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1280328107 2010 Spp For Rlas Essay

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Annex “A”
Promulgated as Part of the IRR of
R.A. No. 9266, known as “The Architecture Act of 2004”
and to be known hereinafter as the
SPP Documents
(replacing the 1979 UAP Docs. 201 through 208 and the UAP Docs 209 and 210)


1. State shall refer solely to the National Government of the Republic of the Philippines.

2. Standards of Professional Practice (SPP) is a required document under Sec. 41 of R.A. No. 9266 (The Architecture Act of 2004) and its Implementing Rules and Regulations (IRR).

3. Commission as used for this SPP and the succeeding SPP documents shall refer only to the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), duly created under R.A. No. 8981 (The PRC Modernization Act of 2000).

4. Board as used for this SPP and the succeeding SPP documents shall refer only to the Professional Regulatory Board of Architecture (PRBoA), duly created under R.A. No. 9266 and its IRR and under the supervision and administrative control of the Commission.

5. Architect as used for this SPP and the succeeding SPP documents shall refer only to a Registered and Licensed Architect (RLA), a natural person under Philippine law and jurisprudence with a valid certificate of registration and a valid professional identification card (representing the renewable 3-year license) for the lawful practice of the State-regulated profession of architecture. Depending on the SPP, the term Architect may also refer to Architect-of-record (Aor), Architect in charge of construction (Aicc), Consulting Architect (CA) as provided for under R.A. No. 9266.

6. Architectural Firm (AF) as used for this SPP and the succeeding SPP documents shall refer only to a juridical person under Philippine law and jurisprudence, duly registered with the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) as a sole proprietorship for individual architectural practice or registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and with the Professional Regulation Commission (the PRC or hereafter the Commission) as a professional partnership or as an architectural corporation for group architectural practice by RLAs, subject to full compliances with Sec. 37 of R.A. No. 9266 and derivative regulations.

7. Architect and Architectural Firm (AF) may be used interchangeably for some of the succeeding SPP.

8. Professional/s as used for this SPP and the succeeding SPP documents shall refer only to Registered and Licensed Professionals (RLPs), all natural persons under Philippine law and jurisprudence with a valid certificate and a valid professional identification card (representing the renewable license) for the lawful practice of a State-regulated profession other than architecture.

9. Client, Owner and Project Proponent may be used interchangeably for this SPP and some of the succeeding SPP.

10. Contractor and General Contractor shall also mean Constructor or Builder, and may be used interchangeably for this SPP.

11. Bid and Tender shall mean the same.


ADR - Alternative Dispute Resolution
AF - Architectural Firm
ADC - Architectural Design Competition
Aicc - Architect in charge of construction
Aor - Architect-of-record
BPO - Business Process Outsourcing
CA - Consulting Architect
CEC - Codes of Ethical Conduct
DoLE - Department of Labor and Employment
DTI - Department of Trade and Industry
FPCA - Filipino Professional Consulting Architects
IAPOA - Integrated and Accredited Professional Organization of Architects KPO - Knowledge Process Outsourcing
MoP - Manual of Procedure
PACS - Professional Architectural Consulting Services
PCA - Professional Consulting Architect
PRC - Professional Regulation Commission
PRBoA Professional Regulatory Board of Architecture
SEC - Securities and Exchange Commission
RLA - Registered and Licensed Architect
SPP - Standards of Professional Practice
TSP - Temporary/ Special Permit

(Part of the IRR of R.A. No. 9266, replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 208)

There are many ways by which a Client can engage the services of an Architect. The most appropriate method of selecting an Architect will depend on the type and complexity of the project.


The scope of services will depend on the method by which the Architect is selected.


3.1. Direct Selection is used when undertaking a relatively small project. The Client selects his Architect on the basis of:

3.1.1. Reputation

3.1.2. Personal or business acquaintance or recommendation of a friend

3.1.3. Recommendation of the Architect’s former Client

3.1.4. Recommendation of another Architect.

3.2. Comparative Selection may be conducted by committees representing institutions, corporations or public agencies. The selection process involves:

3.2.1. Invitation. The Client issues an invitation which includes the Terms of Reference (ToR) for the project which is based on the Design Brief prepared by another Architect. The selection committee established by the Client may consist of representatives from other State-regulated professions and/or the construction industry, as well as persons with related expertise.

3.2.2. Pre-qualification. Architects and/or PRC-registered Architectural Firms (AFs) submit information regarding their qualification and expertise.

3.2.3. Interview. The Architect explains his methodology in translating the plan/design requirements of the proposed project.

3.2.4. Verification. The selection committee may visit buildings designed by the Architects and check references such as former clients and financial institutions.

3.2.5. Evaluation & Ranking. The selection committee may adopt its own procedure in evaluating the entries and recommending the most capable firm.

3.2.6. Negotiation. The Architect explains to the Client the Scope of Services and the Architect’s Fee as prescribed under the Architect’s Guidelines.

3.3. An Architectural Design Competition (ADC) is used for civic or monumental projects. The competition may either be an idea competition, design or design build competition. Various Architects or architectural firms (AFs) submit plan/design solutions to a particular design problem and are judged on the basis of comparative excellence.

