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Module In Health Essay

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Module 3:
Shielding the Body from Communicable Disease Invaders
Note to the Illustrator:
Please localize the drawing. Show a typical Filipino male and female adolescent. Cover the whole shield with the pictures of washing hand and cleaning the surroundings so that the shield can be distinguishable

In general, diseases can be either communicable or non-communicable. Communicable diseases are due to an infectious process and can be transmitted from one person to another. As such, prevention and control of communicable diseases is a public health concern.

Communicable diseases, such as bronchopneumonia in children and tuberculosis are one of the major health issues in our country. Although there have been improvements in the prevention and control of these diseases in the last 10 – 20 years, it remains to be a concern. Its negative effect can be felt at home, in school, and in the community. Families with sick members face financial and emotional problems. In schools, absenteeism due to infections affect student learning. Community people become at risk when epidemics happen, interrupting work and other productive activities. In order to free ourselves from the emotional pain and financial problems brought by diseases, we need to protect ourselves through good personal and environmental health practices.

Are you now ready to shield yourself against communicable diseases? Let’s get started!
As a starting point, it’s a good idea to check what you already know about communicable diseases. This is a diagnostic exercise, so don’t worry if there are items which you can’t answer.
A. Find the Secret Message
Direction: Complete each statement by writing the missing word. Clues are provided inside the box.
1. What viral infections are characterized by rough growths, usually in the hands but can appear in any part of the body? ______________ 2. What is a disease-causing microorganism called?
3. What is the smallest microorganism that causes infection, such as 1

chickenpox, measles, and mumps?_____________
4. What is a susceptible individual who can harbor the disease called? ____________
5. What proper daily health practice is an effective way to avoid infections? ____________
6. What skin infection caused by bacteria is common during
7. Bacteria, fungi, and parasitic worms are examples of disease. ____________ 8. What kind of transmission is the transfer of disease through physical contact?____________
9. How do microorganisms, like fungal infections enter the body? ____________

Write your






W __ __ __ __
P __ __ __ __ __ __ N
__ I __ __ __
__ O __ __



H __ __ __ __ N __
__ __ __ E
A __ __ __ __ S
__ __ __ __ C __
S __ __ __

10. The secret message is a very practical way to prevent the spread of diseases: _______________ _______________
B. Odd Word Out
Direction: Analyze the series of words in each item and cross out the word that does NOT belong to the group.

disinfection quarantine
hand washing cough etiquette

proper nutrition


common cold
regular exercise
environmental sanitation

C. Paired Words
Direction: Analyze the relationship of the first set of words to help you supply the missing word/s. Study the following example:
Round worm: helminth:: yeast: ___________ Answer: fungus
Explanation: If a roundworm is an example of a helminth (parasitic worm); then yeast is an example of a fungus.
1. Tuberculosis: bacterium:: Dengue Fever: ________________
2. poverty: economic factor:: superstitions: ________________ 3. hand washing: gastrointestinal diseases:: cough etiquette: ________________ 1. limit movement of a suspected carrier: quarantine::

separate a sick

5. life’s most important resource: health:: problem in body structure or function:________________
D. Multiple Choice
Direction: Encircle the letter of the correct answer.
1. Which is a communicable disease?
A. Cancer

B. Scurvy

C. Diabetes

D. Tuberculosis

2. What are contagious diseases due to?
A. Mosquito bites
B. Contaminated food
C. Contact with an infected person
D. Inhalation of droplets from an infected person
3. What does the poisonous gas belief state as the cause of disease? A. Microorganisms in the body.
B. Problem in specific parts of the body.
C. Bad vapor in the atmosphere during bad weather.
D. Interaction among the agent, the host, and the environment. 4. Aliya woke up with a slight fever. She remembered that she visited a friend in the hospital a few days ago. What stage of an infection is Aliya experiencing? A. Incubation stage

C.Clinical stage

B. Prodromal stage

D. Convalescence stage

5. How can you protect yourself from communicable skin diseases? A.

Apply lotion every day.
Avoid going to crowded places.
Avoid exposure to the harmful rays of the sun.
Do not share personal care items, such as towels.

