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Lessons From Aquino Government Essay

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Master of Public Administration (MPA) Thesis

Relationship of Presidential Leadership and Development in the Conflicted Areas of Mindanao: Lessons from the Benigno Aquino III Government

Park Chung Hee School of Policy and Saemaul of Yeungnam University Department of Saemaul and International Development
Major in Saemaul Undong and Community Development

Sarah Elaine C. Navarro

Advisor: Professor LEE Mi Sook

2015 March
Master of Public Administration (MPA) Thesis

Relationship of Presidential Leadership and Development in the Conflicted Areas of Mindanao: Lessons from the Benigno Aquino III Government

Advisor: Professor LEE Mi Sook

Presented as Master of Public Administration Thesis

2015 March

Park Chung Hee School of Policy and Saemaul of Yeungnam University Department of Saemaul and International Development, Saemaul Undong Theory and Community Development

Sarah Elaine Navarro’s Master of Public Administration Thesis is approved

Committee Member: _____________________
Committee Member: _____________________
Committee Member: _____________________

2015 March

Park Chung Hee School of Policy and Saemaul of Yeungnam University


Table of Contents
1. Introduction…………………………………………………………………..1 1.1. Chapter Introduction…………………………………………...………..1 1.2. Background…………………………………………………...………... 1 1.3. Problem Statement……………………………………………...……… 3 1.4. Research Questions……………………………………………...……... 4 1.5. Research Objectives………………………………………………...….. 4 1.6. Research Significance…...………………………………………...…… 5 2. Literature Review…………………………………………………………… 6 2.1. Conflict and Poverty

2.1.1. Understanding Conflict Defining Conflict Types of Conflict Causes of Conflict Cost of Conflict
2.1.2. Poverty Understanding Poverty Degrees of Poverty
2.2. Leadership
2.2.1. Defining Leadership
2.2.2. Leadership Styles
2.2.3. Leadership Traits
3. Presentation and Discussion
3.1. Benigno Aquino Leadership Style
3.2. Mindanao
3.2.1. History of Conflict and Poverty in Mindanao
3.2.2. Conflict as Root of Poverty and Underdevelopment
3.3. President Aquino’s Government and the Development of Conflicted Areas in Mindanao 3.3.1. Mindanao Rural Development Plan
3.3.2. Mindanao Strategic Development Framework
3.3.3. Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process 3.3.4. Comprehensive Peace Agreement (Comprehensive Bangsamoro Agreement) 3.3.5. Mindanao Peace and Development Plan PAMANA (Payapa at Masaganang Pamayanan)
4. Conclusion and Recommendation
4.1. Chapter Introduction
4.2. Conclusion
4.3. Recommendation

I. Introduction
I.1 Chapter Introduction
II. This chapter will give a brief introduction of the current status of the Philippines and its struggle to attain development in the poorest region of Mindanao due to conflict. Such struggle brings about the research’s questions on how the current presidential leadership affects the development of the conflicted areas in Mindanao and what leadership style will work best to end the conflict and deliver Mindanao from being underdeveloped. It shall also briefly discuss the research’s objectives and its significance. II.1 Background