3.3.1. Advantages

a. Opportunities will be open only to all PRC-registered and licensed Architects (RLAs) or PRC-registered Architectural Firms (AFs).

b. The Client/ Committee will have a wider range of options.

3.3.2. Disadvantages

a. Process may be expensive and time consuming

b. The time and effort required may discourage qualified firms from participating. c. Some potentially unscrupulous prospective Clients will seek free services under the guise of design competition. Architects must always be constantly aware that ownership and copyright issues under Secs. 20 (4) and 33 of R.A. No. 9266 must be fully addressed under all architectural competition rules.

3.3.3. Procedure. Competitions should be conducted:

a. With the assistance of the integrated and accredited professional organization of architects (IAPOA) or one of its local chapters, and

b. In accordance with the Architect’s Guidelines.

3.3.4. Participants

a. Sponsor or Client – a natural or juridical person;

b. Competitors – Filipino/ Philippine-Registered and Licensed Architects (RLA) and IAPOA members in good standing. A foreign architect as a competitor must be registered in his/her country of origin and must secure a Temporary Special Permit (TSP) from the Commission (PRC), a work permit form the Department of Labor and Employment (DoLE) and must work in collaboration with a local/Filipino counterpart RLA who will assume the requisite professional responsibilities and civil liabilities, in the case of a design or design-build competition;

c. Professional Adviser – Philippine-Registered and Licensed Architects (RLAs) who are IAPOA members in good standing;

d. Jury – Composed of at least five (5) members who are known for their integrity, objectivity, impartiality and honesty.

d.1 Architect – member in good standing of the IAPOA
d.2 Competition Sponsor or Client.


This will be covered by the respective type of services.

(Part of the IRR of R.A. No. 9266)
SPP Document 201
(replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 201)


1.1. The basic services provided by the Architect have remained relatively unchanged over the years. However, the Architect must expand his services in response to the increasing demands of his/her Clients, the evolution of new standards of regulated professional practice, the advancement of technology and the enactment of new laws.

1.2. It will be most advantageous to the Client to involve the Architect in the earliest stages of the project since the Architect, if suitably experienced, can provide the Client with objective project analysis, establishing parameters to optimize building needs vis-à-vis available resources and attendant constraints.


The Pre- Design Services cover a broad line of architectural services ranging from initial problem identification to activities that would allow the Architect to initially conceptualize an array of architectural and allied solutions. The Pre-Design Services nominally include consultation, pre-feasibility studies, feasibility studies, site selection and analysis, site utilization and land-use studies, architectural research, architectural programming, space planning, space management studies, value management, design brief preparation, promotional services and other related activities.

2.1 Consultation

When a Client calls upon the Architect to give oral or written advice and direction, to attend conferences, to make evaluations and appraisals regarding a contemplated project and similar activities, the Architect renders valuable inputs whether or not the Client pursues the project.

2.2 Pre-Feasibility Studies

These preliminary studies involve the procurement, analysis and use of secondary information gathered for the project to aid the Client in early decision-making. They represent the Architect’s initial assessment of a project’s soundness, allowing the Client to promptly explore available/ readily identifiable directions/ options. Researched/ processed/ validated secondary data are generally used for such studies e.g. electronic, print, etc.

2.3 Feasibility Studies

Detailed analysis of the project based on pre-feasibility studies will determine the viability of a proposed development. The studies will set the project against present and future trends to forecast how it will perform over time. This requires primary data gathering and analysis.

2.4 Site Selection and Analysis

This entails the formulation of site criteria, assistance to the Client in site evaluation as well as analysis to determine the most appropriate site/s for a proposed project or building program.

2.5 Site Utilization and Land-Use Studies

The detailed analysis of the site involves the identification of a site’s development potentials through the proper utilization of land. The analysis covers the context of the site as well as that of its surrounding environment and the development controls that apply to the site and its environs.

2.6 Architectural Research

Architectural research entails the conduct of primary and secondary researches and assembled facts used as basis for conclusion.

2.7 Architectural Programming

This analytical problem-seeking process will lead to the statement and identification of both horizontal and vertical requirements in offering a solution. It incorporates a space program with characterizations of the envisioned spaces such as ambiance, cost range, etc. 2.8 Space Planning

The Architect determines the adequate size and appropriate configuration and assemblage for a proposed project in consideration of the use, allocation and interface of spaces for given activities. Space planning is done mainly through primary data gathering such as interviews, consultations, interfaces, focus group discussions (FGDs), space planning surveys, space audits, etc. and subsequent analyses i.e. spatial layouts with stacking concepts, particularly for multi-storey structures.

2.9 Space Management Studies

An analysis of the space requirements of the project based on organizational structure and functional set-up pinpoints linkages and interaction of spaces. The formulation of the space program will serve as the basis for the development of the architectural plan/design.

2.10 Value Management

This technique is applied in the cost management process to minimize the negative effect of simplified operations associated with many cost-reduction programs. The goal of value management is to achieve an unimpaired program at minimum cost. Thus, a plan, design or system that has been successfully value-managed will still satisfy the same performance criteria as the costlier alternatives.

