Essays /

13730674 Maternity Nursing Edited Royal Essay

Essay preview

 Maternity Nursing

I. Basic Knowledge on Genetics and Obstetrics

1. DNA – Deoxyribonucleic Acid – carries genetic code
2. Chromosomes – threadlike structure of hereditary material known as the DNA 3. Normal amount of ejaculated sperm – 3 – 5 cc/ 1 teaspoon 4. Ovum is capable of being fertilized within 24 – 36 hours after ovulation. 5. Sperm 48 – 72 days viability

6. Reproductive cells divide by the process of MEIOSIS (haploid number) Spermatogenesis – process of maturation of sperm
Oogenesis – process of maturation of ovum
30 weeks AOG – 6 million immature ovum
@ birth – 1 million immature oocytes
@ puberty – 300 – 400 immature oocytes
@ 13 y/o – 300 – 400 mature oocytes
@ 23 y/o – 180 – 280 mature ovum
@ 33 y/o – 60 – 160 mature ovum
@ 36 y/o – 24 – 124 mature ovum
@46 y/o – 4 mature ovum
Gametogenesis – process of formation of two haploid into diploid 7. Age of reproductivity – 15 – 44 y/o childbearing age – 20 – 35 y/o High risk  35 y.o. With Risk  18 – 20; 30 – 35 8. Menstruation

Menstrual Cycle – beginning of menstruation to the beginning of the next menstruation Average menstrual cycle – 28 days
Average menstrual period – 5 days
Normal blood loss – 50 cc/ ¼ cup accompanied by FIBRINOLYSIS – prevents clot formation Related terminologies
Menarche – 1st menstruation
Dysmenorrhea – painful menstruation
Metrorrhagia – bleeding in between menstruation
Menorrhagia – Excessive bleeding during menstruation
Amenorrhea – absence of menstruation
Menopause – cessation of menstruation (Average Age- 51 y.o.) Tofu – has isoflavone – estrogen of plant that mimics the estrogen with a woman 9. Functions of Estrogen and Progestin
ESTROGEN – hormone of woman
Primary function
Responsible for the development of secondary characteristics in females inhibit production of FSH
Other function
Hypertrophy of the myometrium
Spinnbarkeit and Ferning Pattern (Billings Method)
Ductile structure of the breast
Osteoblastic bone activity (causes increased in height)
Early closure of the epiphysis of the bone
Sodium retention
Increased sexual desire
Responsible for vaginal lubrication
PROGESTERONE – Hormone of the mother
Primary function – prepares the endometrium for implantation making it thick and tortous Secondary Function – inhibit uterine contractibility
Inhibit LH (hormone of ovulation) production
 GI motility
 Permeability of kidneys to lactose and dextrose causing + 1 sugar in urine Mammary gland development
Mood swings

10. Menstrual Cycle
4 phases of menstrual cycle
1. Proliferative
2. Secretory
3. Ischemic
4. Menses

1. On the initial phase of menstruation, the estrogen level is , this level stimulates the hypothalamus to release GnRH/ FSHRF 2. GnRH/ FSHRF stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release FSH FSH Function

Stimulate ovaries to release estrogen
Facilitate the growth of primary follicle to become
GRAAFIAN FOLLICE  structure that secretes large amount of estrogen that contain mature ovum 3. Proliferative Phase (estrogen)
Follicular Phase – responsible for the variation and irregularity of mense Postmenstrual Period – after menstruation
Preovulatory Phase – happen before menstruation
4. 13th day of menstruation, estrogen level is PEAK while progesterone is , these stimulates the hypothalamus to release GnRH/ LHRF 5. GnRH/ LHRF stimulates the Anterior Pituitary Gland to release LH Functions of LH

Stimulates the release of progesterone
Hormone for ovulation
6. 14th day estrogen level is  while progesterone level is  S/S
Rupture of the graafian follicle - OVULATION
Mittelschsmerz – slight abdominal pain lower right quadrant 7. 15th day, after ovulation day, graafian follicle starts to degenerate, estrogen level , progesterone , causing degeneration of the graafian follicle becoming yellowinsh known as CORPUS LUTEUM – secretes large amount of progesterone 8. Secretory Phase

