Coping With Change
P1- Discuss factors which affect the development of self-esteem M1- Compare two theories of self-esteem which contribute to our understanding of self-concept The NHS define self-esteem as being the opinion each individual has of themselves. NHS, (2015). It is the self-image and self –respect of an individual’s perception of themselves. Roshahl.c, (2008). This assignment is going to discuss the six factors that affect self-esteem. These factors are the growth promoting climate, the looking glass self, self-actualisation, ego identity, social identity and finally, the constructing of self-concept. Maslow stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fulfil the next one, and so on. Maslow, (1943).
The self-actualisation theory was created by Maslow in 1943. This theory is based on the hierarchy of needs. This theory is an ongoing process. This theory is not something which is aimed for by a person, instead it’s something you do. In addition to this, the theory is not restricted to individuals; anyone is able to achieve this hierarchy of needs. The hierarchy is made up of levels these levels are; physiological needs, safety needs, love and belonging needs, esteem needs and finally, is all of the above are achieved, according to Maslow they are able to then reach self-actualisation. Maslowski.R.M, Morgan.L, (1973). The first stage of this theory is the biological and physiological needs, in order to achieve this a person must have the basic needs of living, they are; air, food, fluids, shelter, warmth, shelter, warmth and sleep. The safety needs of the hierarchy include protection from elements, security, order, law, stability and finally freedom fear. The love and belongingness stage of Maslow’s theory requires friendship, intimacy, affection and love from work colleagues, family, friends and romantic relationships. McGuire.K.J, (2012) pp281. The fourth stage of the hierarchy of needs is the esteem of needs, to achieve this stage an individual must experience achievement, prestige, self-concept, statues, dominance, mastery, self-concept and respect from others. The final stage is the self-actualisation. This stage involves realising personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking person growth and peak experiences. Maslow states that without achieving the first four stages, self-actualisation cannot be achieved. The second theory is Erickson’s Ego theory....