2.11 Design Brief Preparation

Under design brief preparation, the Architect states the project terms of reference (ToR) including the concept, objectives and other necessary requirements to bid out architectural services (whether public or private).

2.12 Promotional Services

Projects may require promotional activities in order to develop and generate financial support and acceptance from governing agencies or from the general public. In such cases, the Architect can act as the agent of the Owner by producing and coordinating the additional activities necessary to complete the services. In all such activities, the Architect must maintain his professional status as the representative of the Owner.


3.1 After the initial meeting/ conversation/ correspondence with the Client, the Architect must submit his proposal for pre-design services, stating the following:

3.1.1 Scope of Work

3.1.2 Manner of Payment

3.1.3 Owner’s Responsibilities

3.1.4 Other Conditions of Services

3.2 The Architect can render services in any of the following ways:

3.2.1 As an individual Architect he must have special training and be knowledgeable in different fields to supplement his skills.

3.2.2 Architect’s Own Staff

It is possible for Architects (as natural persons) working in a single firm to specialize in a variety of ways. Many Architects and firms (juridical persons) specialize without losing the generalist approach of the Architect or firm.

3.2.3 By Association, Consultation or Networking

Another common practice is consultation between an Architect and a firm of other disciplines, under the extended terms of the Owner-Architect Agreement.


The Architect’s compensation is based on the Architect’s / architectural firm’s talents, skill, experience, imagination, and on the type and level of professional services provided. Compensation for Pre-Design Services may be based on one or more of the following:

4.1 Multiple of Direct Personnel Expenses

This cost-based method of compensation is applicable only to non-creative work such as accounting, secretarial, research, data gathering, preparation of reports and the like. This method of compensation is based on technical hours spent and does not account for creative work since the value of creative design cannot be measured by the length of time the designer has spent on his work. The computation is made by adding all costs of technical services (man hours x rate) and then multiplying it by a multiplier to cover overhead and profit.

The multiplier ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 depending on the office set-up, overhead and experience of the Architect and the complexity of the Project.

Other items such as cost of transportation, living and housing allowances of foreign consultants, out-of-town living and housing allowances of the local consultants and the like, are all to be charged to the Client. At the start of the commission, the Architect shall make known to the Client the rate of professionals and personnel who will be assigned to the Project and the multiplier that has to be applied before agreeing on this method of compensation.



A = Architect’s rate / hour

C = Consultant’s rate / hour

T = Rate per hour of Technical Staff, Researchers and others involved in the Project

AN, CN, TN = No. of hours spent by Architect, Consultants and Technical Staff

M = Multiplier to account for overhead and reasonable profit. The value may range from 1.5 to 2.5 depending on the set-up of the Architect’s office and the complexity of the Project.

R = Reimbursable expenses such as transportation, housing and living allowance of Consultant, transportation, per diem, housing and living allowance of local consultants and technical staff if assigned to places over 100 km. from the area of operation of the Architect.

Cost of printing of extra set of drawings, reports, maps, contract documents, etc. over the five (5) copies submitted to the Client, overseas and long distance calls, technical and laboratory tests, licenses, fees, taxes and similar cost items needed by the Project.

Direct cost = AN + CN + TN

Fee = Direct Cost x M

Total Cost of Service charged to Client = Fee + R

4.2 Professional Fee Plus Expenses

This method of compensation is frequently used where there is continuing relationship involving a series of Projects. It establishes a fixed sum over and above the reimbursement for the Architect’s technical time and overhead. An agreement on the general scope of the work is necessary in order to set an equitable fee.

4.3 Lump Sum or Fixed Fee

This method may be applied to government projects since they entail more paper work and time-consuming efforts.

4.4 Per Diem, Honorarium Plus Reimbursable Expenses

In some cases a Client may request an Architect to do work which will require his personal time such as:

4.4.1 attending project-related meetings, conferences or trips;

4.4.2 conducting ocular inspection of possible project sites; and

4.4.3 conferring with others regarding prospective investments or ventures and the like.

For these particular activities, the Architect as agent of the Owner may be paid on a per diem and honorarium basis plus out-of-pocket expenses such as but not limited to travel, accommodations and subsistence.

4.5 Mixed Methods of Compensation

The SPP provides for more than one method of compensation on a project. Each project should be examined to determine the most appropriate and equitable method of compensation. STANDARDS OF PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE (SPP)

(Part of the IRR of R.A. No. 9266)
SPP Document 202
(replacing the 1979 UAP Doc. 202)


1.1 Applicability of this Document

1.1.1 While these implementing rules and regulations specifically refer to the “individual” professional practice of the Architect as a natural person, the same may also apply to the Architect’s “group practice” as part of a juridical entity i.e. as a DTI-registered sole proprietorship or as a SEC-registered partnership or corporation, subject to full compliances with Sec. 37 of R.A. No. 9266 (The Architecture Act of 2004) and its implementing rules and regulations and derivative regulations including resolutions of the Board and the Commission.

