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Corruption In Local Government Essay

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Corruption in Local Government

Abstract:
Local government is the grass root level governance which is related to the development of a country. To improve governance of a state Govt. must remove corruption from all tiers of local government. In this assignment we try to our best to finding out corruption in local government with proper field investigation, and then we should give some recommendation to remove corruption from local government.

Introduction:
It is beyond doubt that good governance requires the functioning of effective autonomous political institution. Local government is such type of institution having a fixed area which can play fruitful role in creating political leadership, ensuring popular participation, developing accountable administration and planning and implanting people oriented development programmes. It’s birth only for creating amenities and serving the local people. But its development is seriously hampered by local level corruption. First of all we have to know What is Local Government?

Local Government:
Generally Local Government means a government system of a fixed and smaller area of a country. Let’s see some other definitions.
1. According to W.A Robson, Local government means the people of affixed territory who have legal power formwork for conducting their functions, but they have no sovereign power.
2. Encyclopedia of Social Science has defined, Local Government which has a territorial non-sovereign community having the legal right and the necessary organization to regulate its own affairs.
3. An administrative body for a small geographic area, such as a city, town, county, or state. A local government will typically only have control over their specific geographical region, and cannot pass or enforce laws that will affect a wider area. Local governments can elect officials, enact taxes, and do many other things that a national government would do, just on a smaller scale.

Before going to whole topic we also need to know What it Corruption?

Corruption:
1. Corruption is defined by the World Bank and Transparency International (TI) as “the misuse of public office for private gain.” As such, it involves the improper and unlawful behavior of public-service officials, both politicians and civil servants, whose positions Politics and Governance

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Corruption in Local Government

create opportunities for the diversion of money and assets from government to them and their accomplices.
2. Klitgaard has developed a simple model to explain the dynamics of corruption, which is as follows—
C=M+D-A-S
Where, C= Corruption
M= Monopoly
D= Discretion
A= Accountability, and S= Public Sector salaries.

Corruption in Local Government:
Corruption in local government referred to illegal activities which are conducted by locally elected body. For example: Bribery, miss appropriations of public money, or, miss use of power etc.

Structure of Local Government:
Local government has divided into two divisions1. Rural Local Government. 2. Urban Local Government.
Urban local government has two divisions1. Municipality. (Paurasava consist of a chairman, commissioners and 1/3 of the total commissioner as reserved seats for women).
2. City Corporation. (Paurasava consist of a Mayor, commissioners and 1/3 of the total commissioner as reserved seats for women)

Rural local government has three divisions/tiers1. Zilla parishad. 2. Upazilla parishad.
3. Union parishad.

Let’s see it in figur…

Politics and Governance

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Corruption in Local Government

Local Government

Rural Local Govt.

Urban Local Govt.

Municipality
(Elected)

City Corporation
(Elected)

ZP

UZP

UP

(Nominated)

(Elected)

(Elected)

Fig: Structure of Local Government.

Before going to discuss the Corruption in Local Govt. we have to know about the functions of Local Govt.

Urban Level Functions:
The functions of Pourashavas and City Corporations are basically similar, with one important difference: the 1997 Pourashavas Ordinance categorized the functions of Pourashavas as compulsory and optional. This categorization does not apply to City Corporations. However, in practice functions continue to be seen as compulsory and optional for both. Mandatory functions:

• Construction and maintenance of roads, bridges and culverts; • Removal, collection and disposal of refuse;
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Corruption in Local Government

• Provision and maintenance of street lighting;
• Maintenance of public streets, provision of street watering; • Provision and regulation of water supply;
• Establishment and maintenance of public markets;
• Plantation of trees on road sides;
• Regulation of unsanitary buildings and prevention of infectious diseases and epidemics; • Registration of births, deaths and marriages;
• Provision and maintenance of slaughter houses;
• Provision and maintenance of drainage;
• Control over the construction and reconstruction of buildings; • Provision and maintenance of graveyards and burning places; • Control over traffic and public vehicles.
Optional functions:
• Checking adulteration of food products;
• Control over private markets;
• Maintenance of educational institutions and provision of stipends to meritorious students; • Provision of flood and famine relief;
• Provision and maintenance of parks and gardens;
• Establishment of welfare homes, orphanages, prevention of begging and organization of voluntary social welfare services;
• Establishment of public dispensaries, provision of public urinals and latrines; • Establishment of veterinary hospitals, registration of cattle sale and improvement of livestock; • Celebration of national holidays;

• Reception of distinguished visitors;
• Establishment of public libraries and reading rooms;

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Corruption in Local Government

• Promotion of community development schemes; and
• Naming of roads and numbering of houses.
The Pourashavas/City Corporations are empowered to perform a variety of socio-economic and civic functions, as described above. In practice, however, they cannot perform all these functions owing to the acute paucity of funds caused by poor and irregular collection of taxes, nonrealization of taxes from government, semi-government and autonomous organizations for years together and insufficient government grants.

The functions actually performed are:
...

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Keywords

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