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Internetworking With Ipv6 Essay

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Master of Science
Management and Information Technology
Network Management MGIT 62152
Internetworking with IPv6
Group 6

Sanjeewa Rathnayake - (FGS/M.Sc/MIT/2010/003)
S. A. Ranamukage - (FGS/M.Sc/MIT/2010/026)
Sandun Fernando - (FGS/M.Sc/MIT/2010/029)
Date: January 19, 2012

Department of Industrial Management,
Faculty of Science,
University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
Table of Contents
List of Figures 4
List of Tables 4
1.0 Introduction 4
2.0 Brief Introduction on IPv4 5
3.0 IPv4 Address Space 6
3.1 Structure of IPv4 6
3.2 IPv4 Address Syntax 8
3.3 IPv4 Classes 8
3.4 Private Addresses 9
3.5 Network Address Translation 9
4.0 Issues with IPv4 10
5.0 IPv4 vs IPv6 comparison 10
6.0 IPv6 Overview 11
6.1 IPv6 Features and Benefits 11
7. 0 IPv6 Address Management 14
7.1 IPv6 Address Space 14
8.0 IPv6 Address Types 15
9.0 IPv6 Prefixes 16
10.0 IPv6 special addresses 17
10.1 IPv6 Address Range 17
10.2 Global Unicast IPv6 Addresses 17
10.3 Local Unicast IPv6 Addresses 18
11.0 IPv6 Subnetting 21
12.0 IPv6 Host Configuration 22
12.1 IPv6 Configuration 22
13.0 IPv6 in Depth 23
13.1 Internet Control Message Protocol for IPv6 (ICMPv6) 23
13.2 Path MTU Discovery (PMTUD) for IPv6 24
13.3 NeighborDiscovery Protocol (NDP) 24
13.4 Domain Name System (DNS) 25
13.5 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) 25
14.0 IPv6 Routing 25
14.1 Introduction to Routing with IPv6 25
15.0 IPv6 security and QoS 26
15.1 IPv6 security 26
15.2 IPv6 QoS 29
16.0 Migration from IPv4 to IPv6 30
17.0 IPv4 to IPv6 Transition technologies 30
18.0 Case study 32
18.1 Existing Network at the University of Kelaniya 32
18.2 IPv6 deployment in University of Kelaniya 33
19. 0 Conclusion 40
20.0 References 41

List of Figures
Figure 1 : Structural representation on IPv4 Header 6
Figure 2 : IPv4 Classes 9
Figure 3 : IPv4 and IPv6 Header comparison 13
Figure 4 : IPv6 Prefixes 16
Figure 5 : IPv6 addressing structure 18
Figure 6 : Ping to link local address 21
Figure 7 : Configure IPv6 address 23
Figure 8 : Dual Stack 31
Figure 9 : IPv6-in-IPv4 tunnelling 31
Figure 10 : Tunneling using 32
Figure 11 : IPv6 deployment in University of Kelaniya 33
Figure 12 : IPv6 host configuration at Outside of the firewall 34
Figure 13 : IPv6 host configuration at Mobitel connection 34
Figure 14 : Ping to 2401:dd00:20::19 35
Figure 15 : Surf SLT IPv6 site from our IPv6 host 36
Figure 16 : Ping Google from our IPv6 host 37
Figure 17 : IPv6 deployment at the University 37
Figure 18 : IPv6 configuration in DMZ 38
Figure 19 : Firewall configuration 39
Figure 20 : IPv6 routing table 40
Figure 21 : Test GoogleIPv6 using ping6 command 41

List of Tables
Table 1: Private Addresses 10
Table 2: Comparison between IPv4 and IPv6 11
Table 3 : IPv4 and IPv6 for VLAN's 37

1.0 Introduction

Internet Protocol (IP) is the “language” and set of rules computers use to talk to each other over the Internet. The Current version of IPv4 is described in IETF publication RFC 791 (September 1981), replacing an earlier definition (RFC 760, January 1980). IPv4 has proven to be robust, easily implemented and interoperable, and has stood the test of scaling an internetwork to a global utility the size of today’s Internet. This is a tribute to its initial design. The initial design did not anticipate the exponential growth of the Internet. IPv4 provides the world with only 4 billion IP addresses. As a result it was predicted that in within first decade of the 21st century IPv4 addresses will be exhausted. Therefore Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) prepared to address the perceived problems in 1993, as a result IPv6 came to play. Primary goal of new approach is to deal with exhaustion of the current, IPv4 address space. It arose out of an evaluation and design process that began in 1990 and considered a number of options and a range of different protocol alternatives. The design process was almost completed according to the evaluations by the first half of 1995, although refinement work continues . The current version of the specification was published, after considerable implementation experience had been obtained, at the end of 1998. But Controversy continues to this day about some of the choices made, but there are no proposals for alternatives that are complete enough for a determination to be made about whether or not they are realistic. Even though the principal motivation of the approach to find out a way to solve the problem of address space issue number of other changes also made in format and interpretation of data fields. Those changes are intended to make the network operate better in the long term and to expand options for the design of efficient protocols, but their presence makes transition more complex than it would have been with address space expansion alone. Therefore some communities have strongly argued different approach would have been taken to overcome the address resolution issue rather than making process more complicated. 2.0 Brief Introduction on IPv4