1.1.2 Foreign architects offering services under this service are subject to full compliances with Sec. 38 of R.A. No. 9266 and its implementing rules and regulations (including resolutions of the Board which calls for a “local counterpart Architect” for any foreign architect) and other periodic issuances of the Board and the Commission as well as procedures/requirements of the Department of Labor and Employment and the Bureau of Immigration and Deportation governing such foreign architects. Therefore, a foreign architect practicing architecture in the Philippines for projects on Philippine soil must first secure a Temporary/ Special Permit (TSP) and a work permit from the Department of Labor and Employment (DoLE) and must work in collaboration with a local counterpart Architect who is a Registered and Licensed Architect (RLA) under Philippine law.

1.1.3 Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) and Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) firms which have been DTI- or SEC-registered in the Philippines to provide services for overseas clients are not authorized to provide architectural services for projects located on Philippine soil unless they are PRC-registered architectural firms satisfying Sec. 37 of R.A. No. 9266 and its implementing rules and regulations (IRR) and its derivative regulations including resolutions of the Board and other periodic issuances of the Board and the Commission.

1.1.4 The Architect’s outputs described / listed under this SPP may be expanded or increased depending on the requirements of the project or the Architect’s experience, capabilities and specialization/s.

1.2 Regular Design Services of an Architect

1.2.1 In regular practice, the Architect acts as the Owner’s/ Client's/ Proponent’s Adviser and/or Representative. He translates the Owner's needs and requirements to spaces and forms in the best manner of professional service.

1.2.2 The Architect’s work starts at the inception of the project when the Owner outlines his requirements to the Architect. The work covers the various aspects of the project, from analysis and study of the needs and requirements, to the preparation of the necessary instruments of service, and finally to the supervision during project implementation. It ends only when the general contractor or builder turns over the completed project to the Owner.


2.1 Project Definition Phase

This phase involves the definition of the requirements of the project by the Owner. The Architect in turn informs the Owner of the technical requirements of the project and the concomitant professional fees. In this phase, the Architect:

1.2.1. consults with the Owner to ascertain the conceptual framework and related requirements of the project and confirms such requirements with him.

1.2.2. gathers relevant information and data leading to the definition of the requirements of the project, including the scope of the Architect’s services.

1.2.3. reviews and refines the owner’s space requirements and translates them into an architectural program.

1.2.4. prepares an initial statement of probable construction cost.

2.2 Schematic Design Phase

This phase consists of the preparation of schematic design studies derived from the Project Definition Phase, leading to conceptual plans. The Architect:

2.2.1 evaluates the Owner’s program, schedule, budget, project site and proposes methods of project deliveries.

2.2.2 prepares the initial line drawings representing design studies leading to a recommended solution, including a general description of the project for approval by the Owner.

2.2.3 submits to the Owner a Statement of the Probable Project Construction Cost (SPPCC) based on current cost parameters.

2.3 Design Development Phase

Based on approved schematics and conceptual plans, the Architect prepares:

2.3.1 the Design Development documents consisting of plans, elevations, sections and other drawings,

2.3.2 outline specifications to fix and illustrate the size and character of the entire project as to type of materials, type of structural, electrical, mechanical, sanitary, electronic and communications systems.

2.3.3 diagrammatic layout of construction systems, and

2.3.4 an updated SPPCC for submission to the Owner.

2.4 Contract Document Phase

Based on the approved Design Development Documents, the Architect:

2.4.1 prepares the complete Contract Documents consisting of detailed designs and construction drawings, setting forth in detail the work required for the architectural, structural, electrical, plumbing/ sanitary, mechanical, electronic and communication works prepared by the Architect and the respective professionals involved.

2.4.2 prepares Technical Specifications describing type and quality of materials, finish, manner of construction and the general conditions under which the project is to be constructed.

2.4.3 submits to the Owner seven (7) sets of all construction drawings and technical specifications for purposes of obtaining a building permit.

2.4.4 updates the SPPCC based on changes in scope, requirements or market conditions.

2.4.5 assists the Owner in filing the required documents to secure approval of government authorities having jurisdiction over the design of the Project.

2.5 Bidding or Negotiation Phase

2.5.1 In this phase, the Architect:

a. prepares the Bid Documents such as forms for contract letting, documents for construction, forms for invitation and instruction to bidders, forms for bidders’ proposals, general / specific conditions of contract, etc.

b. assists the Owner from the early stage of establishing a list of prospective Contractors to awarding of the construction contract.

2.5.2 For competitive bids / procurements, the Architect:

a. furnishes complete sets of the Bid Documents for purposes of bidding in as many sets as may be required to conduct a successful bidding. The said documents are loaned to bidders at an amount sufficient to cover direct and indirect costs attendant to the preparation, packaging, reproduction and delivery of the said documents.

The Bid Documents are the intellectual property of the Architect (Sec. 33 of R.A. No. 9266), and must be returned by all entities acquiring bid documents. A bond may be required to assure the return of the Bid Documents.

