STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE (SPP)
Promulgated as Part of the IRR of
R.A. No. 9266, known as “The Architecture Act of 2004”
and to be known hereinafter as the
(replacing the 1979 UAP Docs. 201 through 208 and the UAP Docs 209 and 210)
A. GENERAL DEFINITIONS
1. State shall refer solely to the National Government of the Republic of the Philippines.
2. Standards of Professional Practice (SPP) is a required document under Sec. 41 of R.A. No. 9266 (The Architecture Act of 2004) and its Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR).
3. Commission as used for this SPP and the succeeding SPP documents shall refer only to the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), duly created under R.A. No. 8981 (The PRC Modernization Act of 2000).
4. Board as used for this SPP and the succeeding SPP documents shall refer only to the Professional Regulatory Board of Architecture (PRBoA), duly created under R.A. No. 9266 and its IRR and under the supervision and administrative control of the Commission.
5. Architect as used for this SPP and the succeeding SPP documents shall refer only to a Registered and Licensed Architect (RLA), a natural person under Philippine law and jurisprudence with a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional identification card (representing the renewable 3-year license) for the lawful practice of the State-regulated profession of architecture. Depending on the SPP, the term Architect may also refer to Architect-of-record (Aor), Architect in charge of construction (Aicc), Consulting Architect (CA) as provided for under R.A. No. 9266.
6. Architectural Firm (AF) as used for this SPP and the succeeding SPP documents shall refer only to a juridical person under Philippine law and jurisprudence, duly registered with the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) as a sole proprietorship for individual architectural practice or registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and with the Professional Regulation Commission (the PRC or hereafter the Commission) as a professional partnership or as an architectural corporation for group architectural practice by RLAs, subject to full compliances with Sec. 37 of R.A. No. 9266 and derivative regulations.
7. Architect and Architectural Firm (AF) may be used interchangeably for some of the succeeding SPP.
8. Professional/s as used for this SPP and the succeeding SPP documents shall refer only to Registered and Licensed Professionals (RLPs), all natural persons under Philippine law and jurisprudence with a valid certificate and a valid professional identification card (representing the renewable license) for the lawful practice of a State-regulated profession other than architecture.
9. Client, Owner and Project Proponent may be used interchangeably for this SPP and some of the succeeding SPP.
10. Contractor and General Contractor shall also mean Constructor or Builder, and may be used interchangeably for this SPP.
11. Bid and Tender shall mean the same.
ADR - Alternative Dispute Resolution
AF - Architectural Firm
ADC - Architectural Design Competition
Aicc - Architect in charge of construction
Aor - Architect-of-record
BPO - Business Process Outsourcing
CA - Consulting Architect
CEC - Codes of Ethical Conduct
DoLE - Department of Labor and Employment
DTI - Department of Trade and Industry
FPCA - Filipino Professional Consulting Architects
IAPOA - Integrated and Accredited Professional Organization of Architects KPO - Knowledge Process Outsourcing
MoP - Manual of Procedure
PACS - Professional Architectural Consulting Services
PCA - Professional Consulting Architect
PRC - Professional Regulation Commission
PRBoA Professional Regulatory Board of Architecture
SEC - Securities and Exchange Commission
RLA - Registered and Licensed Architect
SPP - Standards of Professional Practice
TSP - Temporary/ Special Permit
C. GENERAL NOTES ON THE
SELECTION OF THE ARCHITECT
(Part of the IRR of R.A. No. 9266, replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 208)
There are many ways by which a Client can engage the services of an Architect. The most appropriate method of selecting an Architect will depend on the type and complexity of the project.
2. SCOPE OF SERVICES
The scope of services will depend on the method by which the Architect is selected.
3. METHODS OF SELECTION
3.1. Direct Selection is used when undertaking a relatively small project. The Client selects his Architect on the basis of:
3.1.2. Personal or business acquaintance or recommendation of a friend
3.1.3. Recommendation of the Architect’s former Client
3.1.4. Recommendation of another Architect.
3.2. Comparative Selection may be conducted by committees representing institutions, corporations or public agencies. The selection process involves:
3.2.1. Invitation. The Client issues an invitation which includes the Terms of Reference (ToR) for the project which is based on the Design Brief prepared by another Architect. The selection committee established by the Client may consist of representatives from other State-regulated professions and/or the construction industry, as well as persons with related expertise.
