Essays /

Structural Vulnerability And Health Essay

Essay preview

Copyright # 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 0145-9740 print=1545-5882 online
DOI: 10.1080/01459740.2011.576725


Structural Vulnerability and Health:
Latino Migrant Laborers in the
United States
James Quesada, Laurie Kain Hart, and Philippe Bourgois

Latino immigrants in the United States constitute a paradigmatic case of a population group subject to structural violence. Their subordinated location in the global economy and their culturally depreciated status in the United States are exacerbated by legal persecution. Medical Anthropology, Volume 30, Numbers 4 and 5, include a series of ethnographic analyses of the processes that render undocumented Latino immigrants structurally vulnerable to ill health. We hope to extend the social science concept of ‘‘structural vulnerability’’

JAMES QUESADA is Associate Professor of Anthropology in the Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California, USA. His critical medical anthropology research on political violence and transnational migration ranges from Nicaragua to California. He is currently engaged in an NIH=NIAAA research project on Latino day laborers in the San Francisco Bay Area.

LAURIE KAIN HART is the Edmund and Margiana Stinnes Professor of Global Studies and Professor of Anthropology in the Department of Anthropology at Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania, USA. Her research focuses on ethnicity, border conflict, and territorial segregation in the Mediterranean, the Balkans, and the US inner city. She is the author of Time, Religion, and Social Experience in Rural Greece as well as of numerous articles on the long-term effects of civil war and ethnic displacement.

PHILIPPE BOURGOIS is the Richard Perry University Professor of Anthropology and Family and Community Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He is the author of In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio and Righteous Dopefiend, as well as over 150 articles on drugs, violence, labor migration, ethnic conflict, homelessness, and urban poverty ( Correspondence may be directed to James Quesada, Department of Anthropology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, CA 94132, USA. E-mail: [email protected]




to make it a useful concept for health care. Defined as a positionality that imposes physical=emotional suffering on specific population groups and individuals in patterned ways, structural vulnerability is a product of class-based economic exploitation and cultural, gender/sexual, and racialized discrimination, as well as complementary processes of depreciated subjectivity formation. A goodenough medicalized recognition of the condition of structural vulnerability offers a tool for developing practical therapeutic resources. It also facilitates political alternatives to the punitive neoliberal policies and discourses of individual unworthiness that have become increasingly dominant in the United States since the 1980s.

Key Words: citizenship; Hispanic health outcomes; immigrants; social inequality; social medicine; structural violence

The embattled passage of health care legislation in the United States in 2010, founded on a rhetoric of ‘‘health care for all,’’ expressly barred undocumented immigrants from accessing coverage, officially reaffirming their exclusion from public services and basic legal rights. At the same time, increased enforcement of immigration laws has exacerbated personal insecurity, labor market discrimination, and residential segregation (Gradstein and Schiff 2006; Canales 2007). Most importantly from a health perspective, this kind of systemic social marginalization inflicts pain (Eisenberger, Liberman, and Williams 2003).

Explicit political exclusion is one of the more visible manifestations of what has been called structural violence in social science analysis. Latino migrant laborers are a population especially vulnerable to structural violence because their economic location in the lowest rungs of the US labor market is conjoined with overt xenophobia, ethnic discrimination, and scapegoating. Simultaneously perceived as unfair competitors in a limited-good economy (Foster 1965; Quesada 1999) and freeloaders on the shrinking welfare safety net (Cockcroft 1986; Go´mez-Quin˜ones 1994; Gutie´rrez 1995; Mahler 1995; Coutin 2000; De Genova 2004), they are subjected to a conjugation of economic exploitation and cultural insult (Bourgois 1988). The term structural violence is generally attributed to the sociologist Johan Galtung (1969). Arguing for a social-democratic commitment to universal human rights, in the face of US Cold War blindness to the political effects of third-world poverty and the legacy of colonial inequity, Galtung defined structural violence as ‘‘the indirect violence built into repressive social orders creating enormous differences between potential and actual human self-realization’’ (Galtung 1975:173). He specifically differentiated structural violence from institutional violence, emphasizing the former’s ‘‘more abstract nature . . . that can [not] be traced down to a particular institution’’ (Galtung 1975:173, 175).



