Essays /

1409 Final Review Essay

Essay preview

For all sections you must know both structure and function, as well as why these systems function this way.

Chapter 26: Coordination by Neural Signaling

The 2 parts of the Central Nervous System and what is the function of each. Brain: sensory fibers, somatic sensory, visceral sensory; Spinal Cord: motor fibers, somatic motor fibers, autonomic motor fibers, sympathetic division, parasympathetic division. The main parts of the brain and what each does.

Structure and function of the neuron: be able to label it. Neurons are specialized to conduct nerve impulses and those allow sensory info to reach CNS and nerve impulses allow CNS to send out motor directives in nerve fibers. 527 Know the different types of neurons and how they function in the nervous system. Motor: carry nerve impulses from CNS to muscles or glands; sensory neurons: take nerve impulses from sensory receptors to CNS; Interneurons: parallel the structure of motor neurons and their axons conduct nerve impulses between various parts of the CNS. What is an “action potential”, how does it work? A rapid change in polarity across an axon membrane as the nerve impulse occurs. If a stimulus causes the axon membrane to depolarize to a certain level, called threshold, an action potential occurs in an all or none manner. The gates of sodium channels open, and sodium flows into the axon. As sodium moves to the inside of the axon, the membrane potential changes from -65mV to +40mV. This is depolarization. The reversal in polarity causes the sodium channels to close and potassium to open. 528 What are neurotransmitters? How do they work? Name specific neurotransmitters and what they do. Chemical stored at the ends of axons that is responsible for transmission across a synapse. 3 steps: 1-Nerve impulses traveling along axon reach axon terminal , gated channels for calcium ions open and enter the terminal. 2-Neurotransmitter molecules are released into the synaptic cleft and they diffuse across the cleft to the postsynaptic membrane. 3-They bind with specific receptor proteins. Ach and NE-Associated with Alzheimers, ACh has either excitatory or inhibitory effect on smooth muscle and glands. Serotonin- involved in thermoregulation, sleeping, emotions, and perception. Dopamine and GABA- Dopamine is involved with emotions, control of motor function, and attention. Endorphins-block the release of substance P and is considered a natural painkiller. Chart on 542 How does caffeine, heroin, marijuana, meth, alcohol, cocaine, ecstasy effect the CNS? Caffeine- helps keep a person awake by interfering with the effects of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain; Heroin-travels rapidly to the brain where it is converted to morphine which brings a rush of euphoria. Marijuana- Person experiences mild euphoria along with alterations in vision and judgment; Meth-stimulant, it reverses the effects of fatigue, maintains wakefulness and temporarily elevates mood; Alcohol-depressant, increases the action of GABA, which inhibits motor neurons and increases the release of endorphins; Cocaine-stimulant, interferes with the re-uptake of dopamine at synapses; ectasy-has an overstimulatory effect on neurons that produce serotonin to elevate mood. What are the meninges? Where are they found? What is their function? Protective membranous coverings about the CNS(brain and spinal cord.) 534 Be able to label: the brain~~structure and function 536 Spinal Cord-center for many reflex actions and it provides a means of communication between brain and spinal nerves; brain ventric...