Lutheal Phase (progesterone)
Postovulatory phase
Premenstrual Phase
9. 24th day – Corpus Albicans (whitish) corpus luteum degenerates and becomes white 10. 28th day – if no sperm united the ovum, the uterine begins to slough off to have the next menstruation Note:

if there is no fertilization, corpus luteum continues functioning Ovarian Cycle – from primary follicle – corpus albicans
1 – 5 days – menses
6 – 14 – proliferative
15 – 26 – secretory
27 – 28 – ischemic

II. Wonders of Fertilization
a. Fertilization
1. Phonones – song of sperm
2. Capacitation – ability of sperm to release proteolytic enzyme and penetrate the ovum b. Stages of Fetal Growth and Development
1. Pre Embryonic Stage
I. Zygote  fertilized ovum (3 – 4 days travel, 4 days floating)> from fertilization II. Morula  mulberry-liked ball containing 16 – 50 cells III. Blastocyst  enlarging cell forming a cavity that later becomes the embryo covered by thropoblast which later becomes the placenta and membrane IV. Implantation  7 – 10 days after fertilization

Thropoblast – covering of blastocyst that become placenta
S/Sx of Implantation  Slight pain, Slight Vaginal Spotting 3 Processes
2. Embryonic Stage
Zygote – fertilization to 14 days
Embryo – 15th – 2 mos/ 8 weeks
Fetus – 2 mos to birth
c. Decidua – thickened endometrium, latin word for “falling off” 1. Basalis – located directly under the fetus where placenta developed 2. Caspularis – encapsulates the fetus
3. Vera – remaining portion of and endometrium
d. Chorionic Villi – 10 – 11 weeks
1. Chorionic Villi Sampling (CVS) – removal of tissue from the fetal postion of the developing placenta For genetic screening
Fetal limb defects, missing digits of toes
e. Cytothrophoblast – outer layer, LANGHAN’S LAYER, protect the fetus against syphilis (24 weeks/ 6 months) f. Synsitiotrophoblast – syncitial layer – responsible for hormone production 1. Amnion – inner most layer 2. Chorion

I. Umbilical cord (Funis) – whitish gray (50 – 60 cm)
Short  abruptio placenta, uterine inversion
Long  cord prolapse, cord coil
3 vessels (AVA) – Artery Vein Artery
Wharton’s Jelly – protects the umbilical cord
II. Amniotic fluid  bag of water  clear color, musty/mousy odor With crystallized forming pattern, slightly alkaline
500- 1000 cc Normal
Oligohydramnios – kidney malformation
Hydramnios – GIT , TEF/ TEA
Cushion the fetus against sudden blow or trauma
Maintains temperature
Facilitate muscuskeletal development
Prevents cord compression
Helps in development process

Diagnostic Test for Amniotic Fluid  Amniocentesis
Purpose: obtain sample of amniotic fluid by inserting a needle hrough the abdomen into the amniotic sac Fluid is tested for:
Genetic screening
Determination of fetal maturity primarily by evaluating factors indicative of lung maturity Done with empty bladder
> Most common side effect : INFECTION
> Late : pre term labor
> Early : spontaneous abortion
Indication for Amniocentesis:
> Early in Pregnancy Advance Maternal Age
> Later in Pregnancy Diabetic Mothers
 - down syndrome
 - neural tube defect, spina befida
L/S ratio : 2:1 (Lecitin/ Spingomyelin)
Definitive test = Phosphatiglycerol: PG +  best Answer
Greenish – Meconium Stains (Fetal Distress)
Yellowish – jaundice, hyperbilirubinemia
Cloudy – Infection
Most Important Consideration  Needle insertion site
Amnioscopy – direct examination through intact fetal membrane via ultrasound Fern Test – a test determining if bag of water has rupture or not Nitrazine Paper Test – differentiate amniotic fluid and urine Blue geen  + rupture of bag of H2O