The Architect retains the sole ownership and copyright to the said documents (Sec. 33 of R.A. No. 9266). As such, bidders must not reproduce nor use the documents for unauthorized purposes. The Owner also must not use the documents for any other purpose other than the project for which the Owner and Architect signed an agreement.

b. helps in organizing and conducting pre-bid conferences,

c. responds to questions from bidders,

d. assists the Owner in obtaining proposals from Contractors, analyzes bid results and prepares abstract of bids, notice of award, notice to proceed and other construction contracts.

2.5.3 For negotiated contracts, the Architect performs similar functions as in item 2.5.2 but negotiates with one Contractor instead of many bidders.

2.6 Construction Phase

In this phase, the Architect performs the following:

2.6.1 makes decisions on all claims of the Owner and Contractors on all matters relating to the execution and progress of work or the interpretation of the Contract Documents.

2.6.2 prepares change orders, gathers and turns over to the Owner written guarantees required of the Contractor and Sub-Contractors.

2.6.3 makes periodic visits to the project site to familiarize himself with the general progress and quality of work and to ascertain that the work is proceeding in accordance with the Contract Documents. The Architect shall not be required to make exhaustive or continuous 8-hour on-site supervision to check on the quality of the work involved and shall not be held responsible for the Contractor's failure to carry out the Construction work in accordance with the Contract Documents. During such project site visits and on the basis of his observations, he shall report to the Client defects and deficiencies noted in the work of Contractors, and shall condemn work found failing to conform to the Contract Documents.

2.6.4 determines the amount owing and due to the Contractor and issues corresponding Certificates for Payment for such amounts based on his observations and the Contractor's Applications for Payment. These Certificates will constitute a certification to the Client that the work has progressed to the state indicated and that to his best knowledge, the quality of work performed by the Contractor is in accordance with the Contract Documents. The Architect shall conduct the necessary inspection to determine the date of substantial and final completion and issue the final Certificate of Payment to the Contractor.

2.6.5 Should more extensive inspection or full-time (8-hour) construction supervision be required by the Client, a separate full-time supervisor shall be hired and agreed upon by the Owner and the Architect subject to the conditions provided in the SPP Document on Full -Time Supervision. When the Architect is requested by the Owner to do the full time supervision, his services and fees shall be covered separately in conformance with the applicable and appropriate SPP Document.


There are two ways by which the Architect may enter into contract with the Owner as the Lead Professional working with other professionals in the engineering and allied professions:

3.1 with a single contract between the Architect and Owner, and sub-consultancy contracts between the Architect and the other professionals working with the Architect.

3.2 with the Architect and the engineering and allied professionals executing separate contracts with the Owner.

In both cases, the professional responsibilities and civil liabilities of each State-regulated professional remains separate. The Architect does not assume any of the responsibilities and liabilities of the other professionals (RLPs).


Professional architectural work is classified in accordance with the degree of complexity and the creative skill required to meet the requirements of the Client within technical, functional, economic and aesthetic constraints. Based on these groupings, the corresponding scale of charges shall be prescribed in the Architect’s Guidelines to determine the fair remuneration to the Architect.

4.1 Group 1

Buildings of the simplest utilization and character which shall include but not be limited to the following:

Armories Parking Structures
Bakeries Printing Plants
Habitable Agricultural Buildings Public Markets
Freight Facilities Service Garages
Hangars Simple Loft-Type Buildings
Industrial Buildings Warehouses
Manufacturing/Industrial Plants Packaging and Processing Plants Other similar utilization type buildings

4.2 Group 2

Buildings of moderate complexity of plan / design which shall include but not be limited to the following:

Art Galleries Nursing Homes
Banks, Exchange and other Office Buildings/ Office Condominium Buildings Park, Playground and Open-Air
Financial Institutions Recreational Facilities
Bowlodromes Residential Condominiums
Call Centers Police Stations
Churches and Religious Facilities Postal Facilities
City/Town Halls & Civic Centers Private Clubs
College Buildings Publishing Plants
Convents, Monasteries & Race Tracks
Seminaries Restaurants / Fastfood Stores
Correctional & Detention Facilities Retail / Wholesale Stores
Court Houses/Halls of Justice Schools
Dormitories Shopping Centers
Exhibition Halls & Display Structures
Fire Stations Specialty Shops
Laundries & Cleaning Facilities Supermarkets/ Hyper-marts
Libraries Serviced Apartments
Malls/Mall Complexes Welfare Buildings
Motels & Apartels Mixed Use Buildings
Multi-storey Apartments Other buildings of similar nature Showrooms/Service Centers or use

4.3 Group 3

Buildings of exceptional character and complexity of plan / design which shall include but not be limited to the following:

Aquariums Laboratories/ Testing Faci...