The theorization of structural violence also has radical roots in anticolonial resistance movements (Fanon 1963) and in Catholic liberation theology’s advocacy for a ‘‘preferential option for the poor’’ (Camara 1971; Martin-Baro, Aron, and Corne 1994). In medical anthropology the term has been used to highlight disparities and to identify socially structured patterns of distress and disease across population groups, from mental health, occupational health, and interpersonal=domestic violence, to infant mortality, substance abuse, and infectious diseases (Galtung 1969; Martin-Baro et al.; Scheper-Hughes 1996; Kleinman 2000; Parker, Easton, and Klein 2000; Bourgois 2001; Pedersen 2002; Farmer 2004; Walter, Bourgois, and Loinaz 2004; Heggenhougen 2005). The infectious disease physician and anthropologist Paul Farmer (2003) has made structural violence the centerpiece of his argument that access to health care is a fundamental human right. Many analyses of structural violence have included cultural factors such as gender inequality and racism. Nevertheless, in practice the concept has been used primarily to invoke materialist forces calling attention to class oppression and economic injustice. The semantic tension in the phrase effectively conveys the urgency of its analytical point and mobilizes political, ethical, and practical engagement: it rhetorically juxtaposes the morally evocative and physically concrete word ‘‘violence with the abstract and ostensibly neutral word ‘‘structure.’’ However, the term’s political and humanitarian valence—especially in its Latin American manifestation as liberation theology in solidarity with armed revolutionary struggles—alienates some critics. Other scholars object to the purposefully provocative broadening of the concept of violence into a political-economic abstraction. The more neutral and inclusive term ‘‘vulnerability’’ may be useful, consequently, to extend the economic, material, and political insights of structural violence to encompass more explicitly (and to project to a wider audience) not only political-economic but also cultural and idiosyncratic sources of physical and psychodynamic distress. These include (1) social hierarchies buttressed by symbolic taxonomies of worthiness (Bourdieu 2000); (2) historically distinctive discourses of normativity and ethics (Foucault 1984); and (3) the intersection of individual medical pathology and biography with social exclusion (Biehl 2005). In our conceptualization, structural vulnerability is a positionality. The vulnerability of an individual is produced by his or her location in a hierarchical social order and its diverse networks of power relationships and effects (Leatherman 2005; Watts and Bohle 1993). Individuals are structurally vulnerable when they are subject to structural violence in its broadest conceptualization. This includes the interface of their personal attributes—such as appearance, affect, and cognitive status—with cultural values and institutional structures.



Economically exploited and politically subordinated individuals and collectivities often internalize their externally generated depreciated status in a complex and poorly understood process of embodiment that shapes their behaviors, practices, and self-conceptions—their ‘‘habitus’’ (Bourdieu 2000) or their ‘‘subjectivities’’ (Foucault 1978, 1995; see Butler 1997:86; Biehl, Good, and Kleinman 2007; Pine 2008:12–14, 17; Bourgois and Schonberg 2009:18–19). This embodiment of subordinated status produces a form of symbolic violence whereby the everyday violence of imposed scarcity and insecurity is understood as natural and deserved (Bourdieu 2000; for ethnographic accounts of the negative effects of symbolic violence on health, see Bourgois, Prince, and Moss 2004; Pine; Auyero and Swistun 2009). Ill health under these conditions, as Nguyen and Peschard argued (2003), can be conceptualized as the outcome of forms of violence sustained by politicaleconomic and cultural rationales, and can be managed through historically specific modes of governmentality in a social milieu and political context of marked indifference to the afflicted.

Structural vulnerability implies a critique of the concept of agency because it requires an analysis of the forces that constrain decision making, frame choices, and limit life options (for a rejection of the agency-structure polarity through the concept of habitus and ‘‘practice,’’ see Bourdieu and Wacquant 1992; Calhoun, LiPuma, and Postone 1993; see also Bourgois and Hart 2010). It identifies ‘‘spaces that configure a specific set of conditions in which people live, and set constraints on how these conditions are perceived, how goals are prioritized, what sorts of actions and responses might seem appropriate, and which ones are possible’’ (Leatherman 2005:53). When translated into health care practice, the concept of structural vulnerability can become a productive tool for contextualizing diagnosis and informing critical praxis (Singer 1995; Delor and Hubert 2000). Demystifying agency and removing the moral judgment inherent to a theoretical concept that implies that individuals understand and control the consequences of their everyday actions can contribute to rectifying the misdiagnosis, blame, and maltreatment that accompany the experience of poverty and cultural subordination. This is especially important in a society like the United States, which individualizes responsibility for survival and relies on an ideology of free market forces to distribute goods, services, and health to the disenfranchised.

