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Uses Of Internet Essay

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This article is about the public worldwide computer network system. For other uses, see Internet (disambiguation). "Computer culture" redirects here. For other uses, see Cyberculture. |Internet | |[pic] | |A visualization of routing paths through a portion of the Internet. | |General[show] | |Access | |Censorship | |Democracy | |Digital divide | |Digital rights | |Freedom of information | |History of the Internet | |Internet phenomena | |Net neutrality | |Pioneers | |Privacy | |Sociology | |Usage | |Governance[show] | |ICANN | |Internet Engineering Task Force | |Internet Governance Forum | |Internet Society | |Information infrastructure[show] | |Domain Name System | |Hypertext Transfer Protocol | |Internet exchange point | |Internet Protocol | |Internet protocol suite | |Internet service provider | |IP address | |POP3 email protocol | |Simple Mail Transfer Protocol | |Services[show] | |Blogs | |Microblogging | |Email | |Fax | |File sharing | |File transfer | |Games | |Instant messaging | |Podcasts | |Shopping | |Television | |Voice over IP | |World Wide Web | |search | |Guides[show] | |[pic]Book | |[pic]Index | |Outline | |[pic]Internet portal | |v | |t | |e |

|Computer network types by spatial scope | |Near field (NFC) | |Body (BAN) | |Personal (PAN) | |Near-me (NAN) | |Local (LAN) | |Home (HAN) | |Storage (SAN) | |Campus (CAN) | |Backbone | |Metropolitan (MAN) | |Wide (WAN) | |Cloud (IAN) | |Internet | |Interplanetary Internet | |Intergalactic Computer Network | |v | |t | |e |

The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve several billion users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW), the infrastructure to support email, and peer-to-peer networks. Most traditional communications media including telephone, music, film, and television are being reshaped or redefined by the Internet, giving birth to new services such as voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and Internet Protocol television (IPTV). Newspaper, book and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking. Online shopping has boomed both for major retail outlets and small artisans and traders. Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries. The origins of the Internet reach back to research commissioned by the United States government in the 1960s to build robust, fault-tolerant communication via computer networks. While this work together with work in the United Kingdom and France lead to important precursor networks, they were not the Internet. There is no consensus on the exact date when the modern Internet came into being, but sometime in the early to mid-1980s is considered reasonable. The funding of a new U.S. backbone by the National Science Foundation in the 1980s, as well as private funding for other commercial backbones, led to worldwide participation in the development of new networking technologies, and the merger of many networks. Though the Internet has been widely used by academia since the 1980s, the commercialization of what was by the 1990s an international network resulted in its popularization and incorporation into virtually every aspect of modern human life. As of June 2012[update], more than 2.4 billion people—over a third of the world's human population—have used the services of the Internet; approximately 100 times more people than were using it in 1995.[1][2] The Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage; each constituent network sets its own policies. Only the overreaching definitions of the two principal name spaces in the Internet, the Internet Protocol address space and the Domain Name System, are directed by a maintainer organization, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). The technical underpinning and standardization of the core protocols (IPv4 and IPv6) is an activity of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), a non-profit organization of loosely affiliated international participants that anyone may associate with by contributing technical expertise.


• 1 Terminology
• 2 History
• 3 Technology
o 3.1 Protocols
o 3.2 Routing
o 3.3 General structure
• 4 Governance
• 5 Modern uses
• 6 Services
o 6.1 World Wide Web
o 6.2 Communication
o 6.3 Data transfer
• 7 Access
• 8 Users
• 9 Social impact
o 9.1 Social networking and entertainment
o 9.2 Electronic business
o 9.3 Telecommuting
o 9.4 Crowdsourcing
o 9.5 Politics and political revolutions
o 9.6 Philanthropy
o 9.7 Censorship
• 10 See also
• 11 References
• 12 External links
o 12.1 Organizations
o 12.2 Articles, books, and journals


The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz in Holon
See also: Internet capitalization conventions
The Internet, referring to the specific global system of interconnected IP networks, is a proper noun and written with an initial capital letter. In the media and common use it is often not capitalized, viz. the internet. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, but not capitalized when used as a verb or an adjective.[3] The Internet is also often referred to as the Net. Historically the word internet was used, uncapitalized, as early as 1883 as a verb and adjective to refer to interconnected motions. Starting in the early 1970s the term internet was used as a shorthand form of the technical term internetwork, the result of interconnecting computer networks with special gateways or routers. It was also used as a verb meaning to connect together, especially for networks.[4][5] The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably in everyday speech; it is common to speak of "going on the Internet" when invoking a web browser to view web pages. However, the Internet is a particular global computer network connecting millions of computing devices; the World Wide Web is just one of many services running on the Internet. The Web is a collection of interconnected documents (web pages) and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks and URLs.[6] In addition to the Web, a multitude of other services are implemented over the Internet, including e-mail, file transfer, remote computer control, newsgroups, and online games. Web (and other) services can be implemented on any intranet, accessible to network users. Interweb is a mixture of Internet and World Wide Web typically used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user.[7]


Professor Leonard Kleinrock with the first ARPANET Interface Message Processors at UCLA Main articles: History of the Internet and History of the World Wide Web Research into packet switching started in the early 1960s and packet switched networks such as Mark I at NPL in the UK,[8] ARPANET, CYCLADES,[9][10] Merit Network,[11] Tymnet, and Telenet, were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s using a variety of protocols. The ARPANET in particular led to the development of protocols for internetworking, where multiple separate networks could be joined together into a network of networks.[citation needed] The first two nodes of what would become the ARPANET were interconnected between Leonard Kleinrock's Network Measurement Center at the UCLA's School of Engineering and Applied Science and Douglas Engelbart's NLS system at SRI International (SRI) in Menlo Park, California, on 29 October 1969.[12] The third site on the ARPANET was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics center at the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the fourth was the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of future growth, there were already fifteen sites connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971.[13][14] These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks: The Heralds of Resource Sharing. Early international collaborations on ARPANET were sparse. For various political reasons, European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks.[15] Notable exceptions were the Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) in June 1973,[16] followed in 1973 by Sweden with satellite links to the Tanum Earth Station and Peter T. Kirstein's research group in the UK, initially at the Institute of Computer Science, University of London and later at University College London.[citation needed] In December 1974, RFC 675 – Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, used the term internet as a shorthand for internetworking and later RFCs repeat this use.[17] Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) developed the Computer Science Network (CS...

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