1450–1750: 22% of the AP Exam Overall Changes 1) The world became truly global - the western hemisphere came into continued contact with the eastern hemisphere. Technological innovations, strengthened political organization, and economic prosperity all contributed to this change that completely altered world trade patterns. 2) Maritime trade dominated the world - Technological advancements and willingness of political leaders to invest in it meant that sea-based trade became much more important. As a result, old land-based empires lost relative power to the new sea-based powers. 3) European kingdoms gained world power - The relative power and prosperity of Europe increased dramatically during this time in comparison to empires in the longer-established civilization areas. 4) Nomads began to become a thing of the past - Nomads continued to play an important role in trade and cultural diffusion, and they continued to threaten the borders of the large land-based empires. However, their power dwindled as travel and trade by water became more important. 5) Labor systems were transformed - The acquisition of colonies in North and South America led to major changes in labor systems. After many Amerindians died from disease transmitted by contact with Europeans, a vigorous slave trade from Africa began and continued throughout most of the era. Slave labor became very important all over the Americas. Other labor systems, such as the mita and encomienda in South America, were adapted from previous native traditions by the Spanish and Portuguese. 6) "Gunpowder Empires" emerged in the Middle East and Asia - Empires in older civilization areas gained new strength from new technologies in weaponry. Basing their new power on "gunpowder," they still suffered from the old issues that had plagued land-based empires for centuries: defense of borders, communication within the empire, and maintenance of an army adequate to defend the large territory. By the end of the era, many were less powerful than the new sea-based kingdoms of Europe. Knowledge of major empires: The Ottoman Empire: Founded by Osman, the Ottoman Empire included a collection of Turkish tribes from Asia Minor. In 1453 they conquered Constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire. From Constantinople (soon to be called Istanbul) they launched raids into the Balkans of Europe. Under Sulieman the Magnificent, the Ottomans controlled land on three continents. They took land from Baghdad to Belgrade and laide siege to Vienna. The Siege of Vienna (1530) was a turning point in Ottoman expansion and European unity to fight Muslim invaders. They used an extensive civil service and bureaucracy (like what other groups?) they maintained a large, multiethnic empire for 600 years. The Sultan was an absolute ruler; however, he allowed for petition from the people. Their wealth came from the control of the Dardanelles and Black Sea. Great army of mounted and foot soldiers; made use of Janissaries, Balkan Christians captured as boys who became skilled soldiers. Slaves were used for labor. Most Turks were Sunni; however, Orthodox Christians and Jews also made up sizable portions of the empire. The empire was culturally diverse largely due to trade connections and diversity of lands governed. The merchant class was important. Women had more equality than other areas, including the right to own property.
Mughal Empire • Continuation of the Delhi Sultanate – descendents of the Mongol invaders (hence Mughal) • Land included modern day India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan • Strong military required high taxes • Military service was rewarded with land grants – upset regional rulers • Muslim authority over Hindus; Akbar married a Hindu woman and tried to reconcile with the majority Hindi population • Sikhism emerges in some areas – a combination of Islam and Hinduism • Limited trade • The Taj Mahal was built during this time. It is an “Islamic” building
TOKUGAWA JAPAN A "gunpowder empire" emerged in Japan, unusual in the sense that Japan was not an expansive land-based empire. The Japanese daimyos, or regional lords, had operated fairly independently from the shoguns before the early 17th century, when these military, feudalistic leaders were unified under one powerful family, the Tokugawa. The emperor was still honored as t...