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FIFTEENTH CONGRESS OF TI-IE REPUBLIC
OF THE PHILIPPINES
Third Regular Session

)
)
)

SENATE
S. No.

3327

Introduced by Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago

EXPLANATORY NOTE
The use of information and communications technology (lCT) and of the Internet has brought about a sea of change in the lives of ordinary Filipinos. Rare now are the queues before public pay telephones; today, the penetration of mobile phone subscription is pegged by the World Bank at 92%.1 Uncommon today are the handwritten letters and voice tapes exchanged between OFWs and their families and friends; instead, families communicate in real time or in near-real time via Skype, Facebook, Child corporate networks, the BPO, ITO, and other outsourcing industries have contributed USD 11 billion in export revenues, contributing an

\ Data from World Development Indicators (WDJ, or World dataBank http://databank.worldbank.orgl); the primary World Bank database for development data from officially-recognized international sources. 2 "Skype brings OFW families together at Noche Buena", GMA News Online, 29 December 20 11 (h.up://www,Rm~tletwork,c0111/news/storv/243034/scitech/sociall11edi(l/skype~brings-ofw-fa!11ilies-together-at-noche­

buena); "More Filipinos now using Internet for news, information- study", GMA News Online, 31 January 2012

(htl p:/ltechno logy, jngu irer. net/SO 13/more- 11 IiR inos-now-u$:ing- internet-for-news- in format ion -study) 3 "Information and Communications for Development 2009: Extending Reach and Increasing Impact", World Bank, 22 July 2009 (permanent URL: http://go.woridballk.oxgil'lATLOH7HVO; online reading: hl\ll:llisslIlI.com/world.baJ)k.j)ubl icaiions/docs/97808213 7605 8)

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estimated 5.4% to the country's GDP in 2011. The salary scales of the average knowledge worker ranged from PHP 10,000 to PHP 100,000 in 2006,5 lessening the pressure for college graduates and professionals to seek employment abroad. 6

Many government officials and agencies have learned that ICT and the Internet have been powerful tools to promote their agendas and engage the citizenry. As early as 2006, former councilor Peter LaviI1a had advocated C2G/G2C (citizen to government/ government to citizen) participative governance in Davao City through his eponymous former governance blog "Peter Lavina",7 and various officials have now adapted this practice via their personal blogs, Facebook fan pages, and Twitter accounts. ICT tools and the Internet proved invaluable in disaster management, rescue and relief operations during Ondoy, Pepeng, and Habagae today, communication through the Internet and social media are the hallmark of the well-loved public service of PAGASA

(@dost~agasa),

Project Noah (http://noah.dosl.gov.ph/), and the MMDA

(@mmda). The use of ICT, the Internet, and social media can even be argued to have been key to the election of President Benigno "Noynoy" Aquino III. 9
But even as the Philippines learned to harness ICT and the Internet for the good, the dark side ofICT and Internet use has not been a stranger to our shores. This has not escaped the notice of our legislators. Shortly after the Internet was first used in the country in 1994,10 and over the years since, legislators have crafted measures to ensure the protection of the public, such as the Electronic Commerce Act (R.A. No. 8792), the Data Privacy Act (R.A. No. 10173). Unfortunately, there remains legislation that confine the Philippines to 20th century capabilities 4 "After dominating call centers, Philippine IT-BPO seeks world leadership in four more fast growing services", DOST-ICTO, 30 January 2012

(h Itp://www.dost.goY.ph/index. phl) ?option~com con(enl&vicw~arl ic 10& id~ I 096) , "An [nput-Output Analysis orthe Philippine BPO Industry", Magtibay-Ramos, Estrada, Felipe, 2 October 2007 (hit n:1Iwww.nscb.gov.ph/ncsl I Ot hN CS/papers/in vited%20papers/ips-02/ips02 -03. pdf)