Conventional public health interventions primarily target individuals by promoting behavior change through imparting knowledge, skills, motivation, and=or ‘‘empowerment’’ based on a cognitive model of rational



choice theory in medical decision-making. There is a growing recognition in the field of public health and medicine, however, of the ways social inequality imposes ‘‘risk’’ on subordinated population groups. This involves an awareness that a larger ‘‘risk environment’’ precedes individual decision-making (Rhodes 2002), but, significantly, there is not yet a logically consistent conceptual vocabulary or analytical approach to the definition of the risk environment in public health and medicine. Critical public health approaches propose a broad range of overlapping terms for grappling with the effects of social inequality, including, among others: ‘‘social epidemiology’’ (Poundstone, Strathdee, and Celentano 2004; Diez Roux 2007; Galea, Hall, and Kaplan 2009), the ‘‘eco-social’’ or ‘‘socio-environmental perspective’’ (Brown and Inhorn 1990; Krieger 1994, 2001; Richard, Potvin, and Mansi 1998; Burris et al. 2004), ‘‘eco-epidemiology’’ (Susser 1996), and the ‘‘the risk environment framework’’ (Rhodes and Simic 2005; Rhodes 2009; also see review by Strathdee et al. 2010). They call for a focus on ‘‘fundamental social causes’’ (Link and Phelan 1996, 2002), ‘‘social determinants of health inequality’’ (Strathdee et al. 1997; Kawachi and Kennedy 1999; Marmot 2005; Marmot and Wilkinson 2006), ‘‘income inequality’’ (Kawachi and Kennedy), ‘‘political and economic determinants’’ (Singer 2001; Navarro and Muntaner 2004), ‘‘conjugated oppression’’ and ‘‘hierarchies of embodied suffering’’ (Holmes 2007), ‘‘zones of abandonment’’ (Biehl 2005), ‘‘higher order causal level structural factors’’ (Miller and Neaigus 2001), and ‘‘discrimination’’ and ‘‘racial disparities in health outcomes’’ (Marmot, ...