2. Chorion – outermost layer
a. Placenta – AKA Secundines  chorionic Villi and basalis Pancake in latin
500 grams in weight
15 – 28 cotyledons
15 – 20 cm in diameter and 2 – 3 cm in depth
Respiratory  02 – CO2 exchange via simple diffusion
GIT  glucose transport via facilitated diffusion
Excretory  via 2 arteries, carries unoxygenated blood then detoxify by maternal liver Circulatory  fetoplacental circulation by SELECTIVE OSMOSIS Endocrine
HCG – primary maintain corpus luteum/ secondary basis of pregnancy test Human Placental Lactogen – aka Somatomammothrophin
Responsible for the development of mammary gland
Diabetogenic Effect – insulin antagonist
Relaxin – softening of maternal joints and bones
Serves as protective barrier against some microorganism
Can pass: HIV CMV Rubella
PINOCYTOSIS – transport of virus

Pregnancy – 266 – 288 days/ 37 – 42 weeks

FETAL STAGE: Fetal Growth and Development

First Trimester : Period of organogenesis, most critical period
First Month
FHT, CNS Develops, GIT and Respi Tract remains as single tube
Differentiation of Primary Germ Layer
Thyroid – responsible for basal metabolism
Thymus – immunity
Linings of Upper GI Tract
Reproductive Organ
5 senses
Hair, nails
Second Month
Life span of corpus luteum ends
All vital organs are formed
Placenta is developed
Sex organ is developed
Meconium is present
Third Month
Placenta is complete
Kidneys are functional
Fetus begins to swallow amniotic fluid
Buds of milk appear
Sex is distinguishable
FHT audible via dopples @ 10 – 12 weeks
Terratogens – any drug or irradiation, the exposure to which may cause damage to the fetus DRUGS
Streptomycin – anti – TB – (quinine) damage to the 8th cranial nerve  poor learning and deafness/ ototoxic Tetracycline – stoning the tooth enamel, inhibits long bone growth Vitamin K – hemolysis, destruction of RBC, jaundice, hyperbilirubenemia Iodides – enlargement of thyroid and goiter

Thalidomides – anti-emetics  Amelia or Pocomelia  absence of distal part of extremities Steroids – cleft lip or palate and even abortion
Lithium – congenital maformation
ALCOHOL – LBW, fetal alcohol syndrome ( characterized by microcephaly) SMOKING – LBW
COCCAINE – LBW, abruptio placenta
TORCH – group of infections that can cross the placenta or ascend through the birth canal and adversely effect fetal growth Toxoplasmosis – cat lovers
Others - Hepa AB, HIV, Syphillis
Rubella – CHD,
Rubella Titer – N @ 1:10 or  = immunity to rubella = notify doctor Rubella vaccine after delivery for 3 mos. No pregnancy for 3 mos. Cytomegalo virus
Herpes Simplex virus

Second Trimester : continuous growth and development (focus  lengh of fetus)
Fourth Month
Lanugo begins to appear
Buds of permanent teeth appear
FHT audible via Fetuscope @ 18 – 20 weeks
Fifth Month
Quickening : 1st fetal movement Primi: 18 – 20, Nulli - 16 - 18 Lanugo covers the body
FHT audible via stethoscope or w/out instrument
Actively swallow amniotic fluid
Fetus : 19 – 25 cm
Sixth Month
Skin is red and wrinkled
Vernix caseosa covers the skin
Eyelids open
Exhibits startle reflex
3rd Trimester : period of most rapid growth and development Focus: weight Seventh Month
Surfactant development
Male: the testes begins to descent into the scrotal sac
Female : clitoris is prominent and labia majora are small doesn’t cover the minora Eight Month
Active moro reflex
Lanugo begins to disappear
Sub q fats deposits, steady weight gain, nails to fingers
Ninth Month
Lanugos and vernix caseosa is evident in body fold
Birth position assumed
Amniotic fluid somewhat decrease
Sole of the foot has few creases
Tenth Month
Bone ossification in the fetal skull
Vernix caseosa is evident in body


