The Structure of Matter and
the Chemical Elements
An Introduction to
By Mark Bishop
The science that deals
with the structure and
behavior of matter
• A model is a simplified
approximation of reality.
• Scientific models are simplified
but useful representations of
• All matter is composed of tiny particles.
• The particles are in constant motion.
• Increased temperature reflects
increased motion of particles.
• Solids, liquids and gases differ in the
freedom of motion of their particles and
in how strongly the particles attract
• Constant shape and volume
• The particles are constantly moving,
colliding with other particles, and
changing their direction and velocity.
• Each particle is trapped in a small
cage whose walls are formed by
other particles that are strongly
attracted to each other.
• Constant volume but variable shape
• The particles are moving fast enough
to break the attractions between
particles that form the walls of the
cage that surround particles in the
• Thus each particle in a liquid is
constantly moving from one part of
the liquid to another.
• Variable shape and volume
• Large average distances between
• Little attraction between particles
• Constant collisions between particles,
leading to constant changes in
direction and velocit...