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Unit One The Principles Of Healthy Essay

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Name: Charlotte May Riley

Please note that this Assessment document has 9 pages and is made up of 4 Parts.

Part 1: Understand how diet is linked to health

1. Define what is meant by the term ‘healthy diet’.

A healthy diet is one which provides the body with essential nutrition which it needs in order to function to the best of its ability. The requirements which the body needs will vary depending on several different factors such as age and gender, as well as environmental factors such as the level of activity a person partakes in. People who have a healthy diet generally feel good, have lots of energy and are less susceptible to health risks than people who do not have a healthy diet. A healthy diet is a balanced diet. By eating a healthy diet, a person ensures that their body is receiving all the nutrients it requires in order to stay fit and healthy in everyday life, and helps to reduce the risk of illnesses and therefore fewer trips to the doctors are made.

2. Describe why the healthy diets of adults and children may be different. Provide at least three examples of these differences.

Children need to consume fewer calories than adults because their bodies are not as big. A child between the ages of one and three should consume approximately 1,165 to 1,230 calories per day whereas a child between the ages of four and six should consume approximately 1,545 to 1,715 calories per day because as they age, their bodies also grow. As children develop, their dietary requirements change and between the ages of 5 and 12, a child needs different nutrition and a wider variety of food than other age groups. They require the same healthy foods as adults eat but with additional vitamins and minerals to support their growing bodies. They need more calcium for growing bones, more whole grains and more healthy proteins. Between these ages, a child is still growing but not quite as rapidly as before, but enough that their diet must support the growth. The calorie intake of a child aged between 5 and 12 should increase accordingly to support this growth. Children have small stomachs which are filled and emptied very quickly, so therefore they are required to eat little and often and should never be provided with an adult size portion.

When a child progresses into a teenager, their dietary requirements change again. Due to the rapid growth and changes in their bodies, adolescent boys need approximately 2,500 to 2,800 calories per day, whereas adolescent girls need approximately 2,200 per day. These additional calories are best obtained from low-fat dairy, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins and whole grains.

Adults require a healthy diet which is balanced between the right quantities from each of the different food groups. Because the adult body is fully grown, their intake is no longer for the purpose of growth, but for the maintenance of a body which is able to function healthily at the best of its ability. It is recommended to consume at least five different portions of fruits and vegetables a day. Lifestyle circumstances can be a large factor in changing a person's dietary requirements, for example, a pregnant woman would need to consume additional calories and nutritional food to support the developing baby in her womb. Similarly, people who have had major operations may also need to adjust their dietary requirements. People with health conditions and illnesses may also have to adjust their diet by eating more or less of certain foods, for example, a person with diabetes will need to manage their sugar intake. To summarise, a healthy diet for children is one which provides everything they need to stay fit and healthy as well as grow properly whereas a healthy diet for adults is one which provides them with the means to maintain a fit and healthy body.

3. Give an outline of at least three lifestyle diseases associated with unhealthy diets.

a) In the UK, adults tend to have a habit of consuming more calories than they need which are often consumed by eating unhealthy foods such as sugary drinks and sweets, savoury snacks such as crisps and fast food which is high in fat and salt. This leads to adults becoming overweight, and in the worst cases, obesity. People who are obese are at a much greater risk of developing illnesses such as angina, diabetes, heart disease and some cancers.

b) Heart disease is a major cause of ill health in the UK. Age, gender and family history can be key factors as to why a person may develop heart disease, but poor diet and lifestyle is also a major factor. Eating foods which are high in saturated fat can raise cholesterol levels in the blood which then hardens on the inside of blood vessel walls causing them to become narrower and consequently reduces the flow of blood to the heart. Foods high in saturated fat include biscuits and cakes, butter, cream, lard, sausages and fatty cuts of meat.

c) Diabetes causes a person's body to become unable to use glucose properly but the condition can be managed. However, when it is not managed, this can result in blindness, kidney failure, nerve damage and in some cases even heart disease. There are...

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