611BP O industry expects more dramatic growth ahead", The Manila Times, August 5, 20 12(httQ..;llwww.manilatimes.net/index. ph p/sunday-times/front-pages/283 72-bpo-inc1ustry-expects-more-dramaticgrowth-ahead); IIBrO Sector Can Surpass OFW Remittances With GOy!t Support - Angara", Senator Edgardo Angara, 8 June 201 I (http://www.senate. goy.ph/press rele8se/2011/0608 angara2.asp) 7 "The ABCs of Councilor Lavifta", Peter Lavina, March 9, 2006 (http://peterlavina.blogspot.com/2006/03/abcs-of-counc ilor-Iavia.htm I ) 8 "ANC interview with Communications Undersecretary Manuel L. Quezon Ill, on engagement through new media platforms", Presiciential Communications Development & Strategic Planning Office, 14 August 2012 (htl I);I/pcdspo. gov. phl20 12/081 I 4/anc-j nterv lew- with-commuI1 ication s-undersecretaIT-manuel-l-quezon-iii-onengagement-through-new-media-platforms/ ') uFacebook and Twitter --- democrat ising participation in the Philippines!!, Social Media and Politics: Online Social networking and Politkal Communication in Asia, Espina-Letargo, 2010 (http://www.kas.cie/wf/doc/kas 2 I 591- I 522- 1-30.pdf? I 10120093225) 10 "Developing a Viable Framework for Commercial Internet Operations in the Asia-Pacific Region: The Philippine Experience", Paraz, 1997 (11.!1p:!!~ww,isoc.orgiinet97iproccedings!E6/E6 I.HTM) 2

in this 21st century information society, for instance, the Public Telecommunications Policy Act of 1995 (R.A. No. 7925) must be updated to deal with 21st century issues. Clearly, laws that have an impact on cyberspace must address the realities of the present and the challenges of the future: The strands of law enforcement and economic development, among others, harmonized into a unified framework responsive to the needs of the public and of government. Furthermore, international and transnational threats to the national security of the Philippines tIu'ough the use of ICT and the Internet are made known on a daily basis. With each institution that falls prey to the designs of cyber terrorists, new vulnerabilities of Philippine institutions are likewise discovered. Various international treaties, agreements, and conventions, such as the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, the International Convention for the Suppression of the rinancing of Terrorism, and the Budapest Convention have highlighted the need for nation-states to secure their ICT and Internet infrastructure. Reports on the use ofICT as weapons, such as the alleged deployment of the "Stuxnet" worm by the United States against Iran, II and the alleged hacking of the People's Republic of China of Google servers,I2 and the recent attack on Middle Eastern oil production infrastructure by the Shamoon virus,13 have shown the world that ICT can be used as weapons, and thus impressed upon the world's leaders to develop their own countries' cybersecurity and cyberdefense capabilities.

The Magna Carta [or Philippine Internet Freedom is envisioned to ensure that the Philippines and its individual citizens are able to meet the challenges posed by ICT and cyberspace, able to wield it and benefit from it in charting a better future. The urgency of this legislation cannot be gainsaid, and we trust that the legislators will see the wisdom of this law.

II "Obama Order Sped Up Wave ofCyberattacks Against Iran", New York Times, Sanger, I June 2012 (!illR:llwww.nytimes.com/20 12/06/0 I Iworld/middleeastlobama-ordered-wa ve-of-cvberattacks-aga inst -iran.hlml) 12 "Top Chinese officials ordered attack on Google, Wikileaks cables claim", The Telegraph, Sawer, 4 December 20 I 0 (http://www.lelegl.aph.co.uklnews/worldnews/wikileaks/8181619iTop-Chinese-officials-ordel'edal tack -on -Google- W ikileaks-cab les-claim. htm!) 13

'tlShamoon' vil'Us most destructive yet for private sector, Panetta says", Chicago Tribune, Stewart, 11

October 2012 (hur://www.ellicagotribune.com/news/sns-rt-us-usa-cvber-Qentagon -shimoonbre89b04y2012101I,O,5793512.sto a)

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Table of Contents
Page
The Magna Carta for Philippine Internet Freedom
Part 1. Preliminary Provisions

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1

Chapter r. General Provisions
Section 1. Title
Section 2. Declaration of Policy
Chapter II. Delinition of Terms
Section 3. Delinitions
Part 2. Internet Rights and Freedoms
Chapter [lJ. Internet Rights and Freedoms

