1. THE WORD AS THE BASIC UNIT OF THE LANGUAGE.
The defenition of the word is a hard task. It should indicate the most important _characteristics at the word_:
_1_. the word is the basic unit of the language. The word has meaning, can be used a complete utterance, it can be used independence. _2._ it has form and meaning. _3._ when a derivational affix is added, a new word is formed.
_4._ when used in a sentence together with other words they are syntactically organized (e.g. she spoke told us a story)
Even the simpliest word has many aspects. It is studied in phonology, lexicology, morphology, syntax, stylistics, philosophy, psyhology.
The definition of the word was studied by Leonard Blomfield, Henry Sweet. They destingvished the following _characteristics of the word:_
1. positional mobility. The sentence consist of words. There are several possible changes in the sequence of words. (the boy walk slowly up the hill. Up the hill the boy walk...)
2. morphological uninterruptability. The word is internally stable - we can not change places of morphemes or insert anything into the word.
3. semantic integrity. The word consist of semantic components. This components work as one unity in any context. (bachelor - холостяк).
Russian lexicologist base upon the materialistic understanding of the word. The feary of the word was worked by Vinogradov,Ahmatova, Stepanova, Ufimceva.
the word is the basic unit of the language.2. it is a dialectical unity of form and content. 3. the word is a sign. 4. Concepts fixed in the meanings of words are formed as generalized and approximately correct reflections of reality (Lenin's theory of reflection)
2. MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH WORD
Words are composed of morphemes. A morpheme is an association of a given meaning with a given sound form. Unlike words morphemes are dependent. They are always parts of word. So they are not the basic units. Morphemes are minimum meaningful language units. _Morphemes may be_:
1. free (stand alone: sportive) and bound (are always connected with others). 2. according to the role in constructing words morphemes may be roots and affixes (prefixes, infixes, suffixes: endings, derivational).
When an ending is stripped from the word what remains is a stem. Stems may be simple (consist of 1 root) and derived (consist of 1 root and affixes). S.may be free (are hononymous to a word) and bound (are not).
_The structural types_ of English word: 1. simple (root) w.(consist of 1 root: apple) 2. derived w. (consist of 1 root and affixes: fiendly) 3. compound w.(consist of at least 2 roots: blackboard) 4. compound derivanives (combine features of compounds & derivatives: bestseller) 5. shortened words (exam)
The morphological structure of the words is studied by the analysis into "immediate constituents" (indivisible parts = morphemes). At each stage the word is involved into structural corelations. The word is divided into 2 parts. One part is an immediate constituent.
Within the part of speech the suffixes are classified into: 1. noun-forming suf.(-er,ship,hood,ment) 2. adjective-f.suf.(-ful,less,able) 3. numeral-f.suf.(-teen,ty,th,fold) 4. verb-f.suf.(-ate,en,ize,fy) 5. adnerb-f.suf.(-ly,wise,ward)
Affixes may be native (existed in Old English) & borrowd (come as parts of borrowed words:-able).
4. THE SEMANTIC STRUCTURE OF THE ENGLISH WORD.
The branch of Linguistics which studies the lexical meaning of the word is called semasiology. It is derived from 2 greek words: sema = sign, logos = study. The meaning is a component of a word through which a notion is realized. There are relations btw the word, the notion & the referent. It is described by the semantic triangle by Ogden & Ri4ards. There is no immediate connection btw the word & the referent. It lines through the concept. The semantic triangle has problems: it doesn't explain synonymy, polysemy, translations into diff.languages.
The _meaning_ has _components: 1._ lexical(characterises the word as a lexeme): denotative (it is a concept), connotative( evelation, emotion, intensity, stylistic colouring) _2._ grammatical (it is part-of-speech meaning).
Semes are distinguished by the Componential Analyses which can be performed with the help of dicrionaries. The semantic structure of a poly semantic word is a system of Lexico- Semantic Variants (LSV). The 1st LSV is a dominant. It is directly or indirectly connected with others.
_Meanings may be:_
1. main (is formed on the bases of the dominant LSV) & secondary (are formed by other LSVs). 2. direct (names the object in isolation) & figurative (characterise the object in a context). 3. central (are in the nucleus of a semantic field) & periferic (is not).
1. УНИВЕРСАЛЬНАЯ ПЕРЕВОДЧЕСКАЯ СКОРОПИСЬ.
УПС появилась в 30х гг XX в. СССР - Миньяр-Белоручев.
УПС позв снять нагрузку на память переводчика, записать особо важные моменты + прецизионную инф-ию, ( не вызывает никаких асс-ций, предст сложность д/запоминания. УПС - опора д/кратковр памяти. Целостной инф-ии нести не должна. Переводчик записывает лишь те аспекты высказ, α помогут восстан его в полном V.
Принципы оформление: Ұ знак, его прис или отсут имеет значение. Если перевод за столом - ...