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Journal of Chemical Health Risks 3(1): 65-71, 2013

Determination of Sodium Benzoate and Potassium Sorbate in “Doogh” Samples in Post Market Surveillance in Iran 2012
B. Akbari-adergani1*, S. Eskandari1, N. Bahremand2

Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center, Food and Drug Organization, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran


Department of Food Science and Technology, Varamin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran (Received: 5 January 2013

Accepted: 10 February 2013)

Abstract: Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate are two major chemical preservatives which are used in Doogh (Iranian traditional dairy drink). In this study, a total of 27 commercial brands of highly consumed of Doogh samples were analyzed. The means and standard deviation for concentration of these preservatives based on HPLC results for analysis of benzoate and sorbate were 195·9 (SD 1·8) and 328·8 (SD 2·1) mg.Kg-1 respectively. The minimum and maximum of benzoate content in various brands were 18.3 and 2345.1 mg.Kg-1 and for sorbate were not detected and 4961.3 mg.Kg-1 respectively. The study revealed that there was not significant difference in preservative concentration in the samples that belonged to various dates. However, a few samples had a high preservative concentration, which could be a risk factor for human health, especially when their intake was being occurred by various foodstuffs simultaneously. Keywords: Preservative, Sodium benzoate, Potassium sorbate, Doogh, post-market microbiological, enzymatic or chemical changes of


foods and to prolong shelf life and quality of
Doogh as an old and traditional drink of Iran has

foods; these also prevent consumer hazards due to

high value of nutrients (same as fermented milk

the presence of microbial toxin or pathogenic

and Yoghurt) and remedial property and has plenty

microorganisms and economic losses due to

full of healthfulness effects include: Improving

spoilage. The most commonly used preservatives

lactose digestion in individuals that have this

in many types of foods are benzoic and sorbic

difficulty; lowering serum cholesterol levels;

acids, nitrate and nitrite [2-3]. Benzoic and sorbic

stimulating the immune system [1]. Although

acids and their respective sodium, potassium and

using common salt is a major preservative for such

calcium salts are the most commonly used

a pleasure drink, but health legislations and















preservatives in food stuffs. These chemicals are
generally used to inhibit yeast and mould growth,
being also effective against a wide range of


bacteria. These compounds are most active in

important practice in modern food technology with

foods of low pH value and essentially ineffective

the increase in the production of processed and

in foods at neutral pH value [3-4]. At acidic pH,

convenience foods. These preservatives are added

where sorbic and benzoic acids and their salts

to stop or delay nutritional losses due to
Corresponding Author: B. Akbari-adergani, Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center, Food and Drug Organization, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran. email: [email protected]


Journal of Chemical Health Risks 3(1): 65-71 , 2013

effective, the lipophilic un-dissociated molecule is

and sorbic acid (SA) or sodium benzoate (E211)

freely permeable across the cell membrane.

and potassium sorbate (E202) has been reversed-

Subsequently upon encountering the higher pH

phase HPLC [8-9]. Some other analytical methods

inside the cell, the molecule dissociates resulting


in the release of changed anions and protons,

Spectrophotometry [11], Gas Chromatography-

which cannot cross the plasma membrane [5]. The

Mass Spectrometry [12], liquid chromatography

importance of food preservatives to consumers has

[4-5, 12-15] and SPME-HPLC [6] have also been

always been a health safety issue [2]. Although

reported. As can be seen, there are various

benzoic and sorbic acids and their salts are

methods for the analysis of these preservatives in

generally recognized as sa...

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