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Colonial history of the United States
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The term colonial history of the United States refers to the history of the land that would become the United States from the start of European settlement to the time of independence from Europe, and especially to the history of the thirteen colonies of Britain which declared themselves independent in 1776.[1] Starting in the late 16th century, the English, Scottish, French, Swedes, Germans and the Dutch began to colonize eastern North America. [2][3] Many early attempts—notably the Lost Colony of Roanoke—ended in failure, but successful colonies were soon established. The colonists who came to the New World were from a variety of different social and religious groups who settled in different locations on the seaboard. The Dutch of New Netherland, the Swedes and Finns of New Sweden, the Quakers of Pennsylvania, the Puritans of New England, the English settlers of Jamestown, and the "worthy poor" of Georgia, and others—each group came to the new continent for different reasons and created colonies with distinct social, religious, political and economic structures.[4] Historians typically recognize four distinct regions in the lands that later became the Eastern United States. Listed from north to south, they are: New England, the Middle Colonies, the Chesapeake Bay Colonies (Upper South) and the Lower South. Some historians add a fifth region, the frontier, as frontier regions from New England to Georgia resembled each other in certain respects. Other colonies in the pre-United States territories include Canada, New France (Louisiana), New Spain (including Florida, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado and Wyoming), Columbia District (Washington state, Oregon and northern California) and Russian Alaska. Contents[hide] * 1 Motives for colonization * 2 Early colonial failures * 3 Spanish colonies * 3.1 Florida * 3.2 New Mexico (1598-1821) * 3.3 California (1765-1821) * 4 New Netherland * 5 New France * 6 Russian colonies * 7 British colonies * 7.1 Convict settlers * 7.2 Chesapeake Bay area * 7.2.1 Virginia * 7.3 New England * 7.3.1 Pilgrims * 7.3.2 Puritans * 7.4 Middle Colonies * 7.5 Lower South * 7.5.1 Carolinas * 7.5.2 Georgia * 7.5.3 East and West Florida * 8 British colonial government in 1776 * 8.1 Provincial colonies * 8.2 Proprietary colonies * 8.3 Charter colonies * 8.4 Similarities and differences * 9 Unification of the British colonies * 9.1 A common defense * 9.2 French and Indian War * 9.3 Ties to the British Empire * 10 From unity to revolution * 10.1 Royal Proclamation * 10.2 Acts of Parliament * 11 Colonial life * 11.1 New England * 11.1.1 Farm life * 11.1.2 Town life * 11.1.3 Culture and education * 11.1.4 Religion * 11.2 Mid-Atlantic Region * 11.2.1 Ways of life * 11.2.2 Farming * 11.2.3 Seaports * 11.3 Southern Colonies * 11.3.1 Plantations * 11.3.2 Slaves * 12 Bibliography * 12.1 References * 12.2 Secondary sources * 12.3 Journal articles * 12.4 Primary sources * 12.5 Online sources | [edit] Motives for colonization

The main colonizing regions of Europe were those where ocean-worthy shipbuilding innovations and navigational technology and skills were developing, as well as an expanding population willing and able to establish themselves in foreign lands. The Spanish and Portuguese centuries-old experience of conquest and colonization during the Reconquista, coupled with new oceanic ship navigation skills (developed mainly in Italy[citation needed]), provided the tools, ability, and desire to colonize the New World. The English, French, and Dutch of northwest Europe were slower to start colonies in America. They had the ability to build ocean-worthy ships, but did not have as strong a history of colonization in foreign lands as did Spain, although the English conquest and colonization of parts of Ireland played a role in the later development of larger scale colonization efforts As the "New Monarchs" began to forge nations, they acquired the degree of centralized wealth and power necessary to begin systematic attempts at exploration. Not all exploratory undertakings, however, were done by central governments. Charter companies and joint stock companies also played a crucial role in exploration. Spain's experience during the Reconquista gave their American colonization efforts qualities of centralized governmental control, military conquest, and religious missionary efforts. In contrast, northwest Europe's experience with early capitalism (mercantilism), going back to organizations like the Hanseatic League, gave their colonization of America qualities of merchant-based investment and much less government control. [edit] Early colonial failures