Systemic Changes
1. Cardiovascular System
 blood volume 30 – 50%
1500 cc; additional 500 cc for multiple pregnancy
 plasma volume
 cardiac workload – easy fatigability/ slight ventricular hypertrophy Epistaxis due to hyperemia of nasal membrane
Palpitation due to SNS stimulation
Physiologic Anemia/ pseudoanemia in pregnacy
Normal Value
Hct : 32 – 42%
Hgb: 10.5 – 14 g/dl
1st & 3rd Trimester : Hct > 33% Hgb > 11 g/dl
2nd Trimester : Hct > 32% Hgb > 10.5 g/dl
Pathologic Anemia
Iron Defficiency Anemia is the most common hematologic disorder. It affects 20% of pregnant women Assesment reveals:
Slowed capillary refill = Normal = 2 – 3 sec
Concave fingernails (late sign of progressive anemia) – clubbing = chronic tissue hypoxia constipation
Nursing care
Nutritional instruction
Source of iron
Liver = best source due to FERRIDIN Content
Red and lean meat
Green Leafy Vegetables
Parenteral Iron (Imferon)
Z tract IM
incorrect causes hematoma
best given 1 hour before meals (causes GI irritation)
Maybe given 2 hours after meal (results to poor absorption) Given with orange juice to  absorption
Oral Iron Supplements (ferrous sulfate 0.3 g 3 x a day)
Monitor for hemorrhage
Iron from red meat is better absorbed iron from other sources Iron is better absorbed when taken with foods high in Vitamin C such as orange juice Higher iron intake is recommended since circulating blood volume is increased and heme is required from production of RBCs Edema

Impeded venous return due to the gravid uterus
Nursing Intervention
Elevate legs above the hips level
Wear support stockings
Elevate legs
Vulvar Varicosities
D/t pressure of gravid uterus
Side –lying with pillow under the hips
Modified knee – chest position
Presence of thrombus in inflamed blood vessels
+ Homan’s Sign – pain on the calf upon dorsiflexion
Medical Management
Anticoagulant/ HEPARIN
Does not cross the placental barrier
Monitor APTT
No aspirin
Milk Leg/ Plagmasia Alba Dolens
Shiny white legs due to stretching of skin & hyperfibrinogenemia Nursing intervention
Check dorsalis pedis pulse (compare both)
Never massage
Assess for Homan’s sign only onc...