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Section 4. Protection of the Internet as an open network

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Section 5. Promotion of network neutrality

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Section 6. Promotion of universal access to the Internet

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Section 7. Right to privileged access to devices

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Section 8. Right to freedom of speech and expression on
the Internet

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Section 9. Protection of the freedom to innovate and
create without permission

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Section 10. Right to privacy of data

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Section 11. Right to security of data

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Section 12. Protection of intellectual property

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19

Section 13. Promotion of development of Internet,
network, and information and communications
infrastructure
Chapter I V. Compliance With Treaty Obligations and
International Conventions

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Section 14. Declaration of Compliance

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Chapter V. Duties Related the Promotion ofInternet Freedom

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Section 1S. The State as the Primary Duty Bearer

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Section 16. Duties of the State Agencies and
Instrumentalities

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Chapter VI. Regulations for the Promotion ofInternet Freedom

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Section 17. Amendments to the Public
Telecommunications Policy Act of the Philippines

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Section 18. Quality of Service and Network Fair Use

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Section 19. Amendments to the Intellectual Property
Code of the Philippines

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Section 20. Content Fair Use

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Section 21. Amendments to the e-Commerce Act

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Section 22. Amendments to the Data Privacy Act

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Section 23. Repeal of the Anti-Cybercrime Law

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Part 3. Cybercrimc
Chapter VII. Cybercrimes and Other Prohibited Acts
Section 24. Network sabotage
Section 25. Failure to Provide Reasonable Security for
Data and Networks
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Section 26, Violation of Data Privacy
Section 27, Violation of Data Security
Section 28. Illegal and Arbitrary Seizure
Section 29, Infringement ofInteHectual Property Rights
Section 30. fraud via ICT
Section 31, lCT-Enabled Prostitution and ICT-Enabled
Trafficking in Persons
Section 32, rCT -Enabled Child Prostitution and ICTEnabled Child Trafficking

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Section 33. Internet Libel, Hate Speech, Child
Pornography, and Other Expression Inimical to the
Public Interest
Section 34, Sabotage of critical networks and
inli'astructure, and other acts of cyberterrorism
Chapter VIII. Penalties
Section 35. Applicability of the Revised Penal Code,
Section 36. Penalties For Specific Violations of The
Magna Carta for Philippine Internet Freedom.
Section 37. Penalties for Violations of the Magna Carta
for Philippine Internet Freedom Affecting Critical
Networks and Infrastructure.

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Section 38. Penalties for Other Violations of The Magna
Carla for Philippine Internet freedom.
SectiOil 39, Penalties for Violations of The Magna
Carta for Philippine Internet Freedom Committed by a
Public Official or Employee.
Section 40. Liability Under the Data Privacy Act, the
Intellectual Property Code, the Optical Media Act, the
Anti-Child Pornography Act of2009, the Revised Penal
Code, and Other Laws.
Chapter IX, Cybercrime Law Enforcement and Jurisdiction

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Section 41. Competent Law Enforcement Agencies
Section 42. Cybercrime Courts
Section 43. Jurisdiction of Cybercrime Courts
Section 44. Extraterritorial Application of the Magna
Carta for Philippine Internet Freedom
Part 4. Cyberdefense and National Cybersecurity
Chapter X. National Cybersecurity and Cyberdefense
Section 45. Cyberwarfare and National Defense.
Section 46, National Cybersecurity and Protection of
Government Information and Communications
Technology Infrastructure.
Section 47, Amendments to the AFP Modernization
Act.
Chapter XI. Counter-Cyberterrorism
Section 48. Counter-Cyberterrorism,
Part 5. Final Provisions
Chapter XII. Implementing Rules and Regulations

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Section 49. General Implementing Rules and
Regulations for the Implementation of the Magna Carta
for Philippine Internet Freedom.

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Section 50. Implementing Rules and Regulations for
Information and Communications Technology
Infrastructure Development.

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Section 51. Implementing Rules and Regulations for
Cybercrime Law Enforcement.
Section 52. Implementing Rules and Regulations for
Information and Communications Technology
Education, Training, and Human Resources.
Section 53. Implementing Rules and Regulations for
Information and Communications Technology Research
and Development.