Spain established several colonies in the area that is now the United States. Several of these early attempts failed. In 1526, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón founded the colony San Miguel de Guadalupe in present day Georgia or South Carolina. The colony only lasted a short while before disintegrating. It was also notable for perhaps being the first instance of African slave labor within the present boundaries of the United States. Pánfilo de Narváez attempted to start a colony in Florida in 1528. The Narváez expedition ended in disaster with only four members making it to Mexico in 1536. The Spanish Colony of Pensacola in West Florida (1559) was destroyed by a hurricane in 1561. Fort San Juan was established in 1567 in the interior of North Carolina but was destroyed by local Native Americans 18 months later. The Ajacan Mission, founded in 1570, failed the next year, very near the site of the later English colony of Jamestown. The French established several colonies that failed, due to weather, disease or conflict with other European powers. A small group of French troops were left on Parris Island, South Carolina in 1562 to build Charlesfort, but left after a year when they were not resupplied from France. Fort Caroline established in present-day Jacksonville, Florida in 1564, lasted only a year before being destroyed by the Spanish from St. Augustine. In 1604, Saint Croix Island, Maine was the site of a short-lived French colony, much plagued by illness, perhaps scurvy. Fort Saint Louis was established in Texas in 1685, but was gone by 1688. The most notable English failures were the "Lost Colony of Roanoke" (1587-90) in North Carolina and Popham Colony in Maine (1607-8). It was at the Roanoke Colony that the first English child, Virginia Dare, was born in the Americas; her fate is unknown. [edit] Spanish colonies

[edit] Florida
Main article: History of Florida
Spain established many small settlements in Florida, most of which were soon abandoned. The most important settlement was at St. Augustine, Florida, founded in 1565. It was repeatedly attacked and burned, with most residents killed or fled. Missionaries converted 26,000 natives by 1655, but a revolt in 1656 and an epidemic in 1659 proved devastating. Pirate attacks were unrelenting against small outposts and even against St Augustine. The British and their colonies repeatedly made war against Spain and its colonies and outposts. South Carolina launched large scale invasions in 1702 and 1704, which effectively destroyed the Spanish mission system. St Augustine survived, but English-allied Indians such as the Yamasee conducted slave raids throughout Florida, killing or enslaving most of the region's natives. St Augustine itself was captured in 1740. Their main food source was fish they found in rivers and animals they hunted. The British and Spanish had been enemies for many decades. The conflicts in Spanish Florida were one part of a larger, global struggle. In the mid-1700s, invading Seminoles killed most of the remaining local Indians. Florida had about 3,000 Spaniards when Britain took control in 1763. Nearly all quickly left. Even though control was restored to Spain in 1783, Spain sent no more settlers or missionaries to Florida. The U.S. took possession in 1819. [edit] New Mexico (1598-1821)

Main article: History of New Mexico
Throughout the 16th century, Spain explored the southwest from Mexico with the most notable explorer being Francisco Coronado whose expedition rode throughout modern New Mexico, Arizona, southern Colorado, the panhandle of Oklahoma, and Kansas. However, no settlements were established by Coronado. The first colonization was under Don Juan de Oñate in 1598 where the first settlement in San Juan de Los Caballeros near Española, New Mexico and later Santa Fe, New Mexico around 1609. From their base in Santa Fe, the Spaniards explored the west including Utah, Wyoming, western Nebraska, Arizona, Nevada, and California. The settlements spread throughout the upper Rio Grande Basin with three Villas being founded; Santa Fe, Chimayo de Santa Cruz, and Albuquerque in addition to many far flung smaller settlements and missions. The second colonization came in 1692 under Diego de Vargas after the Pueblo Revolt. Even though there have been several claims within the boundaries of the Kingdom of New Mexico by several foreign powers (Texas, France, US), control had always been maintained by Spain (223 years) and later Mexico (25 years) until the arrival of the American Army of the West under Colonel Stephen Watts Kearny in 1846 during the Mexican-American War. Many direct descendants of the original colonists live on the land grants granted by Spain and later Mexico to this day. [edit] California (1765-1821)

Main article: History of California to 1899

The ruins of the Spanish Mission San Juan Capistrano in California. Spanish explorers sailed along the coast of California from the early 16th century to the mid-18th century, but no settlements were established. During the last quarter of the 18th century, the first European settlements were established in California. Reacting to interest by Russia and possibly Great Britain in the fur-bearing animals of the Pacific coast, Spain created a series of Catholic missions, accompanied by troops and ranches, along the southern and central coast of California. Father Junípero Serra, a Franciscan missionary, founded the mission chain, starting with San Diego de Alcalá in 1769. The California Missions comprised a series of outposts established to spread Christianity among the local Native Americans, with the added benefit of confirming historic Spanish claims to the area. The missions introduced European technology, livestock and crops, while keeping the native people in peonage. The highway and missions became for many a romantic symbol of an idyllic and peaceful past[citation needed]. The "Mission Revival Style" was an architectural movement that drew its inspiration from this idealized view of California's past. The first quarter of the 19th century con...

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