III. Composed of 7,107 islands, the Philippines is the 64th largest country with approximately 300, 000 square kilometers of land and is situated in South East Asia. Collectively, its islands are categorized in three major divisions; Luzon in the north, Visayas at the center and Mindanao in the south. Situated near the equator and surrounded by the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean, the Philippines is abundantly rich in natural resources and biodiversity. Mountainous islands are volcanic in origin and are covered by rainforests. Mineral deposits are also abundant because of the lands’ volcanic nature. Philippine waters is also home to 2,400 species of fish and also sustain cultivation of pearls, seaweeds and crabs. IV. Based on the national census conducted in 2010, the Philippines is densely populated with 92.34 million people (2010 Census of Population Report 2010). It is the 7th most populated country in all of Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. An estimated half of the entire population resides in Luzon. The people of the Philippines belong to multiple ethnicities. There are 28 different ethnicities and the main ethnicities include Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Waray, Tagalog, Bisaya and some distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro. V. The Philippines has a rich and diverse cultural and social background, having been colonized by 3 different countries; Spain (1521 – 1898), America (1898 – 1946) and Japan (1942 – 1945). These various colonizations have helped shape the Philippines’ religious, cultural, economic and political background. The wide spread of Christianity throughout the islands of Luzon and Visayas occurred during the Spanish era, this lasted for 333 years. The religious influence of Spain has borne 85.5% of the current Filipino population as practicing Christianity. However, the Spanish colonizers failed to spread Christianity in the southern island of Mindanao. Currently, 95% of Mindanao’s population, or 11% of the entire population, is predominantly Muslim. VI. Economically, the Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and middle power because of its large population size and economic potential. With an expansion of 6.90% in the last quarter of 2014, the GDP Annual Growth Rate has now averaged at 5.09% from 2001 – 2014. Service sector is the largest contributor to the national GDP followed by manufacturing, construction and agriculture. Primary exports of the country include electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper, coconut oil and fruits such as banana, mango and pineapple. In more recent years, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one that is based on agriculture to one that is based on manufacturing and services; however, it is still primarily an agricultural country. VII. The agricultural sector, which is composed of farming, fisheries, livestock and forestry, collectively contribute to 20% of the country’s GDP, and Mindanao has steadily made substantial contribution within the agricultural sector. Naturally well endowed, Mindanao is considered the “bread basket” of the Philippines since it is a main producer of 8 out of 10 agriculturally exported commodities of the country. Mindanao is the second largest main island in the Philippines with over 95,000 square kilometers of land and is the biggest rubber producer of the country, attributed to its rich soil and good climate conditions. VIII. Although abundantly blessed with natural resources, Mindanao remains to be the most underdeveloped region in the Philippines, mostly due to the violent conflict between the Moro secessionist groups and the Government of the Philippines. The conflict has a long history, dating back to the Spanish colonial period. IX. During the height of the conflict in 1970 – 1976, an estimated more than 100,000 people have died because of the conflict, with an average of 18 people were killed every day (Concepcion, et al. 2003). Also at the height of the conflict, millions of people were left homeless, schools, roads and business establishments were heavily destroyed. Destruction establishments and death tolls have continued to rise even well into 2014. Death, displacement and loss of livelihood have led to the seemingly never ending underdevelopment and poverty in the conflict affected region. Despite efforts of the past 4 presidents of the country to resolve the conflict in Mindanao, it has still remained the most underdeveloped and poorest region in the country. With the election of the current president, Benigno Aquino III, renewed hope for peace, advancement and development has sprung in the hearts of the Filipino nation, most especially those inhabiting the conflicted areas of Mindanao. X. This research looks into the renewed hope brought about by the election of the Philippines’ current president. It aims to understand and uncover how President Aquino’s leadership is working towards achievement of peace and development in the conflicted areas. XI.

XI.1 Problem Statement
XII. Despite the growth in national GDP of the Philippines, the issue on the country’s widening poverty has remained unresolved and has grown higher as the population continues to grow throughout the past several administrations. The poor has been accounted for one-fourth of the total population as of 2009. In a list released by the National Statistical Coordination Board in 2012, Mindanao has 5 out of 10 of the poorest provinces in the country. The Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) is the poorest region with an estimated 47 out of 100 families categorized as poor this is according to the NSCB or 46.9% poverty incidence (Arguillas 2013). XIII. The unwavering and massive military operations between the Muslim secessionists such as the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Government of the Philippines, has hampered the tapping of Mindanao’s agricultural and natural resources. The ongoing conflict has contributed to the worsening underdevelopment, poverty, displacement of families, and loss in livelihood for those inhabiting the conflicted areas of Mindanao. XIV. The long withstanding conflict between the government of the Philippines and the largely growing number of secessionist groups has caused the island of Mindanao to be the only remaining main island in the Philippines lagging behind in terms of economic growth and overall development. The poor economic performance and low standards of living and the lack of opportunities for employment coupled with the ethnic differences, have caused more armed conflicts in the region. XV.

XV.1 Research Questions
XVI. For the past 5 decades and the past 5 Philippine presidents, the armed conflict in Mindanao has never been resolved; rather it has worsened and has kept Mindanao from reaching its full potential to develop. The longing for peace and development in the region has long been desired not only by the inhabitants of Mindanao, but of the rest of the Filipino people. With the election of President Benigno Aquino III, renewed hope in achieving peace and development as well as trust in its government has been rekindled in the Filipino people. XVII. With the above mentioned problem, this research aims to answer the following questions revolving the Aquino administration: 1. How does the current presidential leadership affect the development of the conflicted areas in Mindanao? 2. What leadership style will work best to end the conflict and deliver Mindanao from being underdeveloped? XVIII.

XIX.1 Research Objectives
XX. The objective of this research is to examine the leadership style of President Benigno Aquino III. Specifically how his leadership affects the conflict in Mindanao and how it is being addressed for the duration of his term in office. The research also aims to identify the leadership style and qualities necessary to end conflict and poverty in Mindanao. It also aims to seek lessons on the current government’s approach to managing conflict and development in the region. XXI.

XXI.1 Research Significance
XXII. With the term in office of President Aquino coming to a close in 2016, the findings and lessons from this research aims to identify the necessary presidential leadership style which will help in attaining lasting peace in the conflicted areas of Mindanao. The lessons to be identified in this research, both positive and negative, may be used as a guiding tool by the succeeding administration in its goal to minimize poverty and achieve development, most especially in Mindanao. XXIII.

XXXVI. Literature Review
XXXVI.1 Conflict and Poverty
XXXVI.1.1 Understanding Conflict
XXXVII. Conflict has been a learning interest of humans throughout generations. Knowledge about conflict has been spread across humanity and is found where humans live, work, and play. It is the same knowledge seen and used in everyday living – family relationships, the government, businesses, sports or raising children or families. In this sense, conflict handling has becom...

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