The British Health Care System
1. Country Profile1
United Kingdom is identified as a modern and prosperous European nation. It is a permanent and active member of European Union (EU). UK covers 243,610 sq. km and is home to a population of 63,395,574. The government type in UK is Constitutional monarchy and commonwealth realm. The sources of economy are agriculture, industries and service providing organizations. They exports potatoes, fish, cereals, manufactures electrical appliances, motor, aircraft, coal and provides services such as banking, insurance business.
2. Health Indicators1
Maternal Mortality rate: 12 deaths/100,000 live births (2010) Infant Mortality Rate: 4.5 deaths/ 1000 live births
Birth rate: 12.26 births / 1000 population (2013)
Life expectancy at birth: 80.29 years
Death Rate: 9.33 deaths/ 1000 population
Health expenditure: 9.6% of GDP
Hospital bed Density: 3.3 bed/ 1000 populations
HIV/AIDS- adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2009)
3. Health Care Model and Policy
William Beveride, social reformer, designed Britain’s National Health Service, developed as Beveridge model. In the Beveridge 'public' model, funding is based mainly on taxation and is characterized by a centrally organized National Health Service where mainly public health providers provide the services4. The government owns most of the hospitals and clinics; some doctors are government employees, but there are also private doctors for private consultations.
The National Health Service Act of 1946 set the framework for the health services finance and delivery system of the United Kingdom (UK) 3. The National Health Service (NHS) began operating in 1948 under the principle that the state had the collective responsibility to provide equal access to a comprehensive health system free at the point of service3.
4. Organizations for Health Care System
Parliament holds the NHS accountable through parliamentary debates, questions by Member of Parliament, government ministers, and selected committees. Different committees are formed for various purposes such as to address and discuss health and health issues, check the operation of NHS4. b. The Department of Health
The Department of health supports government in improving the health of the population in England though health policymaking and strategy planning. It also manages resource for NHS4. c. Local Government
Local authorities or council provides provision of local social service and education4. d. The National Health Service
NHS operated under Department of Health is responsible for providing health care to the people through Primary care trust in a geographically defined population. NHS is managed by Strategic Health Authority (SHA) by developing plan to improve health care services quality and availability4. e. Executive agencies of the Department of Health
These agencies works with the NHS, social care services to ensure regulation of system, improve and maintain standards and local support health care services4.
f. The voluntary and community sector
The voluntary and community centers are funded through donation and government. They provided health service even before NHS was established4.
Department of healt...