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Chapter 2
The Structure of Matter and
the Chemical Elements

An Introduction to
Chemistry
By Mark Bishop

Chapter
Map

Chemistry

The science that deals
with the structure and
behavior of matter

Scientific
Models

•  A model is a simplified
approximation of reality.
•  Scientific models are simplified
but useful representations of
something real.

Kinetic
Molecular
Theory
•  All matter is composed of tiny particles.
•  The particles are in constant motion.
•  Increased temperature reflects
increased motion of particles.
•  Solids, liquids and gases differ in the
freedom of motion of their particles and
in how strongly the particles attract
each other.

Solid

•  Constant shape and volume
•  The particles are constantly moving,
colliding with other particles, and
changing their direction and velocity.
•  Each particle is trapped in a small
cage whose walls are formed by
other particles that are strongly
attracted to each other.

The Nature
of Solids

Liquid

•  Constant volume but variable shape
•  The particles are moving fast enough
to break the attractions between
particles that form the walls of the
cage that surround particles in the
solid form.
•  Thus each particle in a liquid is
constantly moving from one part of
the liquid to another.

Liquids

Evaporation

Gas

•  Variable shape and volume
•  Large average distances between
particles
•  Little attraction between particles
•  Constant collisions between particles,
leading to constant changes in
direction and velocit...

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