3.2.2. Pre-qualification. Architects and/or PRC-registered Architectural Firms (AFs) submit information regarding their qualification and expertise.
3.2.3. Interview. The Architect explains his methodology in translating the plan/design requirements of the proposed project.
3.2.4. Verification. The selection committee may visit buildings designed by the Architects and check references such as former clients and financial institutions.
3.2.5. Evaluation & Ranking. The selection committee may adopt its own procedure in evaluating the entries and recommending the most capable firm.
3.2.6. Negotiation. The Architect explains to the Client the Scope of Services and the Architect’s Fee as prescribed under the Architect’s Guidelines.
3.3. An Architectural Design Competition (ADC) is used for civic or monumental projects. The competition may either be an idea competition, design or design build competition. Various Architects or architectural firms (AFs) submit plan/design solutions to a particular design problem and are judged on the basis of comparative excellence.
a. Opportunities will be open only to all PRC-registered and licensed Architects (RLAs) or PRC-registered Architectural Firms (AFs).
b. The Client/ Committee will have a wider range of options.
a. Process may be expensive and time consuming
b. The time and effort required may discourage qualified firms from participating. c. Some potentially unscrupulous prospective Clients will seek free services under the guise of design competition. Architects must always be constantly aware that ownership and copyright issues under Secs. 20 (4) and 33 of R.A. No. 9266 must be fully addressed under all architectural competition rules.
3.3.3. Procedure. Competitions should be conducted:
a. With the assistance of the integrated and accredited professional organization of architects (IAPOA) or one of its local chapters, and
b. In accordance with the Architect’s Guidelines.
a. Sponsor or Client – a natural or juridical person;
b. Competitors – Filipino/ Philippine-Registered and Licensed Architects (RLA) and IAPOA members in good standing. A foreign architect as a competitor must be registered in his/her country of origin and must secure a Temporary Special Permit (TSP) from the Commission (PRC), a work permit form the Department of Labor and Employment (DoLE) and must work in collaboration with a local/Filipino counterpart RLA who will assume the requisite professional responsibilities and civil liabilities, in the case of a design or design-build competition;
c. Professional Adviser – Philippine-Registered and Licensed Architects (RLAs) who are IAPOA members in good standing;
d. Jury – Composed of at least five (5) members who are known for their integrity, objectivity, impartiality and honesty.
d.1 Architect – member in good standing of the IAPOA
d.2 Competition Sponsor or Client.
4. METHOD OF COMPENSATION
This will be covered by the respective type of services.
STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE (SPP)
ON PRE-DESIGN SERVICES
(Part of the IRR of R.A. No. 9266)
SPP Document 201
(replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 201)
1.1. The basic services provided by the Architect have remained relatively unchanged over the years. However, the Architect must expand his services in response to the increasing demands of his/her Clients, the evolution of new standards of regulated professional practice, the advancement of technology and the enactment of new laws.
1.2. It will be most advantageous to the Client to involve the Architect in the earliest stages of the project since the Architect, if suitably experienced, can provide the Client with objective project analysis, establishing parameters to optimize building needs vis-à-vis available resources and attendant constraints.
2. SCOPE OF PRE-DESIGN SERVICES
The Pre- Design Services cover a broad line of architectural services ranging from initial problem identification to activities that would allow the Architect to initially conceptualize an array of architectural and allied solutions. The Pre-Design Services nominally include consultation, pre-feasibility studies, feasibility studies, site selection and analysis, site utilization and land-use studies, architectural research, architectural programming, space planning, space management studies, value management, design brief preparation, promotional services and other related activities.
When a Client calls upon the Architect to give oral or written advice and direction, to attend conferences, to make evaluations and appraisals regarding a contemplated project and similar activities, the Architect renders valuable inputs whether or not the Client pursues the project.
2.2 Pre-Feasibility Studies
These preliminary studies involve the procurement, analysis and use of secondary information gathered for the project to aid the Client in early decision-making. They represent the Architect’s initial assessment of a project’s soundness, allowing the Client to promptly explore available/ readily identifiable directions/ options. Researched/ processed/ validated secondary data are generally used for such studies e.g. electronic, print, etc.
