Essays /

Government Society Essay

Essay preview


Jammu & Kashmir Government & Politics went through various historical phases that have a significant forbearance on the current state. After independence of India in the year 1947, the need for a sovereign government in the country was felt. Jammu & Kashmir was amongst the many princely states of the nation at that time and was under the rule of Raja Hari Singh who was the grandson of the great MaharajaGulabSingh. 

In the year 1948, Hari Singh demanded a national assembly which will comprised of many constituencies of the state of Jammu & Kashmir. He also emphasized on the electoral procedures under which each and every territory of the valley would become eligible for casting its vote by following the secret ballot box system. 

After a long array of discussions with the Indian government, the state of Jammu & Kashmir finally achieved the identity of a separate constituent assembly in 1951. Ever since its formation, the Jammu & Kashmir constituent assembly is functioning to bring greater and better levels of developments in the valley. 

The present framework of the government of Jammu & Kashmir consists of state legislative assembly and a legislative council. Chief minister, Governor, chief secretary, cabinet ministers and members of the legislative council collectively take decisions on various issues related to the state of Jammu & Kashmir.  The state of Jammu and Kashmir has historically consisted of four political regions. Ladakh towards the east bordering China, Jammu towards the south bordering India and Pakistan, Kashmir Valley towards the east bordering Pakistan and Baltistan areas towards the North bordering China and Pakistan. Baltistan and a part of Kashmir Valley are under Pakistan control. The state of Jammu and Kashmir is the most troubled part of the country facing with daily cross border terrorism fatalities. The rift between India and Pakistan has been an issue since a very long time. The political situation is extremely grave in this state with people is constant fear of getting killed and being victims of the duel between the Indian army and the militants. Like all the states of India, Indian controlled parts of Jammu and Kashmir have a multi-party democratic system of governance. Main political parties include the Jammu & Kashmir National Conference (NC), the Indian National Congress (Congress), Bharatiya Janata Party and the Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party (PDP). The Constitution of India grants Jammu and Kashmir special autonomous status as a temporary provision through Article 370, which was never fully implemented. However, some Muslim Kashmiris demand greater autonomy and sovereignty and some even demand independence from India, while some non-Muslims would like to see the state fully integrated into India. There has also been a number of separatist movements, both political and militant, mostly led by hard-line Muslim leaders. However, in recent years Kashmiri Muslims have been leaning towards being in India due to economic reasons. Jammu and Kashmir is the only Indian state that has its own flag. Designed by the Government of India, the state flag of Jammu and Kashmir is the native plough on a red background which is a symbol of labour. The three stripes represent the three administrative divisions of the state, namely Jammu, Valley of Kashmir, and Ladakh.

Jammu and Kashmir Economy

The Jammu and Kashmir Economy depends mostly on traditional form of occupation. Unaffected and unaltered by modern day industrial developments and changing times, the indigenous traditional occupations of farming, animal husbandry and horticulture forms the backbone of the economy of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. A state affected by continued violence and insurgency, the economy of Jammu and Kashmir is an undeveloped one. However in the recent years, the government of Jammu and Kashmir has taken several significant steps to strengthen the financial condition of the state and improve the standard of living of the indigenous local inhabitants. Farming is one of the predominant economic activities of the state. The majority of the native population depends on primitive forms of shifting agriculture. The valleys of the region form suitable grounds to grow various kinds of crops that earn a large chunk of revenue for the state. Another important economic activity of the state of Jammu and Kashmir is animal husbandry. Apart from farming the undulating lands of the state, most of the local inhabitants also keep many animals like sheep. Sheep rearing is an important industry of the region. The fine quality of wools produced by the sheep are used for weaving colorful and attractive woolen carpets, shawls and other woolen garments that form an integral part of the handloom products of the state. The other important economic activity of Jammu and Kashmir is horticulture. Horticulture is one of the budding industries of the state that earns large revenue. The favorable weather helps in the production of many kinds of fruits. The state government of Jammu and Kashmir has turned its attention to the various infrastructural amenities of the region. Roads, power, health, primary education and water supply are some of the important areas that need the urgent attention of the state government. The Jammu and Kashmir farming is an important economic activity of the state. The majority of the indigenous local population of Jammu and Kashmir depends on agriculture and its related activities to earn their livelihood. Most of the districts of Jammu and Kashmir are unaffected and unaltered by the industrial developments of the modern era. With no other major source of income, a good number of the indigenous population of the state depends on the traditional occupation of tilling the land. The salubrious weather and fertile land of Jammu and Kashmir produces several crops that help the state to earn a large amount of revenue. The state government of Jammu and Kashmir has taken many decisive steps in the field of farming and allied activities to increase the agricultural productivity of the region. The Department of Agriculture of Jammu and Kashmir imparts the farmers of the state with modern technological knowledge of growing variety of crops. One of the most important departments of the government of Jammu and Kashmir, the Department of Agriculture has brought about a drastic change in the economic scenario of the state. Headed by Secretary and Principal Advisor of the Ministers of the Department of Agriculture, the government of Jammu and Kashmir has devised several modern technologies to improve the quality and quantity of pulses and oilseeds production. The Department of Agriculture also takes note of the proper distribution of pesticides, fertilizers and improved quality of seeds to the agriculturists of Jammu and Kashmir. Under the strict supervision and able guidance of the Department of Agriculture, the...