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Section 54. Implementing Rules and Regulations for
National Cyberdefense, Cyberintelligence, and CounterCyberterrorism.

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Section 55. Implementing Rules and Regulations for
Government Information and Communications
Infrastructure and National Cybersecurity.

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Chapter XIII. Periodic Review Clause
Section 56. Periodic Review of the Implementing Rules
and Regulations ofthe Magna Carta for Philippine
Internet Freedom.
Chapter XIV. Transitory Provisions
Section 57. Appointment of the Secretary ofInformation
and Communications Technology.
Section 58. Release ofInitial Appropriations.
Section 59. Preparation ofImplementing Rules and
Regulations.
Section 60. Compliance of Government ICT
Infrastructure and Critical Networks, Data, and Internet
Infrastructure.
Chapter XV. Public Information Campaign
Section 61. Public Information Campaign for the Magna
Carta for Philippine Internet Freedom and its
Implementing Rules and Regulations.
Chapter XVI. Appropriations
Section 62. Initial funding requirements.
Section 63. Succeeding appropriations.
Chapter XVII. Separability Clause
Section 64. Separability clause.
Chapter XVIII. Repealing Clause
Section 65. Repealing clause.
Chapter XIX. Effectivity Clause
Section 66. Effectivity clause.

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FIFTEENTH CONGRESS OF THE REPUBLIC
OF THE PHILIPPINES
Third Regular Session

)
)
)

SENATE
S.No.

3327

Introduced by Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago

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AN ACT
ESTABLISHING A MAGNA CARTA FOR PHILIPPINE INTERNET FREEDOM,
CYBERCRIME PREVENTION AND LAW ENFORCEMENT, CYBERDEFENSE
AND NATIONAL CYBERSECURITY
Be it enacted by the Senate and House ofRepresentatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:

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Part 1. Preliminary Provisions

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Chapter I. General Provisions.

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Section 1. Short Title. - This Act shall be known as "The Magna Carta for Philippine

Internet Freedom."

Section 2. Declaration of Policy. -

I. The State reaffirms its recognition of the vital role of communication and information in nation-building, as stated in Article II, Section 24, of the Constitution.

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2. The State affirms that all the rights, guarantees, and privileges provided by the 1987

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Constitution, especially the rights guaranteed by Article III, and the rights, guarantees and

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privileges provided by treaties and conventions to which the Philippines is a signatory and

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general principles of international law, shall apply to the Filipino people in their use,

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development, innovation, and invention of information and commlmications technology (ICT)

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and the Internet.

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3. The State affirms its commitment to the people and to all nations that, in the crafting of

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laws and regulations governing the use of the Internet and of information and communications

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technology, these shall be subject to Article I, II, III, and IV of the Constitution.

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4. Recognizing that art, beauty, and culture can be created on devices, on networks, and

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on the Internet, the State shall pursue a policy that promotes the Internet and information and

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communications technology, and the innovation therein and thereof, as instruments of life,

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liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

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5. Recognizing that the growth of the Internet and information and communications

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technologies both depend on and contribute to the growth of the economy, advances in science

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and technology, and the development of human capital, and encourage democratic discourse and

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nation-building, the State reaffirms its commitments to education, to science and technology, to

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labor, and to private enterprise. Fmiher, the State recognizes that development, invention, and

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innovation for the Internet and for information and communications technology are pursuits of

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both the public and the private sector, and can be local, national, international, and transnational

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in effort. Therefore, the State shall endeavor to develop plans, policies, programs, measures, and

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mechanisms to encourage development, invention, and innovation through and for the Internet

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and for information and communications technology, in cooperation with other nations and

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international bodies.

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6. Recognizing that the growth of the Internet and information and communications

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technologies affect peace and order and the enforcement of law within the national territory and

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across other nations, the State reaffirms its policy of cooperation and amity with all nations, and

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its adoption of generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of the land, in

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the pursuit of peace and order and in the enforcement oflaw.