Read more


+1 +2 +3 +4 +500 +7 +9 -1 -10 -12 -12.5 -120 -15 -18 -24 -3 -4 -40 -5 -55 -60 -8 -90 /horizontal /or 0 0.3 000 02 1 1.5 1.6 10 10.5 1000 100th 10cm 10hrs/day 10mcg/day 10mg/day 10th 11 11.0 11.5 12 120 1200mg/day 120mg/day 124 12cm 12hrs 12wks 13 13.5 130 130mg/dl 13730674 13th 14 140/90mmhg 14th 15 1500 15mg/day 15mmhg 15secs 15th 16 160 160/110 1600mg/day 175mcg/day 17mg/day 18 180 18y/o 19 1cm 1g/kg/day 1hr 1hrs 1min 1st 2 2.2 20 20th 21 21th 2200 23 24 24th 24wks 25 2500 26 266 27 2700 27th 28 280 288 28th 2days 2nd 2x 3 30 300 300mcg/day 30mg/day 30mins 30mmhg 32 320mg/day 33 35 36 36wks 37 39th 3cm 3gms/day 3hr 3mg/day 3mos 3parts 3rd 4 40 400 4000gms 400mcg/day 40mg/dl 40mins 42 42wks 44 45 46 46xx 48 4bones 4cm 4k 4th 5 50 500 50gm 51 5cm 5th 5wks 6 60 60mg/day 65mcg/day 6months 6wks 7 7/8 70 70mg/day 70th 72 7cm 7mg/dl 7th 8 80 8cm 8is 8th 9 9.25 90/60 99.7 99.9 9k 9th a1 ab abdoimin abdomen abdomin aberr abil abnorm abort abrupt abruptio absenc absent absorb absorpt absort acceler accept accid accident accompani acet achiev achondroplasia acid acreta acromnio act action activ acut adapt addit address adequ adequaci adher adhes administ administr admit adolesc advanc advers advis advoc aesthet affect age air aka alakalin alarm alba albican albuminuria alcohol alert alkalin alkalosi allow almost alon along also alter alway ambival ambul amd amelia amenorrhea amino amniocentesi amnion amnioscopi amniot amniotomi amount ampulla anaerob analges analysi anaphylact anchovi andrew android anemia anesthesia anomali anoth answer antabus antagonist anterior anthropoid anti anti-convuls anti-emet antibiot anticoagul antidot antifung antihypertens antiprotozoan antispasmon anus anytim aog ap ape ape-lik apex/acne appear appetit appli apposit apprehens approx approxim apr aptt arachidon arch area areola aris arrest arteri artichok ascend asparagus aspir aspirin asses assess assist associ assum atoni attach attempt attitud audibl augment auro autosom ava avail averag avocado avoid awkward axi b b12 b6 babi back bacteri bacteria bag balanc ball ballot bandl barrier bartholomew basal basali base baselin basi basic bath bbt bean bear beat becom bed bedrest bedsid beek befida begin behavior behind belief benedict best best/major beta beteen better bi bi-mastoid bi-pariet bi-tempor bifida bifida/open bikini bilater bill biolog biophys bipartita birth bladder blanket blastocyst bleed blight blind bllod block blood bloodi blow blue bluish blur bo board boardlik bodi boggi bond bone border borderlin bottl bounc boundari bowel bp bpp bradley brain brant braxton bread breadth break breakfast breakthrough breast breastfeed breath breech brethin bricanyl bright brim broccoli brocolli brow brown bud bulg bun bunch butter buttock c c/s ca cabbag caesarian caffein cal calcem calcium calcium-phosphor calendar calf calkin calm calor calori calories/day can canal cancer candid candida candl canisten cantaloup cap capabl capacit capillari capsul caput carb carbohydr carcinogen carcinoma cardiac cardiff cardiovascular care carpoped carri case caseosa caspulari cat cathet caus cava caviti cbq cbr cc cchymosi ceas celiac cell center cephal cephalhematoma cephalo cereal cerebr cervic cervix cesarean cessat chadwick chain chang character characterist chd check chees cheeselik chemic chest child childbear childbirth chill chin chloasma chnage cho choic chon chorea choriocarcinoma chorion chromosom chronic church circl circlag circul circular circulatori circumor citrus clammi clamp class classic classif cleans clear cleft client clitori close closur clot cloudi club clump cm cmv cns co2 coach coagul cocain coccain coccyx code coil coitus cold collect colon color colustrum comad combin comfort common communic compar complet complex complianc complic compon compress compromis concav conceal conceiv concent concentr concept conclus condit condom confin confirm congenit conjug conjugate/conjugate connect conscious consecut consid consider consist constip constrict consult consum consumpt contain content continu contracept contract contraind contrimazol convert convuls copper cord cororont corpus cotyledon could count couvelair cover cpr cracker crackl cramp cranial cream creas cremaster crest cri criteria critic cross crossmatch crown cryoprecipit crystal crème cs cst culdocentesi cullen cultur cunnilingus cup cups/day current cushion cut cva cvs cyanocobalamin cycl cystic cytolog cytomegalo cytothrophoblast d d/t daili dairi damag danger dangl dark darken data date day deaf death dec decid decidua decis decreas