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Pragmatism was a philosophical tradition that originated in the United States around 1870. The most important of the ‘classical pragmatists’ were Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914), William James (1842–1910) and John Dewey (1859-1952). The influence of pragmatism declined during the first two thirds of the twentieth century, but it has undergone a revival since the 1970s with philosophers being increasingly willing to use the writings and ideas of the classical pragmatists, and also a number of thinkers, such as Richard Rorty, Hilary Putnam and Robert Brandom developing philosophical views that represent later stages of the pragmatist tradition. The core of pragmatism was the pragmatist maxim, a rule for clarifying the contents of hypotheses by tracing their ‘practical consequences’. In the work of Peirce and James, the most influential application of the pragmatist maxim was to the concept of truth. But the pragmatists have also tended to share a distinctive epistemological outlook, a fallibilist anti-Cartesian approach to the norms that govern inquiry. *Philosophical tradition that interprets truth in terms of the practical effects of what is believed and, in particular, the usefulness of these effects. The philosophy that the truth of an idea is dependent on its workability; ideas or principles is true so far as they work. A practical, matter-of-fact way of approaching or assessing situations or of solving problems. Using, experimenting, and/or acting on a given idea in certain circumstances; whatever these results are, these are to be considered the whole of what one knows of that idea

Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) He is the founder of Pragmatism He formulated a method of looking at reality; discerning what is true and what is false. What he needed was a theory of MEANING.

William James (1842-1910), He further advanced Peirce’s Theory of Truth The world came to know pragmatism in a systematic way because of him.

Dewey one of the primary figures associated with philosophy ofpragmatism and is considered one of the founders of functional psychology. his article, ‘The development of American pragmatism’, who gives one of the most lucid and thorough accounts of its historical founding as well to some of its core principles (Dewey, 1925/1984).

The creation of the US Constitution; King John signing the Magna Carta at his baron's sword-point; Rome granting citizenship to the cities of Italy; general Grant trading casualties he could afford with Lee, who could not; the treaty ending the Mexican War; Lincoln's whole term of office; Indian rulers who sided with the British raj; Imperial Chinese recruitment of the latest batch ...

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