student studi subject submit sue suggest sum support suprem supremaci system tacit tactic take taken tangibl tax tax-cut technic tendenc tenth term territori test theori therebi therefor think third though threat threaten three thus time titl took tradit traffic tragedi transact transfer two two-third type typic u.s unanim unconstitut undesir unequ unfund unilater unit unlaw unsupport uphold upon upper us usag use usual v veteran veto victori violat visit vital vocal vote voter w wade wage want war warren waterg way weak weigh well western whatev wheat whether white whole whose wickard win within without work workplac would written year find fine firearm first floor