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-01 -547 /pre-feasibility 1 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.6.1 1.6.10 1.6.11 1.6.12 1.6.13 1.6.14 1.6.15 1.6.16 1.6.17 1.6.18 1.6.19 1.6.2 1.6.20 1.6.21 1.6.22 1.6.23 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.6.6 1.6.7 1.6.8 1.6.9 1.7 1.8 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 100 1000 100km 11 11.1 12 12.1 12.2 12.2.1 12.2.10 12.2.2 12.2.3 12.2.4 12.2.5 12.2.6 12.2.7 12.2.8 12.2.9 12.3 1280328107 13 13.1 13.2 14 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 15 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 16 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 17 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 17.5 1723 18 18.1 18.2 19 19.1 19.10 19.10.1 19.10.2 19.10.3 19.10.4 19.10.5 19.11 19.12 19.12.1 19.12.2 19.12.3 19.12.4 19.13 19.13.1 19.13.2 19.13.3 19.13.4 19.13.5 19.14 19.14.1 19.14.2 19.14.3 19.14.4 19.14.5 19.14.6 19.14.7 19.14.8 19.14.9 19.15 19.16 19.17 19.18 19.19 19.2 19.20 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 19.8 19.9 1979 1980 1981 1987 1st 2 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.6.6 2.6.7 2.6.8 2.6.9 2.7 2.8 2.9 20 20.1 20.10 20.11 20.12 20.13 20.14 20.15 20.16 20.2 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.8 20.9 200 2000 2003 2004 2008 2009 201 2010 202 203 203.1 203.10 203.11 203.12 203.13 203.14 203.15 203.16 203.17 203.18 203.19 203.2 203.20 203.21 203.22 203.23 203.3 203.4 203.5 203.6 203.7 203.8 203.9 204 205 206 207 208 209 21 21.1 21.2 21.3 21.4 21.5 210 22 22.1 22.2 22.3 23 24 24.1 24.10 24.2 24.3 24.4 24.5 24.6 24.7 24.7.1 24.7.2 24.7.3 24.7.4 24.7.5 24.8 24.9 25 26 27 27.1 27.2 28 29 2nd 3 3.0 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4 3.2.5 3.2.6 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4 30 33 37 38 3d 4 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.10 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.5 4.5.1 4.5.2 4.6 4.6.1 4.6.2 4.7 4.8 4.9 41 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.6 50 50.0 6 6.1 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7 7.1 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.18.1 7.18.2 7.18.3 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8 8.1 8.1.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8293 8981 9 9.1 9.1.1 9.1.10 9.1.11 9.1.12 9.1.2 9.1.3 9.1.4 9.1.5 9.1.6 9.1.7 9.1.8 9.1.9 9.2 9.2.1 9.2.2 9.2.3 9.2.4 9.2.5 9.2.6 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.10 9.3.11 9.3.12 9.3.13 9.3.14 9.3.15 9.3.16 9.3.17 9.3.18 9.3.19 9.3.2 9.3.20 9.3.21 9.3.22 9.3.3 9.3.4 9.3.5 9.3.6 9.3.7 9.3.8 9.3.9 9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.5 9.5.1 9.5.2 90 9184 9266 9285 9514 98 abandon abid abil abl abreast abroad absorpt abstract acceler accept access access/movement accessori accommod accomplish accord accordan account accredit accuraci achiev acoust acquaint acquir acronym across act action activ actual ad adc adc-gener addit address adequ adher adjud adjust administr administrative-political-institutional-leg adopt adr advanc advantag advers advic advis advisor advisori advoc aesthet af affect affix agenc agency/ies agent agre agreement agricultur ai aicc aid air air-condit airports/wet alarm alley alli alloc allot allow alreadi also alter altern alway ambianc amelior amen amend among amount ampli amus analys analysi analyst analyt analyz and/or annex annot announc anonym anoth answer anyth aor apart apartel apo appear appli applic appoint apprais approach appropri approv approxim aquarium arbit arbitr arch architect architect-in-charg architect-juror architect-of-record architect/s architectur area aris armori around arrang array arriv art articl artist ascertain asid aspect assembl assemblag assess assessments/statements asset assign assist associ assum assumpt assur attach attain attend attendant/pertinent attribut audit auditorium author author/s avail avoid awar award away b b.s bachelor bakeri balanc bangko bank banker base basement basi basic bear becom beforehand behalf behavior belong benefit best better beyond bid bidder bill bind blend blue blue-print board bodi bona bond book bore born borrow bound boundari bowlodrom bpo branch branch/es breweri brief bring broad bsp budget build builder building/s building/structure built built-in burden bureau busi by-law c ca cabinet cabl caf calcul call cannot capabl capac capit card card-licens care carri cas case cast caus cbne cdp cec ceil center certain certif certifi certified/recognized ces chang change/s change/variation channel chapter charact character charg chargeabl charter check choic choos chosen church circumst citi citizen city/town civic civil civilli clad claim clarif classif classifi claus clean cleanli clear clearanc cleric clerk clerk-of-work client climat clinic clock close club cm cmdps cms cn coach coalit code cogniz cold collabor collaps collect colleg combin comfort commensur commerci commiss commission/board commit committe common communic communiti compar compat compens compet competit competitor complaint complement complet complex compli complianc compon compos composit comprehens compromis comput conceiv concept conceptu concern concili conclus concomit concurr condemn condit condominium conduct confer confid configur confirm conflict conform connect consensus consensus-bas consent consequ conserv consid consider consist conson consortium constant constitut constraint constru construct constructor consult consultancy/consulting consultant/s consum contain contempl content context conting continu contract contractor contrari contrast contribut control convent convers convict coordin copi copyright corpor correct correl correspond corridor