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1411 Chapter 4 Fall 2010 Essay

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John E. McMurry • Robert C. Fay

C H E M I S T R Y
Fifth Edition

Chapter 4
Reactions in Aqueous Solution
Lecture Notes
Alan D. Earhart
Southeast Community College • Lincoln, NE
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution
Electrolytes: Substances which dissolve in water to
produce conducting solutions of ions.
NaCl(s)

H2O

Na1+(aq) + Cl1-(aq)

A solution of NaCl conducts
electricity because of the
movement of charged
particles (ions).

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/2

Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution
Nonelectrolytes: Substances which do not produce
ions in aqueous solutions.
C12H22O11(s)

H2O

C12H22O11(aq)

A solution of C12H22O11
( Sucrose) does not
conduct electricity because
it contains no charged
particles (ions).

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/3

Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution
Strong Electrolytes: Compounds that dissociate to a
large extent into ions when dissolved in water.
KCl(aq)

K1+(aq) + Cl1-(aq)

Weak Electrolytes: Compounds that dissociate to a
small extent into ions when dissolved in water.
CH3CO2H(aq)

H1+(aq) + CH3CO21-(aq)

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Chapter 4/4

Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution

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Chapter 4/5

Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution

Strong Acids: hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic
acid, hydroiodic acid, perchloric acid, nitric acid,
sulfuric acid.
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Chapter 4/6

Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution

Ionic Compounds

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Chapter 4/7

Electrolytes in Aqueous
Solution

Weak acids

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Chapter 4/8

Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution

Molecular Compounds
(other than any strong or weak electrolytes)
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Chapter 4/9

Some Ways That Chemical Reactions Occur
Precipitation Reactions: Processes in which soluble
reactants yield an insoluble solid product that falls out
of solution.
Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq)

2KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s)

Acid-Base Neutralization Reactions: Processes in
which an acid reacts with a base to yield water plus a
salt.
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)

H2O(l) + NaCl(aq)

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Chapter 4/10

Some Ways That Chemical ReactionsOccur
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions:
Processes in which one or more electrons are transferred
between reaction partners (atoms, molecules, or ions).

Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq)

MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/11

Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Guidelines
1. A compound is probably soluble if it contains one of
the following cations:
• Group 1A cation: Li1+, Na1+, K1+, Cs1+
• Ammonium ion: NH41+
2. A compound is probably soluble if it contains one of
the following anions:
• Halide: Cl1-, Br1-, I1• except Ag1+, Hg22+, and Pb2+ compounds • Nitrate (NO31-), perchlorate (ClO41-), acetate (CH3CO21-), sulfate (SO42-)
• except Ba2+, Hg22+, and Pb2+ sulfates
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/12

Aqueous Reactions and Net Ionic Equations
Molecular Equation: All substances in the chemical
equation are written using their complete formulas as
if they were molecules.
Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq)

2KNO3(aq) + PbI2(s)

strong electrolytes

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

precipitate

Chapter 4/13

Aqueous Reactions and Net Ionic Equations
Ionic Equation: All of the strong electrolytes are
written as ions.
Pb(NO3)2(aq)

2KI(aq)

Pb2+(aq) + 2NO31- (aq) + 2K1+(aq) + 2I1-(aq)
2K1+(aq) + 2NO31- (aq) + PbI2(s)
2KNO3(aq)

Copyright © 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter 4/14

Aqueous Reactions and Net Ionic Equations
Spectator Ions: Ions that undergo no change during
the reaction and appear on both sides of the reaction
arrow.
Pb2+(aq) + 2NO31- (aq) + 2K1+(aq) + 2I1-(aq)
2K1+(aq) + 2NO31- (aq) + PbI2(s)

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Chapter 4/15

Aqueous Reactions and Net Ionic Equations
Net Ionic Equation: Only the ions undergoing change
are shown.
Pb2+(aq) + 2I1-(aq)

PbI2(s)

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Chapter 4/16

Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Guidelines
Write the molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for
the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of
AgNO3 and Na2CO3 are mixed.

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Chapter 4/17

Precipitation Reactions and Solubility Guidelines
Write the molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations for
the reaction that occurs when aqueous solutions of
AgNO3 and Na2CO3 are mixed.
1. Write the chemical formulas of the products (use
proper ionic rules).
AgNO3(aq) + Na2CO3(aq)
AB + CD

Ag2CO3

+ NaNO3

CB + AD

double replacement reaction
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Chapter 4/18

Precipitation Reactions and Solu...

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