2.3 Feasibility Studies
Detailed analysis of the project based on pre-feasibility studies will determine the viability of a proposed development. The studies will set the project against present and future trends to forecast how it will perform over time. This requires primary data gathering and analysis.
2.4 Site Selection and Analysis
This entails the formulation of site criteria, assistance to the Client in site evaluation as well as analysis to determine the most appropriate site/s for a proposed project or building program.
2.5 Site Utilization and Land-Use Studies
The detailed analysis of the site involves the identification of a site’s development potentials through the proper utilization of land. The analysis covers the context of the site as well as that of its surrounding environment and the development controls that apply to the site and its environs.
2.6 Architectural Research
Architectural research entails the conduct of primary and secondary researches and assembled facts used as basis for conclusion.
2.7 Architectural Programming
This analytical problem-seeking process will lead to the statement and identification of both horizontal and vertical requirements in offering a solution. It incorporates a space program with characterizations of the envisioned spaces such as ambiance, cost range, etc. 2.8 Space Planning
The Architect determines the adequate size and appropriate configuration and assemblage for a proposed project in consideration of the use, allocation and interface of spaces for given activities. Space planning is done mainly through primary data gathering such as interviews, consultations, interfaces, focus group discussions (FGDs), space planning surveys, space audits, etc. and subsequent analyses i.e. spatial layouts with stacking concepts, particularly for multi-storey structures.
2.9 Space Management Studies
An analysis of the space requirements of the project based on organizational structure and functional set-up pinpoints linkages and interaction of spaces. The formulation of the space program will serve as the basis for the development of the architectural plan/design.
2.10 Value Management
This technique is applied in the cost management process to minimize the negative effect of simplified operations associated with many cost-reduction programs. The goal of value management is to achieve an unimpaired program at minimum cost. Thus, a plan, design or system that has been successfully value-managed will still satisfy the same performance criteria as the costlier alternatives.
2.11 Design Brief Preparation
Under design brief preparation, the Architect states the project terms of reference (ToR) including the concept, objectives and other necessary requirements to bid out architectural services (whether public or private).
2.12 Promotional Services
Projects may require promotional activities in order to develop and generate financial support and acceptance from governing agencies or from the general public. In such cases, the Architect can act as the agent of the Owner by producing and coordinating the additional activities necessary to complete the services. In all such activities, the Architect must maintain his professional status as the representative of the Owner.
3. MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES
3.1 After the initial meeting/ conversation/ correspondence with the Client, the Architect must submit his proposal for pre-design services, stating the following:
3.1.1 Scope of Work
3.1.2 Manner of Payment
3.1.3 Owner’s Responsibilities
3.1.4 Other Conditions of Services
3.2 The Architect can render services in any of the following ways:
3.2.1 As an individual Architect he must have special training and be knowledgeable in different fields to supplement his skills.
3.2.2 Architect’s Own Staff
It is possible for Architects (as natural persons) working in a single firm to specialize in a variety of ways. Many Architects and firms (juridical persons) specialize without losing the generalist approach of the Architect or firm.
3.2.3 By Association, Consultation or Networking
Another common practice is consultation between an Architect and a firm of other disciplines, under the extended terms of the Owner-Architect Agreement.
4. METHOD OF COMPENSATION
The Architect’s compensation is based on the Architect’s / architectural firm’s talents, skill, experience, imagination, and on the type and level of professional services provided. Compensation for Pre-Design Services may be based on one or more of the following:
4.1 Multiple of Direct Personnel Expenses
This cost-based method of compensation is applicable only to non-creative work such as accounting, secretarial, research, data gathering, preparation of reports and the like. This method of compensation is based on technical hours spent and does not account for creative work since the value of creative design cannot be measured by the length of time the designer has spent on his work. The computation is made by adding all costs of technical services (man hours x rate) and then multiplying it by a multiplier to cover overhead and profit.
The multiplier ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 depending on the office set-up, overhead and experience of the Architect and the complexity of the Project.
Other items such as cost of transportation, living and housing allowances of foreign consultants, out-of-town living and housing allowances of the local consultants and the like, are all to be charged to the Client. At the start of the commission, the Architect shall make known to the Client the rate of professionals and personnel who will be assigned to the Project and the multiplier that has to be applied before agreeing on this method of compensation.