Read more

Keywords

+40 -563 -65 1 12 1409 2 2.5 24 26 27 28 2nd 3 3000 33 35 3rd 4th 5 527 528 534 536 540 542 554 559 562 572 573 576 577 579 582 666 670 671 672 675 676 7 704 714 abl absorb account ach acid across act actin action activ addit adher adult advantag affect afterbirth alcohol alcohol-depress aldosteron alert allantoi allow along also alter alzheim amino ammonia amnion amniot among amphibian amplifi anim anoth antidiuret anvil appendicular appl area arrang arriv arthropod asexu assist associ atp atrial attach attent autonom awak away axial axon babi back balanc band basal bear becom beef begin behavior bind bird birth bitter bladder block blood bodi bone bowman brain breast bring broth bud build bursa burst caffein calcium call canal cancer capillari capsul carbon cardiac carri carrier cart cart-slight case cataract caus cell center central cerebellum cerebr cerebrospin cerebrum cerebrum-largest certain cervic chang channel chapter characterist chart chees chemic chemo chemo-tast chemoreceptor chlamydia chorion choroid ciliari ciliat circul cleft close cloudi cm cns cocain cocaine-stimul coil cold collect colon column command communic compart complex compos compound condom conduct cone conjunctiva conjunctiva-i connect consid contain continu contract control convert coordin cord cord-cent cornea correct cortex cortex-thin cover cranial critic cuplik cycl danger deferen degener depolar depress dermi describ design destroy detect determin develop diabet diamet diaphragm diencephalon differ difficult diffus dimens dioxid direct disadvantag diseas diseases/disorders disk disord disorders-diabet disorders/diseases disrupt distal distribut divid divis dna dopamin dr dr-capillari drink duct ear ear-amplifi ear-bal ear-gath earli earthworm eas echinoderm ecstasi ectasi ectasy-ha effect egg either ejaculatori electro electro-ey electromagnet elev embryo embryon emot end endo endorphin endorphins-block endoskeleton energi enlarg ensur enter entir entranc environ enzymat epididymi essenti estrogen etc euphoria eventu exampl excess exchang excitatori excret excretori exist exit exit.667 exo exoskeleton experi experiment explain expos extend extern extrem eye eyelid failur fallopian fat fatigu favor femal fertil fetal fetus fiber fibrous filament fill filtrat final first fish flavor flow fluid follicl follow forc form found four freeli friction front frontal fsh function fuse gaba gas gate gather gene germ girdl give gland glaucoma glomerular glucos gonorrhea gradient gray group grow hair hairpin halv hammer happen hcg head hear help hemispher henl heroin heroin-travel herp homeostasi horizont hormon housekeep hox hpv human humor hydrogen hyperton hypothalamus hypoton ident immedi immov implant import impuls increas incus individu induct infant influenc info inform inhibit inhibitori inject inner input insect insid integr interf interfer intern interneuron interpret intervertebr involv ion isoton iud joint joints-immov judgment keep kidney kidneys-nephron kind know label languag larg largest last later layer learn len level lh lie ligament light like line liver locat locomot long longer loop lumbar macular main maintain major make male malleus mammal mammalian mammals-urea mandibl mani manner marijuana materi matter matur maxilla may mean mech mech-ear mechan mechananoreceptor mechanoreceptor membran memori mening metabol meth meth-stimul method mg mg-cone microvilli middl midlin mild miner molecul mollusk month mood morphin morphogen morti motion motor movabl move movement mover mucous muscl must mv myofibril myosin name natriuret natur ne ne-associ neck need nephridia nephridium nephron nerv nervous neural neuron neurotransmitt newborn next nitrogen none normal nuclei occur offspr one oocyt opaqu open opposit organ osmoregul ossicl osteoblast outer oval ovari ovarian overlap overstimulatori overwhelm oviduct ovul p pad page pain painkil parallel parasympathet parent part pass past path pathway pector percept peripher person pg pgs pheromon physic pictur pill pituitari place plane plasma polar pon pore portion possibl postsynapt potassium potenti precis pregnanc present pressur prevent primari prime process produc product product-fish-ammonia progesteron promot propel proper propriceptor proprioceptor protect protein provid proxim pull pump quick quizz rapid ray re re-uptak reach reaction receiv receptor receptors-al reclaim reflex regul relax releas remov renal reproduc reproduct reproduction-advantag reptil reptiles-ur requir research respond respons result retin retina retinpathi revers review rib rigor rise rotat rush sac saccul sacomer sacral sacrum salt salti sarcomer sclera seafood second secondari section semicircular send sens sensat sensit sensori sent seri serotonin serv sex sexual shark shell shut sick side signal singl site skelet skeleton skin skull sleep slide slight slowli small smell smooth sodium sodium/potassium solut somat somatic-serv somatosensori sort sound sour space speci special specif speech sperm sphere spill spinal spot stage stape starfish state step stimul stimuli stimulus stirrup stone store stray structur studi substanc success summat support surfac surround sweet swept sympathet symptom synaps synapt synovi synovial-fre synthesi synthet syphili system take tast temp temporarili tendon term termin testosteron tetanus thermo thermo-hypothalamus thermoreceptor thermoregul thicken thin thorac thorax thought three threshold thus tissu tongu touch toward transmiss transpar transport travel trichomoniasi trimest trimester-develop trimester-embryon trimester-fetus trunk tube tubul tubular turn tympan type umami understand unit upper uptak urea urea-produc uret urethra uric urin urinari urine-produc us usabl use usual uterus utricl various vas ventricl vertebr vertebra vertic vessel via vicin video viscer vision vitreous vitro vno void voluntari vomeronas wake warm wart wast water wave way well window work zygomat