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7. Recognizing that the Internet has the potential to become a theater of war, and that

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information and communications technologies can be developed into weapons of mass

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destruction, the State reaffirms its renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy.

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Therefore, consistent with the national interest, the State shall pursue a policy of "no first use" of

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cyberweapons against foreign nations and shall pursue a policy of cyberdefense, and shall

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endeavor to develop plans, policies, programs, measures, and mechanisms to provide security for

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Internet and information and communications technology infrastructure for and in the defense of

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the Filipino people.

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8. Recognizing that the growth of the Internet and information and communications

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technologies have increased the scope and potential for participative governance, transparency,

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and accountability in government, the State reaffirms its policy of full public disclosure of all its

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transactions involving public interest, subject to such reasonable conditions as prescribed by law.

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Therefore, the State shall endeavor to develop plaus, policies, programs, measures, and

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mechanisms using the Internet and information and commlmications technology in the

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implementation of its policy of full public disclosure and in prescribing reasonable conditions

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therefor.

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9. Recognizing that the growth of the Internet and information and communications

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technologies are vital to the development and flourishing of an "information society," where

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anyone can create, access, utilize and share information and knowledge, and thus enable

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individuals, communities and peoples to achieve their full potential in promoting their

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sustainable development and improving their quality of life, the State reaffirms its commitment

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to the full respect for human, civil, and political rights and the dignity of every humau person,

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and shall guarantee the same in the crafting of laws and regulations governing the use of the

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Internet and of information and communications technology.

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Chapter II. Definition of Terms.

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Section 3. Definition a/Terms. - When possible, definitions shall be adopted from those

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established by the International Telecommunications Union (lTU), the Internet Engineering Task

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Force (IETF), the World Wide Web Consortium (WWWC), and the Internet Corporation for

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Assigned Numbers and Names (ICANN), and other international and transnational agencies

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governing the development, use, and staudardization of information and communications

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technology and the Internet. For purposes of this Act, the following terms shall mean:

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I. Access - The ability and means to communicate with or otherwise interact with a

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device, computer, system or network, to use resources to handle information, to gain Imowledge

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of the information the device, computer, system, or network contains, or to control device or

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system components and functions.

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2. Administrator - A person or role with privileged access and control over a network or

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a multi-user computing environment responsible for the operation and the maintenance of the

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network or computing environment.
2.1. Network administrator - A person or role responsible for the operation and

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the maintenance of a network.

2.2. Systems administrator - A person or role responsible for managing a multi-

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user computing environment.

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3. Availability - The ability of a device or set of devices to be in a state to perform a

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required function under given conditions at a given instant of time or over a given time interval,

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assuming that the required external resources are provided.

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4. Bandwidth - The capacity of a transmission medium to carry data.

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5. Bot - A computer program or software installed in a device, computer, computer

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system, or network capable of performing automated tasks over the Internet, without the

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knowledge or consent of the user or owner of the device computer, system, or network, with

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control ceded to a third party, usually malicious. Bot may also refer to the individual device that

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is infected with such programs or software.
5.1. Botnet - A network of computers infected with bots.

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6. Cache - A temporary storage of recently accessed data or information, which may be

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stored in the local storage medium of a device or computer, or in the storage media of a network,

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for purposes of speeding up subsequent retrievals of data or information from the Internet or

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networks.

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7. Code - The symbolic arrangement of data or instructions in a computer program or a set of such instructions.

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8. Component - Any individual part of a device.

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9. Computer - Any device or apparatus which, by electronic, electro-mechanical or

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magnetic impulse, or by other means, is capable of receiving, recording, transmitting, storing,

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processing, retrieving, or producing information, data, figures, symbols or other modes of written

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expression according to mathematical and logical rules or of performing anyone or more of

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those functions.
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10. Computer program - A set of instructions expressed in words, codes, schemes or in

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any other form, which is capable when incorporated in a medium that the computer can read, of

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causing the computer to perform or achieve a particular task or result.

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11. Configuration - The way a device, computer, computer system, or network is set up.

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. 12. Content - Data that can be readily understood by a user immediately upon access,

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which may include but is not limited to text, pictures, video, or any combination thereof. The

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word is synonymous to information. Data that is readable and usable only by and between

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devices, computers, systems or networks, such as traffic data, is not content.