decrement/decresendro deeper defect deferen deffici defici definit degener degre dehydr delay deliv deliveri dema demand demerol demonstr denial deoxyribonucl depend deplet depomedroxi depoprovera deposit depress depressor depriv depth descent desir destruct detect determin detoxifi develop development devic dexamethason dextros dfmc diabet diabetogen diagnosi diagnost diagon diamet diamond diaphragm diaphram diapraghm diastol dic dick die diet dietari differ differenti difficult diffus digit dilat dili diploid direct dirti disadvantag disappear discharg disciplin discolor discomfort discontinu discover diseas dislodg disord disproport dissemin distal distinguish distress disturb divid dizzi dm dm/hpn dmpa dna doc doctor doesn dolen dome domin done doppl dorsal dorsali dorsiflex dorsiflexion dorso dose doubl douch dr drainag dri drink drip drop drug drug-nicotin duchenn ductil due duncan duplic durabl durat dx dysmenorrhea dyspnea dystocia dystrophi dysuria e ear earli earliest easi easili eat ecclampsia eclampsia econom ectoderm ectop ed edd edema edg edic edit effac effect effleurag effort eg egg eight ejacul elev elisa elit embol embolus embryo embryon emerg emet emin emot empti enamel encapsul encount encourag end endocard endocrin endoderm endogen endometr endometrium enema energi engag enhanc enjoy enlarg enrich ensur enter entiti environ environment enzym epidur epigastr epinephrin epiphysi episioraphi episiotomi epistaxi ere erect esophagus especi essenti establish estim estrogen etal etc ethmoid euglycemia evalu even everi evid exam examin exceed except excess exchang excit excret excretori exercis exhal exhaust exhibit exist exogen expans expect expel experi exposur expuls extend extens extern extract extrem eye eyelid f face facilit fact factor failur fall fals famili fantasi fast fat father fatig fatigu fatti favor fear fear-bi featur fed feel feet felt femal femor ferdinand fern ferridin ferrous fertil fetal fetoplacent fetus fetuscop fever fhr fht fiber fibrinolysi fibrosi fifth fight final find finger fingernail fire firm first fish fist fistula flagel flagyl flare flat flatul flex flexio flexion float flora flow fluid fm fms foam focus folacin folat fold foley folic follic follicl follicular follow fontanel fontanel/bregma fontanel/lambda food foot footl forc forcep fore forget forgotten form format formula fortifi foul fourt fourth fowler fragment frank frequenc frequent fresh frontal frothi frozen fruit fsh fshrf full fulli function fundal fundic fundus funi g g/day g/dl g2 g2p0 g4 g4p2 gain gait galactosemia gametogenesi gas gastrointestin gatorad gauz geen gelatin gen general genet genit genotyp gentian gentl germ gestat get gi ginger git give given gland glass globular glotti glucon glucos glumerular gnrh go goal goe goiter good goodel goodl graafian grade grain gram grand grant grape grasp gravid gravida gravidarum gray green greenish group grow growth gtt guid gush gyne gynecoid h h2o haas habit habitu hair half hand handl haploid happen hard hbmr hcg hcl hct head headach heal health healthi hear heart heartburn heat heel hegar height hellp help hematolog hematoma heme hemolysi hemoperitoneum hemophilia hemorrhag hemorrhoid hep/a hepa heparin hereditari herp hgb hick high higher hip histopatholog hiv hold hole hollow homan home hormaon hormon hospit hot hour hpl hpn hrough hrs ht human huntington hurri husband hydatidiform hydraluzin hydramnio hydrat hydrocephalus hygien hyperact hyperbilirubenemia hyperbilirubinemia hyperemesi hyperemia hyperesthesia hyperextend hyperfibrinogenemia hyperglycemia hyperinsulin hypermagnesiumenimia hypersensit hypertens hyperthyroid hyperton hypertrophi hyperventil hypo hypocalcemia hypoglycemia hypotens hypothalamus hypoton hypovolem hypovolemia hypoxia hysterectomi ice ideal identifi idiopath ie ii iii ileum iliac im imag imbal imferon imit immatur immedi immun imped impend implant import improp impt inabl inadequ inappropri inch incid incis includ incompet incomplet incorrect increas increment/cresendro increta independ inder indic individu induc induct ineffect inertia inevit infect inferior inflam inflamm inform infus ingest inhal inhibit initi inject inlet inner innomin insert insid instinct instruct instrument insulin intact intak integr intens intensifi interact interdepend interfemora intern interpret interstiti interuptus interv intervent intrapart intrapartum intraperiton intravascular invas invers involuntari involut iodid iodin iron irradi irregular irrevers irrit ischarg ischem ischial ischium isoflavon isthmus itchi iud