6. Which is a secondary level of disease prevention?
A. Vaccination
B. Early diagnosis

C. Rehabilitation
D. Environmental sanitation

7. What is the only source of infection according to the germ theory of disease? A. Microbe
B. Bad spirit

C. Magic
D. Polluted agent

8. Which statement best summarizes the modern concept of health? A. Health is proper hygiene.
B. Health is being disease-free.
C. Health is a state of well-being.
D. Health is a resource to have quality life.
9. According to the agent-host-environment belief, what factors interact to cause an infection?
A. Object, food, and water
B. Air, vehicle, and microbes
C. Germ, person or animal, and surroundings
D. Germ, reservoir, and manner of transmission
10. Why do we need to correct myths and misconceptions about diseases? A. We don’t want to be labeled as backward or not educated. B Following myths and misconceptions can endanger our health... C. We need to change our beliefs to keep pace with the changing times. D. Our medical practitioners will get mad if we don’t follow their advice.


Lesson 1: Health-- More Than Being Disease-Free

Lesson Targets

Discuss the concept of health and disease
Accept personal responsibility for one’s health
Practice ways to attain holistic health

Something to Ponder On
In the first Module, you were introduced to the concept of holistic health. You learned that health has several dimensions that are interrelated. Before we discuss health and disease in detail, let us first build on what you know about these two concepts.

Reflect, Write, and Share
Think of everything you know about health and disease. Write down words or phrases that you associate with these two terms. Then discuss your answers with a partner.




I’m sure you wrote interesting information about health and disease from your previous learning and experience. As you read and understand the content of this lesson, try to compare new concepts with your prior knowledge about health and disease.

Health as a concept is continuously changing as people see it differently. In the past, it was regarded as simply a condition of being free from disease. Then, it became equated with proper hygiene. Today, we know that to be healthy is not only to be free from disease. As our most important resource, it also includes living a quality of life that maximizes our potential and develops our sense of well-being. Health is both a personal and social responsibility. It is the product of the collective decisions that we make about our lifestyle in general. The food that we eat, the number of hours of sleep we get, the time we allot for rest and recreation, the way we manage stress and the type of physical activities that we do, all impact our health and the health of people around us.

On the other hand, disease is just one manifestation of ill-health. It is a pathological condition that disrupts the normal functioning of the body. Unlike illness, which is subjective because it is based on the patient’s experience, disease is objective, characterized by an abnormality in the structure or function of body organs. However, one can have a disease and not be ill. And one can be ill even without disease. This Module will focus on communicable diseases. In general, diseases can be classified as communicable or non-communicable. Communicable diseases are caused by pathogens or disease-causing organisms and can be transmitted from one person to another or from animals to people. Examples include common cold, influenza, cholera, dengue fever, tuberculosis and warts. When the body is invaded by a pathogen, the invasion is called an infection. On the other hand, non-communicable disease cannot be transmitted from one person to another. These are also known as lifestyle-related diseases because danger or risk factors include obesity, smoking, lack of physical activity and exercise, and high-cholesterol, high salt diet. Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic lung diseases and diabetes are the most significant non-communicable diseases in our country because they are the leading causes of death among Filipinos. Before we go to the nature of communicable diseases, it is important to understand first the relationship between health and disease. Let us study the following diagram:

6 The diagram shows that holistic health encompasses emotional, environmental, moral-spiritual, physical, social, and mental dimensions.
Health and disease can be seen as a continuum. As one goes up, optimum wellness is reached. On the other hand, a movement downward indicates progressive illness and premature death once the lowest point is reached. Since life consists of changing events and conditions, a person’s health fluctuates along the continuum. The idea is to always move towards health and wellness. Thus, even if one has a disease, one can move towards wellness.

Assess your health at present. Where are you in the continuum? How do you improve your position to attain optimum wellness?
Health is more than the absence of disease because being disease-free is only one aspect of physical health. The modern view considers health as the major tool or resource in attaining quality life. To be considered healthy, one needs to balance the various health dimensions. This can be done by consistently demonstrating healthpromoting behaviours in each health dimension. Study the following pictures: Health is more than the absence of disease because being disease-free is only one characteristic of health. So, the modern view considers health as the major tool or resource in attaining quality life. In order to be considered healthy, one needs to strike a balance among the various health dimensions. This can be done by consistently demonstrating health-enhancing behaviours in each of the health dimension. Study the following pictures:


The Components of Health
Components of Holistic Health
Were you able to identify the health dimension being shown in the pictures? Compare your interpretation with the following:

The picture on the upper left shows someone playing volleyball, an activity that can improve one’s’ physical health.
The picture on the lower left shows an Igorot woman flashing a bright smile. She exhibits good emotional health.
At the center are two pictures which show the interrelationship between moralspiritual and environmental health. Our personal relationship with a Supreme Being and our harmonious relationship with nature are both key components in attaining holistic health

On the upper right, we can see a group of teenagers happily conversing. They are enhancing their social health.
The lower right picture shows women engaging in an activity to harness their mental health.