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13. Control - The use of resources, modification of the configuration, and otherwise exertion of a directing influence on the operation of a device, computer, system, or network.

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14. Critical infrastructure - The systems and assets, whether physical or virtual, so vital

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to the Philippines that the incapacity or destruction of such systems and assets would have a

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debilitating impact on national security, economy, public health or safety, or any combination of

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those matters.

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15. Critical network - An information and communications system or network of

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systems, whether physical or virtual, so vital to the Philippines that the incapacity or destruction

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of such a network would have a debilitating impact on national security, economy, public health

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or safety, or any combination of those matters.

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16. Cryptography - The discipline which embodies principles, means, and methods for

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the transformation of data in order to hide its information content, prevent its undetected

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modification and/or prevent its unauthorized use. (

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17. Cyber environment - The environment comprised of users, networks, devices, all

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software, processes, information in storage or transit, applications, services, and systems that can

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be connected directly or indirectly to networks or the Internet.

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18. Cyberattack - An attack by a hostile foreign nation-state or violent non-state actors

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on Philippine critical infrastructure or networks through or using the Internet or information and

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communications technology. The term may also be used to mean an assault on system security

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that derives from an intelligent threat, i.e., an intelligent act that is a deliberate attempt to evade

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security services and violate the security policy of a system. 5

19. Cybercrime - Any unlawful act punishable by this law or other relevant laws

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committed through or using the Internet or information and communications technology. 20. Cyberdefense - The collection of plans, policies, programs, measures, mechanisms,

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and weapons designed to defend the Philippines from cyberattack. 21. Cyberintelligence -

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The collection, analysis, processing, and dissemination of

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information, which may be done through or using the Internet or information and

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communications technology, designed to provide guidance and direction to commanders and

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leaders of military and law enforcement units towards the combating of acts of cyberattack and

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cyberterrorism.

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22. Cybersecurity - The collection of tools, policies, security concepts, security

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safeguards, guidelines, risk management approaches, actions, training, best practices, assurance,

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and technologies that can be used

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information and communications technology assets.

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protect the cyber environment and organization and user's

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23. Cyberspace - A global domain within the information environment consisting of the

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interdependent network of information systems infrastructures including the Internet,

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telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers, or

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the virtual space constituted by a computer network with a set of distributed applications and its

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users.

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24. Cyberterrorism - A violation of the Human Security Act of 2007 committed through or using the Internet or information and communications technology.

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25. Cyberwarfare - The actions by a nation-state or international organization to attack

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and attempt to cause damage to another nation through or using computers, information and

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communications technology, networks, or the Internet.

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26. Data - The reinterpretable representation of information in a formalized manner

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suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing, or information represented in a manner

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suitable for automatic processing.

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26.1. Data, private - Any and all data that does not fall under the definition of public data.

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26.2. Data, public - Data which is available to the public without access being restricted by requirements of membership, non-disclosure agreements or similar. 27. Device - The material element or assembly of such elements intended to perform a required function.

28. Download - The transfer of data or information from the Internet or a network to a device or computer upon request of the user for this information. 29. Encryption - An encoding scheme that produces meaningless information to all observers except those with the decoding key.

30. End user license agreement - The legal agreement between two parties, one of which is the user, that stipulates the terms of usage of a device, software, or service. 31. Equipment - A single apparatus or set of devices or apparatuses, or the set of main

devices of an installation, or all devices necessary to perform a specific task.

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31.1. Data processing equipment - Equipment used to process data.

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31.2. Network equipment - Equipment used to allow data communication between

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devices, computers, systems, networks, or the Internet.

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31.3. Storage equipment - Equipment used to store data.

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32. Executable - The ability of a code, script, software, or computer program to be run

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from start to finish in a device or computer, and providing a desired result.

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33. Free and open-source software - Liberally licensed software whose license grants

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users the right to use, copy, study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its

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source code.

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34. Hardened - The state of reduced vulnerability to unauthorized access or control or to

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malicious attacks of a device, computer, network, or information and communications

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technology infrastructure.