iufd iugr iv ix j jan jaundic jelli jeopard jitteri joint juic junction k kangkong karyotyp kegel kept ketosi kidney kit kitzing knee kneel knife knowledg known l/r- l/s l0 l1 labia labor lacer lack lactat lacto lacto-ovo lactogen lactos lam lamaz lambdoid landscap langhan lanugo larg largest last late latent later lateral/side latex latin layer layett lb lbs lbs/mo lbw lead leafi lean learn least leboy lecitin left leg legum lengh length lengthen lentil leopold less let leucorrhea leukorrhea level lh lhrf lie life lifespan lifetim ligat light lighten lightheaded like limb limit line linea linen link lip liquid listen lithium lithotomi live liver lobe local locat lochia long longer longest longitudin look lop lordosi loss lost love lover low lower lubric lumbo lumbo-sacr lung luteum lutheal m machin macrosomia/lga made maform magnesium main maintain mainten major majora make make-up maladapt male malform malign mallat malposit mammari mamographi manag maneuv manipul manual mar margarin margin mark marrow massag mastoid match materi matern matur maximum may mayb mcdonald mcg/day meal measur meat mechan meconium med median medic mediolater meet mefenam meiosi melanocyt melasma mellitus member membran men menarch menopaus menorrhagia mens menstrual menstruat mentum meperidin mesoderm met metabol metastasi methergin method methotrex methylergonovin metronidazol metrorrhagia mg mg/day mg/dl mgt mhr microcephali microorg microorgan middl mild milk million mimic min mind miner minim minimum minora minuet minut miscarriag miss mittelschsmerz mm3 mo mobil model moder modifi mold mole moniliasi monitor mont month mood morn moro morphin morula mos mother motil mousi mouth mouthwash movabl move movement mturat much mucus mulberri mulberry-lik multi multifactor multipar multipara multipl muscl muscoloskelet muscular musculoskelet muscuskelet music must musti musty/mousy mycostatin myoma myometrium n na nagel nail nallin nalorfan naloxon nanay narcan narcot narrow nasal natal natur nausea navel necessari need needl negat neoplasm nerv nervous nest neural never new newborn next ng niacin nicotin night nigra ninth nippl nitrazin non non-surg noncreat nonreact nonstress normal norplant nose note notifi nourish npo nsd nst nsvd nucleus nulli numb number nurs nurseri nurtur nut nutrient nutrit o o2 obes observ obstetr obtain occipit occipito occipitofront occipitotempor occur odor og oha ointment oligohydramnio oliguria one onset oocyt oogenesi ooz open operculum optim oral orang order ordinari organ organogenesi origoknaus orthostat os osmosi ossif osteoblast oswd other otherterm ototox outer outermost outlet outlin output outsid outstand oval ovari ovarian overal overflow overlap overload overwhelm overwt ovo ovul ovum oxygen oxytocin p p0 p1 pad pain painless palat pallor palpabl palpat palpit palsi pancak pant paon pap paper papsmear para paracetamol parallel paramet parasympathet parent parenter parenthood pariet pariti part partial particip partner partum pass passag passageway passeng passiv past patch patellar patent patholog patient pattern peak pedi pelvi pelvic penetr peni pepper per percreta pereni perenium perenni perfor perimetrium perineum period perman permeabl permit perpendicular person pg phase phenotyp phonon phosphatiglycerol phosphor phrenic physic physician physiolog pictori pigment pih pill pillow pink pinkish pinocytosi pint pitch pituitari pku place placemat placement placent placenta plagmasia plan plant plasm plasma platelet platypelloid play plug pm pneumin pocomelia point polici polydactyl polyhydramnio poor portion posit pospart possibl post posterior postion postmenstru postovulatori postpart postpartum postur potato potenti poultri power ppg pproxim pr prais pre pre-ecclampsia pre-eclampsia pre-emin pre-exist pre-term preanut precaut precipit precolostrum preemin preg pregnaci pregnanc pregnant pregnat prehydr prematur premenstru preovulatori prepar prepregn prescrib presenc present pressur presumpt preterm prevent preventovul previa previous pride primari primarili primi primipara principl prior privat probabl problem procedur process produc product profil profus progesteron progestin prognosi progress prolactin prolaps prolif prolong prom promin promontori promot prone propanolol proper prostaglandin protamin protect protein proteinuria proteolyt protoxzoan protrud provid ps pseudoanemia pseudocyesi psyche/person psycholog psychoprophylaxi psychosexu psychosi psycosomat ptyalism puberti pubi pubic pubococcyg pudend puerper puerperium pull pulmonari puls pulsat purpos purul