A = Architect’s rate / hour
C = Consultant’s rate / hour
T = Rate per hour of Technical Staff, Researchers and others involved in the Project
AN, CN, TN = No. of hours spent by Architect, Consultants and Technical Staff
M = Multiplier to account for overhead and reasonable profit. The value may range from 1.5 to 2.5 depending on the set-up of the Architect’s office and the complexity of the Project.
R = Reimbursable expenses such as transportation, housing and living allowance of Consultant, transportation, per diem, housing and living allowance of local consultants and technical staff if assigned to places over 100 km. from the area of operation of the Architect.
Cost of printing of extra set of drawings, reports, maps, contract documents, etc. over the five (5) copies submitted to the Client, overseas and long distance calls, technical and laboratory tests, licenses, fees, taxes and similar cost items needed by the Project.
Direct cost = AN + CN + TN
Fee = Direct Cost x M
Total Cost of Service charged to Client = Fee + R
4.2 Professional Fee Plus Expenses
This method of compensation is frequently used where there is continuing relationship involving a series of Projects. It establishes a fixed sum over and above the reimbursement for the Architect’s technical time and overhead. An agreement on the general scope of the work is necessary in order to set an equitable fee.
4.3 Lump Sum or Fixed Fee
This method may be applied to government projects since they entail more paper work and time-consuming efforts.
4.4 Per Diem, Honorarium Plus Reimbursable Expenses
In some cases a Client may request an Architect to do work which will require his personal time such as:
4.4.1 attending project-related meetings, conferences or trips;
4.4.2 conducting ocular inspection of possible project sites; and
4.4.3 conferring with others regarding prospective investments or ventures and the like.
For these particular activities, the Architect as agent of the Owner may be paid on a per diem and honorarium basis plus out-of-pocket expenses such as but not limited to travel, accommodations and subsistence.
4.5 Mixed Methods of Compensation
The SPP provides for more than one method of compensation on a project. Each project should be examined to determine the most appropriate and equitable method of compensation. STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE (SPP)
ON REGULAR DESIGN SERVICES
(Part of the IRR of R.A. No. 9266)
SPP Document 202
(replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 202)
1.1 Applicability of this Document
1.1.1 While these implementing rules and regulations specifically refer to the “individual” professional practice of the Architect as a natural person, the same may also apply to the Architect’s “group practice” as part of a juridical entity i.e. as a DTI-registered sole proprietorship or as a SEC-registered partnership or corporation, subject to full compliances with Sec. 37 of R.A. No. 9266 (The Architecture Act of 2004) and its implementing rules and regulations and derivative regulations including resolutions of the Board and the Commission.
1.1.2 Foreign architects offering services under this service are subject to full compliances with Sec. 38 of R.A. No. 9266 and its implementing rules and regulations (including resolutions of the Board which calls for a “local counterpart Architect” for any foreign architect) and other periodic issuances of the Board and the Commission as well as procedures/requirements of the Department of Labor and Employment and the Bureau of Immigration and Deportation governing such foreign architects. Therefore, a foreign architect practicing architecture in the Philippines for projects on Philippine soil must first secure a Temporary/ Special Permit (TSP) and a work permit from the Department of Labor and Employment (DoLE) and must work in collaboration with a local counterpart Architect who is a Registered and Licensed Architect (RLA) under Philippine law.
1.1.3 Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) and Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) firms which have been DTI- or SEC-registered in the Philippines to provide services for overseas clients are not authorized to provide architectural services for projects located on Philippine soil unless they are PRC-registered architectural firms satisfying Sec. 37 of R.A. No. 9266 and its implementing rules and regulations (IRR) and its derivative regulations including resolutions of the Board and other periodic issuances of the Board and the Commission.
1.1.4 The Architect’s outputs described / listed under this SPP may be expanded or increased depending on the requirements of the project or the Architect’s experience, capabilities and specialization/s.
1.2 Regular Design Services of an Architect
1.2.1 In regular practice, the Architect acts as the Owner’s/ Client's/ Proponent’s Adviser and/or Representative. He translates the Owner's needs and requirements to spaces and forms in the best manner of professional service.
