UNIVERSITY OF PANGASINAN
COLLEGE OF NURSING
A tattoo is a form of body modification, made by inserting indelible ink into the dermis layer of the skin the pigment. From Polynesian tatau. In Tahitian, tatu." The word tatau was introduced as a loan word into English; its pronunciation was changed to conform to English phonology as "tattoo". Sailors on later voyages both introduced the word and reintroduced the concept of tattooing to Europe. Tattooing to Europe. Tattooing has been practiced for centuries in many cultures, particularly in Asia, and spread throughout the world. The Ainu, indigenous people of Japan, traditionaly had facial tattoos, as did the Austroasians whose language spread from Taiwan into southeast Asia. Today, one can find Atayal, Seediq, Truqu and Saisiyat of Taiwan, Berbers of Tamazgha(North Africa), Yoruba, Fulani and Hausa people of Nigeria, and Maori of New Zealand with facial tattoos. Tatttooing was popular in southern China and among the Polynesians, as well as among certain tribal groups pein Africa, Borneo, Cambodia, Europe, Japan, the Mentawai Islands, Meso America, New Zealand, North America and South America, the Philippines, and Taiwan. The America Academy of Dermatology distinguishes five types of tattoos: traumatic tattoos, also called “natural tattoos”, the result of injuries, especially asphalt from road inuries or pencil lead; amateur tattoos; professional tattoos, both via traditional metho and modern tattoo machines; cosmetic tattoos, also known “permanent make-up”; and medical tattoos. Medical tattoos that are used to ensure instruments are properly located for repeated application of radiotherapy and for the areola in some forms of breast reconstruction. Tattooing has also been used to convey medical information about the wearer(e.g., blood grouop, medical condition, etc.). Additionally, tattoos are used in skin tones to cover vitiligo, a skin pigmentaion disorder.
It requires breaking the skin barrier to perform tattooing, which carries health risks including infection and allergic reactions. Modern tattooists reduce risks by following universal precautions working with single-use items and sterilizing their equipment after each use. Many jurisdictions require that tattooinsts have blood-borne pathogen training such as that provided through the Red Cross and OSHA. As of 2009(in the United States) the have been no reported cases of HIV contracted tattoos.
Burka, Lauren P. “Tattooed: the s...