The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in the United Kingdom. Robert Owen (14 May 1771-17 November 1858)，born in Newtown，Montgomeryshire, Wales was a social reformer and one of the founders of socialism and the cooperative movement. Owens philosophy was based on three intellectual pillars:
♦ First，no one was responsible for his will and his own actions, because his whole character is formed independently of himself; people are products of their environment hence his support for education and labour reform, rendering him a pioneer in human capital investment. ♦ Second, all religions are based on the same absurd imagination, that make man a weak, imbecile animal; a furious bigot and fanatic; or a miserable hypocrite. ♦ Third，support for the putting-out system instead of the factory system. The chief points in this philosophy were that man's character is made not by him but for him; that it has been formed by circumstances over which he had no control; that he is not a proper subject either of praise or blame. These principles lead up to the practical conclusion that the great secret in the right formation of man’s character is to place him under the proper influences - physical，moral and social - from his earliest years. These principles - of the irresponsibility of man and of the effect of early influences - form the key to Owen*s whole system of education and social amelioration. Owen had originally been a follower of the classical liberal and utilitarian Jeremy Bentham. However, as time passed Owen became more and more socialist, whereas Bentham thought that free markets (in particular，the rights for workers to move and choose their employers) would free the workers from the excess power of the capitalists. Owen believed that a person’s character is formed by the effects of their environment Owen was convinced that if he created the right environment,he could produce rational, g...