1.2.2 The Architect’s work starts at the inception of the project when the Owner outlines his requirements to the Architect. The work covers the various aspects of the project, from analysis and study of the needs and requirements, to the preparation of the necessary instruments of service, and finally to the supervision during project implementation. It ends only when the general contractor or builder turns over the completed project to the Owner.
2. SCOPE OF SERVICES
2.1 Project Definition Phase
This phase involves the definition of the requirements of the project by the Owner. The Architect in turn informs the Owner of the technical requirements of the project and the concomitant professional fees. In this phase, the Architect:
1.2.1. consults with the Owner to ascertain the conceptual framework and related requirements of the project and confirms such requirements with him.
1.2.2. gathers relevant information and data leading to the definition of the requirements of the project, including the scope of the Architect’s services.
1.2.3. reviews and refines the owner’s space requirements and translates them into an architectural program.
1.2.4. prepares an initial statement of probable construction cost.
2.2 Schematic Design Phase
This phase consists of the preparation of schematic design studies derived from the Project Definition Phase, leading to conceptual plans. The Architect:
2.2.1 evaluates the Owner’s program, schedule, budget, project site and proposes methods of project deliveries.
2.2.2 prepares the initial line drawings representing design studies leading to a recommended solution, including a general description of the project for approval by the Owner.
2.2.3 submits to the Owner a Statement of the Probable Project Construction Cost (SPPCC) based on current cost parameters.
2.3 Design Development Phase
Based on approved schematics and conceptual plans, the Architect prepares:
2.3.1 the Design Development documents consisting of plans, elevations, sections and other drawings,
2.3.2 outline specifications to fix and illustrate the size and character of the entire project as to type of materials, type of structural, electrical, mechanical, sanitary, electronic and communications systems.
2.3.3 diagrammatic layout of construction systems, and
2.3.4 an updated SPPCC for submission to the Owner.
2.4 Contract Document Phase
Based on the approved Design Development Documents, the Architect:
2.4.1 prepares the complete Contract Documents consisting of detailed designs and construction drawings, setting forth in detail the work required for the architectural, structural, electrical, plumbing/ sanitary, mechanical, electronic and communication works prepared by the Architect and the respective professionals involved.
2.4.2 prepares Technical Specifications describing type and quality of materials, finish, manner of construction and the general conditions under which the project is to be constructed.
2.4.3 submits to the Owner seven (7) sets of all construction drawings and technical specifications for purposes of obtaining a building permit.
2.4.4 updates the SPPCC based on changes in scope, requirements or market conditions.
2.4.5 assists the Owner in filing the required documents to secure approval of government authorities having jurisdiction over the design of the Project.
2.5 Bidding or Negotiation Phase
2.5.1 In this phase, the Architect:
a. prepares the Bid Documents such as forms for contract letting, documents for construction, forms for invitation and instruction to bidders, forms for bidders’ proposals, general / specific conditions of contract, etc.
b. assists the Owner from the early stage of establishing a list of prospective Contractors to awarding of the construction contract.
2.5.2 For competitive bids / procurements, the Architect:
a. furnishes complete sets of the Bid Documents for purposes of bidding in as many sets as may be required to conduct a successful bidding. The said documents are loaned to bidders at an amount sufficient to cover direct and indirect costs attendant to the preparation, packaging, reproduction and delivery of the said documents.
The Bid Documents are the intellectual property of the Architect (Sec. 33 of R.A. No. 9266), and must be returned by all entities acquiring bid documents. A bond may be required to assure the return of the Bid Documents.
The Architect retains the sole ownership and copyright to the said documents (Sec. 33 of R.A. No. 9266). As such, bidders must not reproduce nor use the documents for unauthorized purposes. The Owner also must not use the documents for any other purpose other than the project for which the Owner and Architect signed an agreement.
b. helps in organizing and conducting pre-bid conferences,
c. responds to questions from bidders,
d. assists the Owner in obtaining proposals from Contractors, analyzes bid results and prepares abstract of bids, notice of award, notice to proceed and other construction contracts.
2.5.3 For negotiated contracts, the Architect performs similar functions as in item 2.5.2 but negotiates with one Contractor instead of many bidders.