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35. Hardware - The collection of physical elements that comprise a device, equipment, computer, system, or network.
36. High-speed connection - A service that provides data connection to networks and the Internet that has data rates faster than what is generally available to the general public.

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37. High-volume connection - A service that provides data connection to the networks

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and the Internet that allows volumes of uploadable and/or downloadable data larger than what is

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generally available to the general public.

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38. Information - Data that can be readily understood by a user immediately upon access,

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which may include but is not limited to text, pictures, video, or any combination thereof. The

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word is synonymous to content. Data that is readable and usable only by and between devices,

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computers, systems or networks, such as traffic data, is not information.

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38.1. Private information - Refers to any of these three classes of information: (I)

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any information whether recorded in a material form or not, from which the identity of an

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individual is apparent or can be reasonably and directly ascertained by the entity holding

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the information, or when put together with other information would directly and certainly

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identify an individual; (2) Any and all forms of data which under the Rules of Court and

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other pertinent laws constitute privileged communication; and, (3) any information whose

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access requires the grant of privileges by a duly-constituted authority, which may include

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but is not limited to a systems or network administrator.

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38.2. Sensitive private information - Refers to personal information: (1) About an

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individual's race, ethnic origin, marital status, age, color, and religious, philosophical or

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political affiliations; (2) About an individual's health, education, genetic or sexual life of

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a person, or to any proceeding for any offense committed or alleged to have been

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committed by such person, the disposal of such proceedings, or the sentence of any court

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in such proceedings; (3) Issued by government agencies peculiar to an individual which

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includes, but not limited to, social security numbers, previous or current health records,

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licenses or its denials, suspension or revocation, and tax returns; and (4) Specifically

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established by an executive order or an act of Congress to be kept classified.

25

38.3. Public information - Any information that is not restricted by virtue of the

26

preceding definitions and can be readily accessed by any interested member of the public.

27

39. Information and communications technology .- The integration of real-time

28

communication services, non-real-time communication services, and telecommunications,

8

1

computers, software, hardware, storage, and devices, which enable users to access, store,

2

transmit, and manipulate information.

3
4
5

40. Internet - The global system of interconnected computer networks linked by various telecommunications technologies and that uses the standard Internet protocol suite. 41. Medium - A material llsed for specific purposes.

41.1. Storage medium -

6

The physical material or device in which data or

7

information may be stored, which includes but is not limited to magnetic tape, disk

8

drives, flash devices, electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM)

9

chips, optical media disks, punched cards, and paper.

10

41.2. Transmission medium - The physical material through which a data

11

communication signal is transmitted, which includes but is not limited to twisted-pair

12

copper wire, coaxial cable, optical fiber, and air.

13

42. Network - A collection of computers, devices, equipment, and other hardware

14

interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. 42.1. Private network - A network which is operationally private by nature and

15

16

not universally accessible by the general public.
42.2. Public network - A network which provides services to the general public.

17

18

43. Offline - The state of being disconnected from the Internet or networks.

19

44. Online -- The state of being connected to the Internet or a network.

20

45. Ownership - Ownership is defined by the Civil Code.

21

45.1. Privately-owned - Ownership as provided for by the Civil Code of the

22

Philippines by a natural person or a juridical person under Article 44 paragraph (3) of the

23

Civil Code.

24

45.2. Publicly-owned - Ownership as provided for by the Civil Code of the

25

Philippines by a juridical person under Article 44 paragraphs (1) and (2) of the Civil

26

Code.

27

46. Physical plant - The building, structure, and infrastructure necessary to support and

28

maintain a facility.

9

1

47. Privacy - May refer to any of these definitions, or a combination of these definitions:

2

(1) the right guaranteed and protected by the Constitution; (2) the right of individuals to control

3

or influence what personal information related to them may be collected, managed, retained,

4

accessed, and used or distributed; (3) the protection of personally identifiable information; and,

5

(4) a way to ensure that information is not disclosed to anyone other than the intended parties

6

(also known as "confidentiality").
48. Privilege -- A right that, when granted to an entity, permits the entity to perform an

7

8
9

10

action.
48.1. Privileged access - The completely unrestricted access of a user to the resources of a device, computer, system, or network.