push put pychic pyridoxin pyrosi q q15 qt quadrant quantiti quarter question quicken quiet quinin r radiat rais rale rapid rate rather ratio rbc rbcs reabsorpt reach reaction reactiv read readi readili real reativ recess recommend record recoveri rectum recumb red redefin reeda refer refil refit reflect reflex reflux regimen region regular reinfect relat relationship relax relaxin releas reliev remain remov repair report repres reproduct requir research reserv reservatus resist resolv respi respiratori respons ressembl rest restless result resutur retain retent retinoblastoma retract retroplacent return reusabl reva reveal revers rhythm ria riboflavin rickett rigen right rigid ring ripe ripen rise risk ritodin rna roa/loa robert rock rod roduct role roll room rop rop/lop rop/rot rot/lot rotat round royal rr rubberi rubella rubin rubra rule run ruptur ry s/s s/sx sa sac sacral sacro sacrum safe safeti sagitt saliv salmon sampl sardin satisfi satur save scant scanti schedul scotoma screen scrotal se seafood seal sec second secondari secret secretori section secundin sedat see seen segment seizur select selenium semi semi-fowl semifowl sens sensat sensit separ sepsi serious serosa serv set settl seventh sever sex sexual shallow shape sharp shell shhirodkar shiella shini shirodkar shock shoe shoot short shorten shortest shoulder show shrill shultz sick sickl side side-li sign signal signific sim simpl simplex sinc singl sinisipsip sip sit site situ situat sitz sixth size skeleton skin skull sleep slight slipperi slough slow slowli sluggish small smallest smear smell smoke snack snowstorm sns so4 social socio socio-econom sodium soft soften sole somatomammothrophin sometim somewhat song sonogram soufflé sourc space span spare spasm spatholog specif speculum sperm spermatogenesi spermicid sphenoid sphincter spici spina spine spingomyelin spinnbarkeit spontan spot spread sputum squamocolumnar squar squat ssessment stabil stage stain start startl state station status stay std steadi step steril steroid stethoscop stick still stimul stimuli stitch stock stomach stone stop store strawberri strength strengthen streptococci streptomycin stress stretch stretchabl striae strict strip strong structur struggl sub subarachnoid subcutan subinvolut submentobrgmat suboccipitobregmat subq substitu subtract subunit succedaneum succenturiata suction sudden suffici sugar suggest suitabl sulfat superior supin supplement suppli support suprapub surest surfac surfact surgic surpris sustain sutur sutures/intermembranous swallow swell swing sx sympathet symphysi sympthotherm symptom synciti syncope/fainting syndrom synsitiotrophoblast synthesi syphili syphilli system systol t0 t1 tablet tachi tachycardia tachypnea tahbso tailor take taken tangibl tank task tb tbsp tea teach team teaspoon techniqu teenag teeth tef tell temp temperatur tempor temporari tender tens tension tenth teratogen terbutalin term termin terminal terminolog terratogen test tetani tetanus tetracyclin thalidomid theori therapeut therapi therebi thiamin thick thicken thigh thin third though threadlik threaten thrombo thrombophleb thrombus thropoblast thru thumb thus thymus thyroid till tilt time ting tingl tire tissu titer tocolyt toe tofu toler tomato tone tongu tooth torch tortous touch towel toxemia toxic toxoplasmosi tract traction transfer transfus transit transport transvagin transvers trash trauma travel treat tremor trendelenberg trendelenburg tri triad trial triangular trichomona trigger trigon trimest trophoblast true trush tsb tt1 tt2 tt3 tt4 tt5 tubal tube tuberoischii tuberos turn twentieth twice two tx type u ulrasound ultrasound umbil umbilicus umusu unabl undeni undergo underwt uneven unilater unit univers unknown unoxygen unruptur unsaf unsuucess upon uppe4r upper urethroan urin urinari use user usual uterin uterus uti util v v/s vaccin vacuum vagin vagina vaginali vaginoplasti vagu valsalva valu variabl variat varicos varieti vas vasectomi veal veget vegetarian vein vena venous ventricular vera vernix vertex vertic vesicl vessel vi via viabil viabl vigor vii villi vinegar violet virgin virus visit vission visual vit vital vitamin void volum voluntari vomit vs vulvar w w/o w/out waddl waist wait wake walk wall want warm warn wash water wateri wave way wbc weaker wear wed week weigh weight well well-b wet wharton whether white whitish whole wide widen wider wind withdraw within without wk wks wof woman women wonder word workload would wrinkl wt wt-gain x xiphoid y.o y/o year yellowinsh yellowish yet yogurt yolk yung yutupar z zinc zygot