Read more


-1 -5882 -9740 /01459740.2011.576725 /articulo/3437, 0145 049 1 10 10.1080 1003 1006 1010 1043 1050 106 107 1070 1087 1099 11 1104 1153 1159 1168 1178 12 124 125 127 128 13 131 1313 1319 132 1339 1347 14 140 147 15 150 151 152 1545 1557 156 157 1570 158 16 160 1600 162 1630 1633 167 17 173 174 175 1776 1790 1793 18 180 184 1848 185 188 189 19 190 191 193 1939 1947 1954 1956 1963 1965 1969 197 1970s 1971 1973 1975 1976 1978 1980s 1984 1986 1988 199 1990 1990s 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1995a 1995b 1996 1997 1998 1999 2 20 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2010s 2011 203 209 21 210 213 214 215 22 220 221 223 226 227 228 230 24 2400 2402 241 253 26 261 264 268 275 28 281 283 284 29 290 291 292 293 295 3 30 302 303 305 31 315 317 318 32 322 323 325 327 328 329 33 331 336 339 34 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 35 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 365 367 37 370 372 376 38 39 397 4 410 422 423 43 432 439 441 447 45 46 47 471 472 474 483 49 491 499 5 50 500 52 53 55 5643 569 57 574 581 583 59 594 597 6 608 625 63 635 637 646 652 66 668 67 674 677 68 6s 7 70 73 730 732 764 775 8 80 801 81 813 819 82 83 8384 85 86 868 887 889 896 9 90 900 903 91 911 913 92 921 922 93 94 94132 9464 95 96 967 97 9737 978 98 987 aa01759201 abandon abdool abject absenc abstract abus academ academi acceler access accompani accord account accultur acknowledg acquir across act action actual ad addict addit address adher administ adult advanc advers advocaci affect afflict africa african aftermath agamben age agenc agency-structur agent aggleton agreement agribusi agricultur aid airport al albanian albuquerqu alcohol alert alexson alien aliv allinott alloc allow alreadi also altern amelior amend america american amityvill among amsterdam analys analysi analyt andrea ann annal annual anodyn anthropolog anthropologist anti anti-immigr anticoloni antonnio anyon appar appeal appear appli applic approach appropri arbitrari arbor archibald area argentin argu argument arizona arm aron arrest arriv articl artifici artisan asia assembl assert associ asylum atmospher atroc attend attent attribut audi audienc australian author autonomi auyero avail ave aviv awar b back background bacon baer balcazar balkan baltimor banana bar bare bari baro barr barrier barrio base bash basi basic bauer bautista bay baywood beacon bear becker becom bedsid begin behavior behaviour belong bender benefit bent berkeley berri best better beyond biehl big bill binat binetti bio bio-cultur bio-soci biocultur biographi biolog biomed biopolit biopow birth birth-weight black blackwel blame blankenship blanton blind bobrova bodi bohl bomb book booth border born boston bottl bourdieu bourgoi box bracero brain breach breizat brief brigg bring british broad broaden broader broadest bronfman bronx brown built burawoy burden bureaucrat burnout burri bustamant butler buttress c ca calhoun california call camara cambridg camp canada canal capit care cartwright casar casarino case cast categori cathol caus causal causat ceil celentano cellar center centerpiec central centuri certif cf challeng chanc chang chavez checklist chemic chettiar chicago child children chines choic cholera choos christian chronic citi citizen citizenship civil civita claim clair clandestino class class-bas clinic clinician close cocain cockcroft coercion cognit cohes cohort cold collabor colleagu collect colleg coloni color combin come comment commit committe common communiti compar compat compel compet competit competitor complementari complex complianc comprend concept conceptu concern conclud concret condit confer configur confin conflict confront congress conjoin conjug connect connot conscious consensus consequ consid consider consist constant constitut constrain constraint constrict construct contemporari contenti context contextu continu contract contradict contradictori contribut contributor control controversi convent convey cooper cop copenhagen copyright corn cornel corneliss corpor correct correspond cost costeffect costich could counter counteract countri countrysid cours court coutin coverag crack cre creat creation crimin crise criteria critic critiqu cross ct cultur cure current curri curricula curti cycl cycle-rac d da010164 da0227689 da027204 da27599 daili danger das data davey day dc de death death-specif debat decept decis decision-mak declar deep deepli defin definit del delimit delling delor demand democrat demonstr demystifi deni denial denison depart depend depreci depress depriv deriv derluyn des describ descript desertif deserv design despit destabil destruct detain detent deterior determin devalu develop devoid devolv diagnos diagnosi diagnost die dietz diez differ differenti difficult direct disabl disast disciplin discont discours discretionari discrimin discurs diseas disenfranchis disguis disjunct disloc disord dispar displac dispos disproportion dissemin distal distinct distinguish distress distribut divers diversifi divid divis doctrin document doi domain domest domin donogho dopefiend dordrecht dramat drawn dream drink driven drug drug-inject drug-rel drug-us drugus du dualism duke durand duress durham duti duty-fre dwell dyer dynam e e-mail e.g