2.6 Construction Phase
In this phase, the Architect performs the following:
2.6.1 makes decisions on all claims of the Owner and Contractors on all matters relating to the execution and progress of work or the interpretation of the Contract Documents.
2.6.2 prepares change orders, gathers and turns over to the Owner written guarantees required of the Contractor and Sub-Contractors.
2.6.3 makes periodic visits to the project site to familiarize himself with the general progress and quality of work and to ascertain that the work is proceeding in accordance with the Contract Documents. The Architect shall not be required to make exhaustive or continuous 8-hour on-site supervision to check on the quality of the work involved and shall not be held responsible for the Contractor's failure to carry out the Construction work in accordance with the Contract Documents. During such project site visits and on the basis of his observations, he shall report to the Client defects and deficiencies noted in the work of Contractors, and shall condemn work found failing to conform to the Contract Documents.
2.6.4 determines the amount owing and due to the Contractor and issues corresponding Certificates for Payment for such amounts based on his observations and the Contractor's Applications for Payment. These Certificates will constitute a certification to the Client that the work has progressed to the state indicated and that to his best knowledge, the quality of work performed by the Contractor is in accordance with the Contract Documents. The Architect shall conduct the necessary inspection to determine the date of substantial and final completion and issue the final Certificate of Payment to the Contractor.
2.6.5 Should more extensive inspection or full-time (8-hour) construction supervision be required by the Client, a separate full-time supervisor shall be hired and agreed upon by the Owner and the Architect subject to the conditions provided in the SPP Document on Full -Time Supervision. When the Architect is requested by the Owner to do the full time supervision, his services and fees shall be covered separately in conformance with the applicable and appropriate SPP Document.
3. MANNER OF PROVIDING SERVICES
There are two ways by which the Architect may enter into contract with the Owner as the Lead Professional working with other professionals in the engineering and allied professions:
3.1 with a single contract between the Architect and Owner, and sub-consultancy contracts between the Architect and the other professionals working with the Architect.
3.2 with the Architect and the engineering and allied professionals executing separate contracts with the Owner.
In both cases, the professional responsibilities and civil liabilities of each State-regulated professional remains separate. The Architect does not assume any of the responsibilities and liabilities of the other professionals (RLPs).
4. PROJECT CLASSIFICATION
Professional architectural work is classified in accordance with the degree of complexity and the creative skill required to meet the requirements of the Client within technical, functional, economic and aesthetic constraints. Based on these groupings, the corresponding scale of charges shall be prescribed in the Architect’s Guidelines to determine the fair remuneration to the Architect.
4.1 Group 1
Buildings of the simplest utilization and character which shall include but not be limited to the following:
Armories Parking Structures
Bakeries Printing Plants
Habitable Agricultural Buildings Public Markets
Freight Facilities Service Garages
Hangars Simple Loft-Type Buildings
Industrial Buildings Warehouses
Manufacturing/Industrial Plants Packaging and Processing Plants Other similar utilization type buildings
4.2 Group 2
Buildings of moderate complexity of plan / design which shall include but not be limited to the following:
Art Galleries Nursing Homes
Banks, Exchange and other Office Buildings/ Office Condominium Buildings Park, Playground and Open-Air
Financial Institutions Recreational Facilities
Bowlodromes Residential Condominiums
Call Centers Police Stations
Churches and Religious Facilities Postal Facilities
City/Town Halls & Civic Centers Private Clubs
College Buildings Publishing Plants
Convents, Monasteries & Race Tracks
Seminaries Restaurants / Fastfood Stores
Correctional & Detention Facilities Retail / Wholesale Stores
Court Houses/Halls of Justice Schools
Dormitories Shopping Centers
Exhibition Halls & Display Structures
Fire Stations Specialty Shops
Laundries & Cleaning Facilities Supermarkets/ Hyper-marts
Libraries Serviced Apartments
Malls/Mall Complexes Welfare Buildings
Motels & Apartels Mixed Use Buildings
Multi-storey Apartments Other buildings of similar nature Showrooms/Service Centers or use
4.3 Group 3
Buildings of exceptional character and complexity of plan / design which shall include but not be limited to the following:
Aquariums Laboratories/ Testing Faci...