Read more


-1947 -2007 02 03 03.02 1 10 11 113 1159 1180 12 1293 13 1327 1331 1381 14 1425 1460 1467 15 1507 1536 16 1616 17 18 1882 19 1947 1948 1951 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2 20 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2023 21 22 236 237 238 254 264 2752 2798 2817 2829 2858 2880 2895 2939 2992 2997 3 3018 3105 312 3127 3203 3255 3258 3303 3311 3321 3332 3382 3389 3401 3406 3479 3481 3565 3568 3588 370 3743 3780 3800 3861 388 4 4117 4125 418 4587 4640 4650 477 5 506 6 60 600 63 693 7 711 78 8 80 81 9 97 abl above-ment absorb access accomplish accord achiev acknowledg act activ actor actual acut addict administr adopt adulter advic advisor affect agenc agent agri agricultur agriculturist aim alarm alcohol alfr alleg alli almost alreadi also although alway amass amen among amongst amount anand anim annandel annual anoth anthrax anti anti-incumb anti-insurg anurag anxieti apart apathet appear appl appoint approv architect area argu arm armi around array articl asid ask aspect aspir assembl assess assist associ assum atmospher attent attitud attract audio audio-cd author automobil autonom autonomi avoid awar b back backbon backdrop background bad ballot baltistan bank bari base basi basic beautifi becom begin behavior believ besid best better beverag bharatiya bjp blackmail bless blow boost border box brahmana branch bread bring broader brought brutal bud budgam budget build busi businessman butter buy bête cabinet campaign cancel care carpet case cast catch caus cd ceasefir centr certain chairman challeng chandigarh chang character charg chemic chief china chunk clear client climat coke collect color column come comeback command commerci commit committe compani compar complet complex compris concentr concern concert concess condit confer confid congeni congress conscious consid consider consist consol constant constitu constitut contact contextu continu contractor contribut control cooper core corpor corrupt cottag could council countri coupl court cow creat creation cricket crime crimin crisi crop crore cross cultur cum currenc current custom daili danger day dead deal dealer death decad deceit decid decis declar declin decreas dehati deliber demand demarc democrat demograph denial depart depend depress design despit detail detractor develop devianc deviant deviat devis dhumal dhumal-l differ difficult dimens direct disabl disappear discard disciplin discuss diseas dismiss disput distribut district disturb divis domest domin downfal drastic draw drug due duel duli dung durabl dustrial eager earn east econom economi educ ef ef-fort effect effective-purposeful-contextu effici effort egg elect elector electron element elig elimin ellaquai emerg emphas emphasi empir employ end engag engin enhanc environ equip era erad especi establish estat etc ethic etho eve eve-teas even event ever everi evid except excis excit exclus exempt exist expans expect export expos exposur extend extent extrem fabric face facil facilit fact faction faction-ridden factor fake fame famili famous farm farmer farmingwil fast fatal favor favor- fear featur felt feroci fertil feud field fifti fight fighter figur final financ financi financialsector find fine first fiscal five five-tim flag flourish flower follow food footfal forbear forc ford foretel form formal format former formid formul fort forti four fractur frame framework fruit fuel fulli function functionari furnitur futur gadkari gangyal garment gave general generat get give given glare glori go goat good got govern governor gradual graduat grand grandson grant grave great greater ground group grow growth guidanc gun hamper hand handicraft handloom harass hard hard-cor hard-lin hari havoc head health heaven heavili held help hen henri high higher hill himach himalayan histor histori hold home hope horticultur hospit hotel hous howev human hundr hurt husbandri ideat ident ideolog immens impact impart implement implic import imposs improv in-charg in-dustri incent incid includ incom increas incumb independ india indian indic indigen indirect individu indulg indus indus-tri