earlier earth easili easton eco eco-epidemiolog eco-soci ecoepidemiolog ecolog econom economi ecosoci ed edmund educ effect efficaci eisenberg ejler el elimin elucid embattl embed embodi emerg emigr emot emphas empir employ empower en enabl encompass encount encourag end endang endur enforc engag england enorm enough enter entitl entr envio, environ environment environmental-structur envis epidem epidemiolog epistemolog equal equat era especi essay essenti establish et etc ethic ethnic ethnograph ethnographi ethnologist etho etiolog etiquett euphem europ evalu event everyday evid evidence-bas evoc evok exacerb examin exampl except exclud exclus exhaust exig exist experi experienti experiment explain explan explanatori explicit exploit explor expos exposur expressli extend extern extra extra-leg f face facilit fact factor factori fail failur fairbairn fallout famili famin fanon far farm farmer farrington fassin fe feagin fennel ferri field fieldnot fieldnote-tak fill filter fine fine-grain firm first fiscal fischer fix flag flammabl fmri focus follow foner food forc forcibl foreign form formal format former foster foucault found foundat frame framework franc franci francisco free freedom freeload french frequent friedman front frontier fulfil fulli function fundament funder furthermor futur g galea galtung gamboa game gap gaze geertz gender gender/sexual general generat generi genocid genova genuin geographi german gibson gica given global go goal gone good good-enough goodenough gordon got govern government gradient gradstein grain grand grant grappl great greec green greenwood grey group grove grow guaymı guilt gupta guti gutman h habitus hadley hahn hall hallett halluin hand handbook hankin hard harm hart hart-cellar harvard harvey haun haven haverford hayn heal healer health healthcar heggenhougen heller heller-roazen help hemispher henri hepat herbosa herd hernandez hernandez-roset hernandezroset heroin heyman hierarch hierarchi high higher highlight hill hispan histor histori history-tak hiv holloway holm holt home homeland homeless homo hondura hope hopkin host hostil houghton howev hubert hugh human human-right humanitarian humanitarian-universalist hunger hurley hurt i.e id08 id08-sf idea ident identifi ideolog idiosyncrat idu ii ill illeg illustr imag imagin immedi immigr immigrant-bash immun immunodefici impact impart implement impli implic import impos impress improv impuls in incarcer incid includ inclus incom income-gener incommensur incompet incorpor increas inda independ indic indiffer indigen indirect individu industri inequ inevit infant infeccio infect infecti inflict inform inher inhorn inject injector injur injustic inner insecur insight insist instead institut institution insult integr intens intensifi intent interact interest interfac intern interperson interpret intersect intervent intim introduct invest investig invis invit invok involuntari involv israel issn issu italian ithaca ivori j jackson jame jarlai jersey jew job johan john johnson jose joseph journal [email protected] juarez judgment juxtapos k kahramanian kain kaplan kawachi kennedi kentucki kerr key kibatala kind king klein kleinman kluwer knowledg knowledge-bas knowledge-cr koester kottiri krieger krull kullgren kuna l la labor lack lancet land lapitan lara larg large-scal larger latest latin latina latino latkin lauri laveist law lazzarini lead leadership learn leatherman lectur legaci legal legisl legitim legitimaci len lend length lesson let level levi lexicon leyva li liaison liber liberman licens lieberman life like lilli lillie-blanton limin limit limited-good line linear link lipsitz lipuma list literatur live llc load local locat lock logic loinaz london long long-term lopez low low-wag lowest m ma maa machado made mahal mahler mail maintain make malden malon malow maltreat man manag mani manifest manner mansi mantini mantini-brigg manufactur map maquiladora marcus margiana margin marijuana mark market marmot martin martin-baro martinez masculin massey materi materialist matter may mcgraw mcgraw-hil mckeown mckinley mean measur mechan media medic medicin medit mediterranean medium meet men mental mercantil meta meta-analysi method metodolo metropolitan mexican mexican-american mexico mexico-unit mexico-us mez mez-quin michel michigan micro micro-behavior mid mid-1970s middl mifflin might migrant migrat milbank milieu militar miller minneapoli minnesota miron mirror misattribut misdiagnosi miss misus mitig mobil mode model modern moment montan moor moral morbid mortal moss motiv move movement much multi multi-ti multicultur multipl muntan must mutual mysteri n nandi narrat narrowli nation nation-origin nationalist nativ native-born nativist natur navarro nc neaigus near necessari necessarili need needl needle-shar negat negroni neighborhood nelson neoliber net netherland network network-rel neutral never nevertheless new news nguyen niaaa nicaragua nice nightmar nih nikolopoulou nineteenth nj nm non non-citizen non-industri nonini normal normat norsk north northern note notion number numer nutrit ny o oaxacan obfusc object obscur observ obtain occup occupi offer offic offici ofner often ogden old ompad one onlin open oper opportun oppress option order oregon organ organista