These activities are just examples of the many things you can do to attain holistic health. The challenge for you is how to integrate healthy practices into your lifestyle and make them a habit. Value your health by taking good care of it. It will mean practicing 8

discipline and consistency on your part, but it will be worth it. Now, let’s do an activity that will encourage you to live a healthy lifestyle.
My Health Pledge
I accept personal responsibility for my own health and I will show my commitment by practicing the following activities to attain holistic health

1. ____________________________________________________
2. ____________________________________________________
3. ____________________________________________________
4. ____________________________________________________
5. ____________________________________________________
Signed: ______________

Date: _________________

Witnesses: _____________


Sum Up
Let’s sum up the key points in this lesson:
H- ealth is more than the absence of disease.
E – nhancing behaviors should be consistently practiced to safeguard health. A- ttainment of good health is both a personal and social responsibility. L – ifestyle diseases are caused by unhealthful practices. T – ype of activities that we do affect our health.

H- olistic health is the key to quality life.


Lesson 2: Bad Air, Germs, or Combined Factors?

Supernatural Belief

Poisonous gas


Germ Belief

Agent-Host -Environment

Lesson Target

Analyze the major beliefs about the cause of disease

Something to Ponder On
In order to fully understand the nature of health, we need to understand the nature of disease. People in various times of history have been curious about the cause of disease. They tried to explain it as either a supernatural or a natural event.

Did you know that until the 1850s,
people’s fear of disease was
worsened by ignorance?


The Causes of Disease
Beliefs on the cause(s) of diseases have undergone changes through time. The Supernatural Belief
During the ancient times, people thought that disease was brought about by sorcery, witchcraft, fate, or spirit aggression (God’s punishment or devil’s work). These supernatural beliefs explained that disease was caused by a supernatural being (a god or a dead ancestor), or a person with special powers (a witch or a sorcerer). The belief in the supernatural cause was evident during the “Black Death” or bubonic plague of the 14th century. The bubonic plague bacillus that came close to wiping out the global population was believed to be God’s punishment for people’s sins. The Poisonous Gas Belief

Another major belief during the 1800s is the poisonous air belief of disease causation. According to this view, disease, such as malaria, was transmitted by poisonous gases from rotting plants or bad vapour that came from swamps (the word malaria comes from mala aria meaning “bad air”).

The Germ Belief
Before the turn of the 20th century, the germ belief about the cause of infectious disease became very popular... This belief holds that microscopic organisms are responsible for infectious diseases. Although revolutionary, this belief is quite limiting because it only considers a single cause of disease.

The Agent-Host-Environment Belief
Since many people believed that the one-cause idea of the germ belief was not enough to explain the actual cause of diseases, the Agent—Host--Environment belief was formed. It explains disease as a product of the complex interaction among three factors: agent, host, and environment. This is known as the classic agent—host— environment triangle. It helps us understand the nature of communicable diseases. It answers the “who?” (host), “what?” (agent) and “where?” (environment) of disease.


The Classic Agent—Host--Environment Triangle
The host is an organism, usually a person or an animal, affected by the disease; the environment is the condition outside the host that allows disease to be transmitted; and the agent is the organism that causes the disease.

In the case of agents, although microorganisms have an important part in the disease process, we should remember that many of them are harmless and some may even be beneficial.
There is now a growing awareness that the environment is not only a place for the host-agent interaction. Rather, it is an important factor in the disease process. In fact, to become an infection, the organism that causes the disease must be able to damage the host, has a susceptible host, and has a favorable environment. To prevent and control communicable diseases, we must be able to upset or cut the connection among the agent, the host, and the environment. So, understanding the agent--host-environment triangle is very important.

K-Q-V Chart
Complete the following chart based on the lesson and be prepared to share your answer with your seatmate. The first row has been done for you: Belief

Key Point
Disease is caused
by spirits, magic,
or sorcery.

Is there proof that
supports this
How can this belief
hinder people’s
quest for scientific
ways to explain the
cause of disease?

Value or

Read more


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