cost cost-bas cost-effect cost-effici cost-reduct costlier could council counsel count counter counterpart countri cours court coven cover coverag cpe craftsmen creat creativ creator credibl credit credit-bas credo crimin criteria cross crystal csg cso csos cultur current custom cut cvos d d.1 d.2 daili data date day dbs deal dealer decad decemb decid decis decision-mak declar decor deduct deed deed/s deem defect defici defin definit definition/s degre delay deliber deliv deliverables/materials deliveri demand demand/forecast demograph demonstr denr depart depend deport deposit depreci depriv depth deriv describ descript design design-build desir destroy detach detail detent deterior determin develop deviat devic devis devot diagram diagrammat diem differ difficult dimens dimension direct director directori disadvantag discharg disciplin disciplinari disclos discourag discov discrep discuss dispar dispatch displac display dispos disposit disproportion disput disqualifi dissolv distanc distinct distinguish distribut divid dmdps doc document documentari dole domin done door dor dormitori doubl draft draw drawn dri driven dsg dti dti-regist dual due duli duly-approv duly-qualifi duplex duplic durat duti e e.g earli earliest earn easement econom economi economic/market educ effect effici effort egress eia/s either electr electron element elev elig elucid embodi emerg emot emphas emphasi employ employe enabl enact enclos encourag encroach encumbr end end-us endeavor endors energi enforc engag engin engineers-of-record enhanc enough enp ensur entail enter entir entireti entiti entitl entranc entrepreneur entri entrust enumer enunci envelop environ environment environment-friend envis eor equal equip equit equival erect erod error escal especi essenc essenti establish estat estim etc ethic evalu even event evid evidenc evolut evolv ewo examin excav exceed excel except excess exchang excis exclud exclus execut exercis exhaust exhibit exist exit expand expans expect expedi expedit expenditur expens experi experienc experience/specialization experiment expert expertis expertise/specialization explain explan explor exposit express extend extens extent exterior extra extract f fa facil fact factor fail failur fair faith falar fall familiar fas/fcs faster fastfood fault faulti fc fcs feasibl featur feder fee fenestr ferdinand fgds fide field field/s fields/areas file filipino fill final financ financi finish fire firm firm/corporation firm/corporation/consortium firm/s first fit five fix fixtur flexibl floor focus follow footprint forecast forego foreign forens foreword form format former formul formula forth found four fourteen fpc fpca fpcas fpcs framework frdps free freedom freight frequent friend fring full full-tim fulli fulltim function function/s fund furnish furnitur futur g galleri garag garbag garden gas gather gear general generalist generat generic geograph give given glare global go goal gocc goe good govern government-own government/civic government/s gpra grade graphic great greater green gross ground group growth guarante guid guidelin guis gymnasium h habit hall hand handl hangar hard hard-earn hardscap hardwar health heavi height held help henc hereaft herein hereinaft heritag high high-level hire his/her histor histori holder holiday holist home home/office honesti honoraria honorarium horizont hospit host hotel hour hous houses/halls howev human hyper hyper-mart i.e iapoa id idea ideal ident identif identifi illumin illustr imagin immedi immigr impact impair imparti imper implement impli implic import impos improv imput in in-depth inadequ incent incept incident includ inclus incom incorpor increas incur indemn independ indic indirect individu indoor industri inflow influx inform infrastructur initi innov input insid inspect inspector instal instead institut instruct instrument insul insur integr intellectu intend intent inter inter-disciplinari interact interchang interest interfac interfer interior intermitt intern internet interpret interrelationship interv interview introduct invest investig invit invoic involv irr irrat issu issuanc item jobber joint journal judg judgment juri jurid jurisdict jurisprud juror justic justifi keep kept kilomet kind km know knowledg known kpo label labor laboratori land land-sea-air land-us landscap larg late latest latter launch laundri law lawyer lay lay-out layout layout/distribution lead least leav lectur legal legitim lend length lesse let letter letterhead level level-print liabil liabl librari licens lie life lifespan light light/heat like likewis limit line linkag list litig live loan lobbi local local/filipino locat loft loft-typ logic logist loi long long-dist lose loss lot lowest lump lump-sum m made magnitud main maintain mainten major make malls/mall man man-day man-hour man-mad man-month manag manageri mandat mandatori mani manner manpow manual manufactur manufacturing/industrial map march marco margin marina market market-driven mart master materi matric matter mausoleum maxim maximum may mdp mean measur mechan media mediat medic meet member membership memori men mental mention mentor mere messag met method method/s methodolog migrat mimeograph minim minimum misinterpret mix mode model moder modern modif modifi modular monasteri money monitor month monument mood mop moreov mortuari motel movabl movement much multi multi-dimension multi-disciplinari multi-sector multi-storey multipl multipli mural museum must mutual name narrow nation nationally-evolv natur nbd necess necessari necessarili neda need negat negoti neighbor neither net network network/s never new ng nineti nomin non non-compli non-creat non-engin non-fpca non-perform non-phys non-salari nonetheless norm normal note noth