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13 B Distribution And Constiuents Of Fluids Essay

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13B – Distribution and constituents of fluids

P3: Distribution and constituents of body fluids –
M2: Explain functions of the constituents of body fluids -

Constituents of body fluid -

The human body consists mostly of water, and is a major constituent to the human body and vital organs; of this 90% include blood plasma, lymph, urine, saliva, digestive juices, bile, cerebrospinal fluid and tissue fluid. Water enables substances to be transported throughout the body, red blood cells for example, as wells as supplying the medium required for metabolic reaction to take place (respiration). Without water the progression of these fluids would not be possible. Water is constantly being transported between the fluid compartments of the body.

Water has five main functions in the body, of which includes:

'Cell life - distribute nutrients to cells i.e. vitamins, minerals and glucose Chemical and metabolic reactions - removal of waste products (toxins) from the organs Transport of nutrients – participates in the breakdown of food Body temperature regulation - water has a large heat capacity that allows it to help limit any changes to an individual's body temperature in a certain environment. For example the release of heat when the surrounding temperature is higher than body temperature Elimination of waste'

Urea –

Urea is an organic molecule made up of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. Urea is a common constituent of blood and other various bodily fluids, and is formed from ammonia in the kidney and liver. Ammonia is produced through the breakdown of proteins during tissue metabolism. Metabolic reactions that take place within the body can produce a surplus of amino acids of which can be converted into the waste product otherwise known as urea through the process of deamination in the liver. Proteins obtained through an individual’s diet are broken down into amino acids. The excess amino acids made during this process are unable to be stored in the body as they can become toxic; therefore they would then have to be converted into a less toxic urea before ultimately being removed as a component of urine.

Acids, bases and salt –

Acids are a substance that has a pH less than 7. There are two different types of acid:

Weak acid – An organic compound with a minimal amount of dissociated molecules Strong acid – An organic compound with a large amount of dissociated molecules

Acids are a corrosive substance with a pH less than 7. Acidity is caused by a high concentration of hydrogen ions.

Bases are a substance with a pH higher than 7, and have a high concentration of hydroxyl ions. Bases can react with acids in order to neutralise them in order to form salt and water. Bases are normally metal oxides or metal hydroxides. Sodium hydroxide for example is a base.

Acids react with reactive metals in order to make a salt. Salts are a compound formed by the neutralisation of an acid by a base, for example metal oxide. This is a result of hydrogen atoms in an acid being replaced by positive ions.

Bases that have are able to dissolve into water are known as alkalis. Sodium hydroxide is an alkali as it dissolves in water, copper oxide cannot dissolve water therefore is not an alkali.

Hydrochloric acid is produced in the stomach, consisting of chloride and hydrogen. Carbonic acid is produced in red blood cells consisting of carbon dioxide and water, of which is why demanding exercise can lead to the increase in the acidity of the individual’s blood.

Control of osmosis -

Salts are a major constituent of blood, and the levels both inside and ...

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