11

48.2. Privileged control - The completely unrestricted ability of a user to use the

12

resources, modify the configuration, and otherwise exert a directing influence on the

13

operation of a device, computer, system, or network.

14

49. Processing - The act of performing functions or activities on data or information.

15

49.1. Processing (Data Privacy Act) - Any operation or any set of operations

16

performed upon personal information including, but not limited to, the collection,

17

recording, organization, storage, updating or modification, retrieval, consultation, use,

18

consolidation, blocking, erasure or destruction of data. (RA 10173)

19
20
21

49.2. Data processing - Any process to enter data and summarize, analyze or otherwise convert data into usable information.
49.3. Information processing - The transformation of information in one form to

22

information in another form through an algorithmic process.

23

50. Protocol - A defined set of procedures adopted to ensure communication, or a set of

24

rules for data transmission in a system interlinking several participants.

25

51. Publication - the act of making works available to the public by wire or wireless

26

means in such a way that interested members of the public may access these works from a place

27

and time individually chosen by them.

28

29

52. Script - A computer program or sequence of instructions that is interpreted or carried out by another computer program instead of directly by a computer, device, or equipment. 10

1
2

53. Security - The ability to prevent fraud as well as the protection of information availability, integrity and confIdentiality.

3

53.1. Security by behavioral means - The use of laws, regulations, policies,

4

procedures, instructions and the like to influence or restrict behavior for purposes of

5

maintaining security.

6
7

8
9

53.2. Security by electronic means .- The use of computer programs, software, code, scripts, devices, or equipment for purposes of maintaining security. 53.3. Security by physical means - The use of locks, gates, security guards and other analogous means, for purposes of maintaining security.

10

54. Service - A set of functions offered to a user by another person or by an organization.

11

54.1. Service quality - The collective effect of service performance which

12

determines the degree of satisfaction of a user of the service.

13

55. Software - The set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation

14

15

concerned with the operation of a data processing system, computer, device, or equipment. 55.1. Software application - Software designed to help a user perform a specific

16

task or set of tasks.

17

56. Telecommunications - A service or system of interconnected entities providing the

18
19
20
21
22

ability to exchange and interchange data between points or from a point to multiple points. 57. Upload - The transfer of data or information to the Internet or a network from a device or computer, initiated by the user.

58. Uptime - The time a device, equipment, computer, or network can be left unattended without suffering failure, or needing to be undergo administrative or maintenance purposes.

23

59. User - Any person, whether natural or juridical, or any entity that makes use of a part

24

or whole of the resources of a device, equipment, computer, system, network, software, software

25

application, code, or script.

26

60. Virus - Any computer program, code, or script that implements unauthorized and/or

27

undesirable changes to a device, computer, equipment, system, or network. For purposes of this

28

Act, the term may be used synonymously with malware, spyware, worms, trojans, and the like.

II

1

Part 2. Internet Rights and Freedoms

2

Chapter III. Internet Rights and Freedoms

3

Section 4. Protection of the Internet as an open network. -

4

1. The State shall, within its jurisdiction, protect and promote the Internet as an open

5

network.

6

2. Except for customer premises equipment as defined by this Act and other relevant

7

laws, no person shall restrict or deny the interconnection or interoperability of a device, an

8

equipment, or a network that is capable of such interconnection or interoperability to the Internet,

9

to other public networks, or to other Internet service providers, telecommunications entities, or

10

other such persons providing Internet or data services, without due process of law or authority

11

vested by law. The interoperability of a device, an equipment, or a network within a private

12

network may be restricted by the duly authorized system and/or network administrators of the

13

private network, subject to the provisions ofthe Data Privacy Act and other relevant laws.

14

Section 5. Promotion of network neutrality. - No person shall restrict the flow of data or

15

information on the Internet on the basis of content, nor shall any person institute and employ

16

means or methods to favor the flow of information on the Internet of one class of data or

17

information over another on the basis of content, except: a) if the data or information whose flow

18

is being favored is used to solely to manage the security or...

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