notic notifi nuclear number numer nurs nurtur object oblig observ observatori obtain occup occur ocular odd offens offer offic offici often on-sit one open open-air oper opinion opportun optim option oral order ordin ordinarili organ organiz origin other otherwis out-of-pocket out-of-town outflow outing outlin output outsid outsourc over-al overal overhead overse oversea owe own owner owner-architect owner-architect-engineer-contractor owner/client ownership pac packag pad paid painter paper parallel paramet park part parti particip particular partit partner partnership past pay payabl payment payrol pca pcas pcc pce pedestrian penalti peopl per percent percentag percept perform perhap period permit person personnel pertain pertin pfpa phase phenomenon philippin philippine-regist photograph photographi physic pick piec piecework pilipina pinpoint pit place placement plan plan/design planner plans/designs plant playground pledg plumb plumbing/sanitary plus pm pmdps pocket point point-of-view polic polici polit port portion posit possess possibl post post-construct post-design postag postal potenti ppc practic practition prboa prc prc-regist pre pre-bid pre-construct pre-design pre-determin pre-feas pre-invest pre-qualif preced precis preclud prefer prejudic preliminari premium prepar prerog prescrib presenc present preserv presid prevail price primaci primari prime princip principl print prioriti privat prize prize-giv prize-win prls probabl problem problem-seek procedur procedures/requirements proceed process procur produc product profess profession professional/s profit program program/project progress project project-rel project/service prolifer prolong promot prompt promulg propel proper properti propon proport proportion propos proprietorship prospect protect protocol provid provinc provis prune ptc public publish purchas pure purpos pursu pursuant pursuit put qualif qualifi qualiti quantiti question r r.a race radial raf ramp rang rank rate rather rational re re-us re-visit readi readili ready-assembl real realiz reappoint reason receipt receiv recogn recognit recommend record recours recreat reduct refer refin reflect reform regard regardless region regist registr regul regular regulatori rehabilit reimburs reinforc relat relationship relev reliabl reliev religi reloc remain remuner render renew renov rental repair repetit replac repli report report/s repres reproduc reproduct republ reput request requir requisit res research reserv reservoir resid residence/practice residenti resolut resolv resort resourc respect respond respons rest restaur restrict result retail retain retrofit return review revis revolv right right-of-way rights-of rights-of-way rigor rla rla-pca rlas rlp rlps road rock role roof roof-print row row-hous rrow rule rules/regulations/guidelines/manuals safe safeguard safeti said salari sampl sanction sanction/s sanitari satisfi save sc scale schedul schemat schematic/concept-level scheme scheme/s school scienc scientif scientist scope screen scs sculptor sdp sea seal search sec sec-regist second secondari secretari secretariat section sector secur see seek seen seepag seldom select seminari send sens sent sentral separ sequenti seri serious serv servic service/s set set-up settl seven sever shadow shall shape share shop shop-hous short shortest show showrooms/service shrinkag sick sign signag signboard signific similar simpl simplest simplifi simultan sinc singl single-attach single-detach single-stag site site/s six size skill slection small smallest sms social societi socio socio-cultur sociologist softscap softwar soil sole solid solut solution/s solv soon sound space spatial spearhead special specialist specialization/s specialti specif specifi spend spent sponsor sport spp sppcc spps spring sprinkler stack stadia staff stage stair stamp stand standard start state state-accredit state-licens state-regist state-regul statement station status steadfast stenograph still stimul stipul storag store storey straight strategi street strengthen strict structur studi su sub sub-consult sub-contractor sub-soil subdivis subject submiss submit subsequ subsist substanti succeed success suffici suggest suit suitabl sum summari superintend supermarket supervis supervisor supervisori supplement supplementari suppli supplier support sure surround survey suspend suspens sustain synthes system systemat tabul take taken talent tandem task tax taxat taxes/duties teach team technic techniqu technolog tele telecommun telegraph telephon temporari temporary/special ten tenant tend tender tenet term termin test testimoni theater thereaft therebi therefor therein thereof thereto third three throughout thru thus time time-consum timekeep timet titl tn today togeth topograph tor total tourism tourist toward town townhous traceabl track trade tradit train transact transfer transform transit translat transmiss transport travel travel-rel treat treatment tree tremend trend trim trip tsp turn twelv two type typolog uap ultim umbrella unabl unauthor unchang underscor understand understudi undertak undertaken unduli unimpair unit unless unreason unscrupul updat upgrad uphold upkeep upon upward urban urgent use user usual util utility-rel vacat valid valu valuabl value-manag vari variat varieti various vat vehicl vehicular vendor ventur verif version versus vertic veterinari viabil viabl view virtu vis vis-à-vi visionari visit visual voic vote vs walk walk-thru walkway wall warehous wast water waterscap way week welfar well well-b well-balanc well-coordin whatev whenev whether who/which whole wholesal wholli whose wide wider win winner within without work worker workmanship world would write written 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