origin os ostens other outbreak outcom outlaw outsid overcom overdetermin overlap overlook oversea oversight overt oxford p pain pantheon para paradigm paradigmat paradox paranoia parker parkhurst part partial particip participant-observ particular partner pascalian pass passag past pathogen patholog pathway patient patrick pattern paul peac peasant peau pedagog pedagogi pedersen pelcastr penetr penguin pennsylvania peopl perceiv percept perea peril perplex perri persecut person perspect pervad pervers peschard phelan phenomenolog phenomenon philadelphia philipp phrase physic physical-environment physician pine place plagu plan planet play plos point poison polar polic polici polit political-ecolog political-econom politicaleconom poor pope popul popular population-group populist por posit possibl post post-cold post-raci poston potenti potvin poundston poverti power pp practic practition praxi preced predict predomin prefer preferenti prematur prerequisit presenc present press pressur presum preval prevent primarili prime princ princeton principl print priorit prioriti prislin prison probabl problem problemat procedur process produc product profession professor profil program programm progress project promis promot propos proposit protocol provid provis provision provoc proxim psychic psychodynam psycholog pt public publish punish punit purpos pursu purview push qualif qualiti quantit quarter quasi quasi-cast quesada question quin quota r rabinow race racial racism racist radic rais ramirez ramphel rang rather ration rational re re-fram reaction reader reaffirm real realiti realiz rearticul receiv recent recogn recognit reconceptu recruit rectifi reduc reduct refer reflex reform refuge regard regim regist regulatori reific reinforc reject rekart relacio relat relationship releg reli religion remain remedi rememb remov render repackag repatri repeat replac repres repress reproduct republ request requir research resid residenti resist reson resourc respect respond respons restrict result retain retract reunif reveal review revisit revista revolut revolutionari reynold rhetor rhode richard riesgo right righteous rights-bear rise risk riski roazen rocha role root rosaldo rose roset rossi round rousseau routin routledg roux royal rrez rubric ruiz ruiz-casar rule rung rural rusch russel rylko rylko-bau s251 s257 s29 s30 s32 s42 s49 sacer safeti sage salud salvador salvadoran san sanchez sandesara sanit santa sargent satur saussi scale scapego scarciti scenario schechter scheper scheper-hugh schiff scholar schonberg school scienc scientif scope scorn screen search secreci sector secur see seek seeker seem seen segreg self self-concept self-destruct self-real sell semant senat send sens sensibl sensit sentiment serendip seri serious seropreval serv servic service-provid set sever sex sexual sf shannon shantytown shape share sharp shaughnessi sheed shepard sherman shipley shock shop short shortag shorter shovel shrink shrinkag sic sick sight sign signific simic similar simpl simspon simultan sinc singer skill slippag small small-scal smedley smith smith-nonini smoke so-cal social social-cultur social-democrat societi socio socio-econom socio-environment socio-polit sociodemograph socioeconom sociolog sociologist sociopolit sole solidar sorrow sort sound sourc south southern sovereign space spanish special specialti specif sphere spider spiral stadium standard stanford stansfeld state state-administ status step stereotyp stigmat stimulus stinn stith stori strateg strathde street street-level strict strikebreak strongaron structur structural-environment struggl studi suarez subdisciplin subject subordin subsist substanc substance-us suburban suffer suffici sui suppl surgic surviv suscept suspect suspend susser sustain sweat swistun symbol symptom syndem syndrom syring system systemat take target tariff tariff-fre taxonomi taylor team techniqu technolog tel tempalski temporarili tend tension term territori terror testifi theme theolog theoret theori theoriz therapeut therefor thesi thick think third third-world thought threat threaten three throughout ticktin tier time tobacco today toit toler tool torr total tourist toward tower trace track trade tradit train tran transform transit translat transnat travers treat treatment trivial truth turn turpitud twenti twentieth twenty-first two tyndal u ultim un unaccept uncertainti under undercut undergradu undermin underserv understand understood undocu unequ uneven unfair uninsur unintend uniqu unit univers universalist unmoor unrestrain unwant unworthi upon upstream urban urgenc us us-mexico usa use user v vacuum valenc valu vancouv variabl variat various vector vermund vernick viabl vichi vicissitud view vih villafuert vintag violenc violencia violent virus visa visibl visit visweswaran vita vocabulari vol volum voluntari vulner vulnerabilidad w wacquant wage wall wallac walter wane wang want war ward warrior washington watt watter wave wax way web weber weight weiner weiser welfar well well-b wheeler wherebi white whiteford whitehal whole wider wiley wiley-blackwel wilkinson willen william within without women wood word work worker world wors worth worthi would wretch write www xenophob xenophobia y yale yet york young youth z zone zsembik