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Chapter 2
The Structure of Matter and
the Chemical Elements

An Introduction to
By Mark Bishop



The science that deals
with the structure and
behavior of matter


•  A model is a simplified
approximation of reality.
•  Scientific models are simplified
but useful representations of
something real.

•  All matter is composed of tiny particles.
•  The particles are in constant motion.
•  Increased temperature reflects
increased motion of particles.
•  Solids, liquids and gases differ in the
freedom of motion of their particles and
in how strongly the particles attract
each other.


•  Constant shape and volume
•  The particles are constantly moving,
colliding with other particles, and
changing their direction and velocity.
•  Each particle is trapped in a small
cage whose walls are formed by
other particles that are strongly
attracted to each other.

The Nature
of Solids


•  Constant volume but variable shape
•  The particles are moving fast enough
to break the attractions between
particles that form the walls of the
cage that surround particles in the
solid form.
•  Thus each particle in a liquid is
constantly moving from one part of
the liquid to another.




•  Variable shape and volume
•  Large average distances between
•  Little attraction between particles
•  Constant collisions between particles,
leading to constant changes in
direction and velocit...

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