industri infight inflict influenti infra infra-structur infrastructur infus inhabit inhuman initi injuri inner inner-parti insecur institut insurg integr intensifi interest interior introduc invest investor invit involv ipa issu issuanc item j jammu janata januari job judg junctur jurisdict k kamraz kangra kartholi kash kash-mir kashmir kashmira kashmiri kathua kaul keen keep kept khonmoh kill kilogram kind knowledg known kumar labour ladakh laid lakh land landmark larg lassipora last later latest latter launch law lay lead leader lean led legendari legisl legislatur legitim lend less level like line lion live livelihood loan local lokhit long lost lower machineri macro macro-level made maharajagulabsingh main major major-minor make manag manali mani manufactur manur mark market mass massiv materi materialist matrimoni may measur meat media meet member mend mention mere metal might milit militancy-rel militar million mind miner minist ministeri minor mir mission misus mobil modern molest monetari month moral moreov most movement mp much multi multi-parti murder muslim name nation nationalist nativ natur nc near necessari need negat network never new newspap nineti nitin noir non non-metal non-muslim non-viol normal north note notic nuclear number numer observ occup occurr offer offic offici oilse ompora one oper opportun opposit order organ origin out-sid ownership packag page pakistan paper paradisiac parasit park part parti particip particular past patholog pdp peac pend peopl percept period perspect persuad pertain pervas pesticid petroleum phase pictur place plan plastic play plough polem polic polici polit political-ideolog politician popul popular portray posit possess post potenti poultri power practic pradesh pratibha pre predomin prefer prem present presid press prevail previous price primari primarili primit princ princip print prioriti problem procedur process produc product profess project promin promot proper properti prove provid provis psycholog public puls pulwama purchas purpos put qualiti quantiti question quick railway rais raja rajan rangreth rape rapid rare rate raw real realiti rear reason receiv recent recommend reconcili reconstruct record recov red refer refin reform regard region regist relat remain remov rental report repres repriev requir rescu research reserv resign resourc respons result retriev return reveal revenu revolt rich ridden rift right rinderpest rise ritual rival road role round rs rule rural salubri salvo samba saturday scale scath scenario scene scheme scope scrap second secret secretari section sector sector.the secur see seed seek seem selfish separ separatist serious servic set setback seventi sever sex shanta sharma shawl sheep shift shimla short short-liv show side signific sinc singh situat sixteen ski slowli small small-scal social social-econom social-psycholog societ societi softwar soil somewhat son sort sourc south sovereign sovereignti special spot srinagar stabil stand standard start state static statist status steal step stigma stoke stop strategi strengthen stress strict stripe structur sub sub-group subhuman subsequ succeed success sudden suffer suggest suicid suit suitabl supervis suppli support suppos sushant suspend susten symbol system systemat tabl take taken task tast teas technolog temporari temporarili tendenc tension territori terror textil th thakur theft themanufactur theoret thirti thong though threat three thus till time tone took tortur total tough tourism tourism-cum-ski tourist toward town trade tradit transport trend tri troubl turn twelv twin two type u u-turn u.s udhampur unaffect unalt underw undevelop undul union unit untir upper urban urban-domin urgent us use util valley varieti various vendetta veterinari vice vice-presid victim vidya villag violat violenc violent virbhadra virtual visitor vote vote-catch vow vulgar walnut watch water wave way wealth weather weav week well well-research went whose wide widespread wife win withdraw without women wool woolen word work worker world worri worst would wound year yet young youngster youth zainakot zakura zone