IPv4 is the most widely used version of internet protocol. IPv4 addresses are represented in dotted-decimal format. This 32-bit address is divided along 8-bit boundaries. Each set of 8 bits is converted to its decimal equivalent and separated by periods. Each of digit section can include a number from 0 to 255. Therefore total number of addresses available is 256 * 256* 256*256. By the original design IPv4 is a connectionless protocol for use on packet-switched networks. It operates on a best effort delivery model; in that it does not guarantee delivery, nor does it assure proper sequencing or avoidance of duplicate delivery. These aspects, including data integrity, are addressed by an upper layer transport protocol, such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Each computer or device connected to the Internet must have a unique IP address in order to communicate with other systems on the Internet. Because the number of systems connected to the Internet is quickly approaching the number of available IP addresses, IPv4 addresses are predicted to run out soon. This is not a surprise when considering over 6 billion people are in the world even though all of them are not connected most of the people have more than one devices connected to internet. 3.0 IPv4 Address Space

3.1 Structure of IPv4
Brief structural representation on IPv4 packet format (Figure 1). Figure 1 : Structural representation on IPv4 Header

* Version: 4 bits
* The Version field indicates the format of the internet header. * IHL: 4 bits
* Internet Header Length is the length of the internet header in 32 bit words, and thus points to the beginning of the data. * Type of Service: 8 bits
* The Type of Service provides an indication of the abstract parameters of the quality of service desired. * Total Length: 16 bits
* Total Length is the length of the datagram, measured in octets, including internet header and data. This field allows the length of a datagram to be up to 65,535 octets. * Identification: 16 bits

* An identifying value assigned by the sender to aid in assembling the fragments of a datagram. * Flags: 3 bits
* Various Control Flags.
* Fragment Offset: 13 bits
* This field indicates where in the datagram this fragment belongs. The fragment offset is measured in units of 8 octets (64 bits). * Time to Live: 8 bits
* This field indicates the maximum time the datagram is allowed to remain in the internet system. * Protocol: 8 bits
* This field indicates the next level protocol used in the data portion of the internet datagram. * Header Checksum: 16 bits
* A checksum on the header only. Since some header fields change (e.g., time to live), this is recomputed and verified at each point that the internet header is processed. * Source Address: 32 bits

* The source address. Where the packet originates.
* Destination Address: 32 bits
* The destination address. Where the packet target. * Options: variable
* The options may appear or not in datagrams. They must be implemented by all IP modules. i.e. hosts and gateways. Their implementation is mandatory whereas transmission is optional * Padding: variable

* The internet header padding is used to ensure that the internet header ends on a 32 bit boundary.Dsdsd

3.2 IPv4 Address Syntax

An IP address consists of 32 bits. Binary notation is use to express the address instead of expressing addresses in 32 bits, it is standard practice to segment the 32 bits of an IPv4 address into four 8-bit fields called octets. Each octet is converted to a decimal number from 0–255 and separated by a. This format is called dotted decimal notation. Example:-

IPv4 address of 11000000101010000000001100011000 is:
* Segmented into 8-bit blocks: 11000000 10101000 00000011 00011000 * Each block is converted to decimal: 192 168 3 24
* The adjacent octets are separated by a period: Notation w, x, y, z is use to refer genaralised IP address
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

3.3 IPv4 Classes
IP addressing supports three different commercial address classes; Class A, Class B, and Class C (Figure 2). In a class A address, the first octet is the network portion, so the class A address of,, has a major network address of 10. Octets 2, 3, and 4 are for the hosts. Class A addresses are used for networks that have more than 65,536 hosts . In a class B address, the first two octets are the network portion, so the class B address of,, has a major network address of 172.16. Octets 3 and 4 (the next 16 bits) are for the hosts. Class B addresses are used for networks that have between 256 and 65,536 hosts. In a class C address, the first three octets are the network portion. The class C address of,, has a major network address of 193.18.9. Octet 4 (the last 8 bits) is for hosts. Class C addresses are used for networks with less than 254 hosts.

Figure 2 : IPv4 Classes
3.4 Private Addresses
The IP standard defines specific address ranges within Class A, Class B, and Class C reserved for use by private networks (intranets). The table below lists these reserved ranges of the IP address space. Table 1: Private Addresses

Class | Private start ...

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-15 -31 -4 -7 /10 /12 /128 /16 /24 /3 /32 /48 /64 /8 /en-us/download/details.aspx?id=21536 /ipv6 /routing 0 0000 0000000000000000 0000000000000011 0000000000100000 00000011 00011000 0003 0010 0010010000000001 0020 0123 0234 0db8 1 1.0 1/128 10 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.3.1 10.3.2 10.3.3 10/8 100 10101000 1038 11 11.0 11.1 11.2 11000000 11000000101010000000001100011000 1101110100000000 111 1110 1111 12 12.0 12.1 12.1.1 127 128 13 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 14 14.0 14.1 14.1.1 14.1.2 14.1.3 1400 15 15.0 15.1 15.2 150 16 16.0 168 17 17.0 1711 172.16 18 18.0 18.1 18.2 1800 19 19/64 1900 192 193.18.9 1970s 1980 1981 1990 1992 1993 1995 1998 1999 1f4 2 2.0 20 20.0 2000 2001 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013 21 211 2128 21st 22 23 232 24 2400 2401 25 254 255 256 26 28 2810 282 29 2900 2910s 294 296 2d99 3 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3/64 30 31 32 33 34 340 348 35 36 366 37 374 38 39 3927 3com 3g 4 4.0 40 4007 41 4200 4291 431 4400 4443 456 4567 463 48 4861 4900 5 5.0 50 500 535 536 5500gi 570 599 6 6.0 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