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John E. McMurry • Robert C. Fay

C H E M I S T R Y
Fifth Edition

Chapter 10
Liquids, Solids, and Phase Changes
Lecture Notes
Alan D. Earhart
Southeast Community College • Lincoln, NE
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 10/2

Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments

C-Cl bond has a bond dipole because of
a difference in electronegativities.

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 10/3

Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments

The individual bond polarities do not cancel.
Therefore, the molecule has a dipole
moment. In other words, the molecule is
polar.

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 10/4

Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments

The individual bond polarities cancel.
Therefore, the molecule does not have a
dipole moment. In other words, the molecule
is nonpolar.

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 10/5

Intermolecular Forces
If we compare the strengths of interactions among
particles and the degree of ordering of particles, we see
that

Gases< Liquids < Solids

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 10/6

Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular Forces: Attractions between
“molecules” that hold them together.

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 10/7

Intermolecular Forces
Types of Intermolecular Forces:
• Ion-Dipole Forces
• Van der Waals Forces
1- Dipole-dipole forces
2- London dispersion forces
3- Hydrogen bonds

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 10/8

Intermolecular Forces
Ion-Dipole Forces: The result of electrical interactions
between an ion and the partial charges on a polar
molecule.

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 10/10

Intermolecular Forces
1- Dipole-Dipole Forces: The result of electrical
interactions between dipoles on neighboring molecules.

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 10/11

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