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14 Cfr Part 21 Essay

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Title 14: Aeronautics and Space

PART 21—CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS

Contents
Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements

Subpart A—General
§21.1   Applicability and definitions.
§21.2   Falsification of applications, reports, or records. §21.3   Reporting of failures, malfunctions, and defects. §21.4   ETOPS reporting requirements.
§21.5   Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.
§21.6   Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. §21.7   Continued airworthiness and safety improvements for transport category airplanes. §21.8   Approval of articles.
§21.9   Replacement and modification articles.

Subpart B—Type Certificates
§21.11   Applicability.
§21.13   Eligibility.
§21.15   Application for type certificate.
§21.16   Special conditions.
§21.17   Designation of applicable regulations.
§21.19   Changes requiring a new type certificate.
§21.20   Compliance with applicable requirements.
§21.21   Issue of type certificate: normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; special classes of aircraft; aircraft engines; propellers. §21.23   [Reserved]

§21.24   Issuance of type certificate: primary category aircraft. §21.25   Issue of type certificate: Restricted category aircraft. §21.27   Issue of type certificate: surplus aircraft of the Armed Forces. §21.29   Issue of type certificate: import products.

§21.31   Type design.
§21.33   Inspection and tests.
§21.35   Flight tests.
§21.37   Flight test pilot.
§21.39   Flight test instrument calibration and correction report. §21.41   Type certificate.
§21.43   Location of manufacturing facilities.
§21.45   Privileges.
§21.47   Transferability.
§21.49   Availability.
§21.50   Instructions for continued airworthiness and manufacturer's maintenance manuals having airworthiness limitations sections. §21.51   Duration.
§21.53   Statement of conformity.
§21.55   Responsibility of type certificate holders to provide written licensing agreements.

Subpart C—Provisional Type Certificates
§21.71   Applicability.
§21.73   Eligibility.
§21.75   Application.
§21.77   Duration.
§21.79   Transferability.
§21.81   Requirements for issue and amendment of Class I provisional type certificates. §21.83   Requirements for issue and amendment of Class II provisional type certificates. §21.85   Provisional amendments to type certificates.

Subpart D—Changes to Type Certificates
§21.91   Applicability.
§21.93   Classification of changes in type design.
§21.95   Approval of minor changes in type design.
§21.97   Approval of major changes in type design.
§21.99   Required design changes.
§21.101   Designation of applicable regulations.

Subpart E—Supplemental Type Certificates
§21.111   Applicability.
§21.113   Requirement for supplemental type certificate. §21.115   Applicable requirements.
§21.117   Issue of supplemental type certificates.
§21.119   Privileges.
§21.120   Responsibility of supplemental type certificate holders to provide written permission for alterations.

Subpart F—Production Under Type Certificate
§21.121   Applicability.
§21.122   Location of or change to manufacturing facilities. §21.123   Production under type certificate.
§21.125   [Reserved]
§21.127   Tests: aircraft.
§21.128   Tests: aircraft engines.
§21.129   Tests: propellers.
§21.130   Statement of conformity.

Subpart G—Production Certificates
§21.131   Applicability.
§21.132   Eligibility.
§21.133   Application.
§21.135   Organization.
§21.137   Quality system.
§21.138   Quality manual.
§21.139   Location of or change to manufacturing facilities. §21.140   Inspections and tests.
§21.141   Issuance.
§21.142   Production limitation record.
§21.143   Duration.
§21.144   Transferability.
§21.145   Privileges.
§21.146   Responsibility of holder.
§21.147   Amendment of production certificates.
§21.150   Changes in quality system.

Subpart H—Airworthiness Certificates
§21.171   Applicability.
§21.173   Eligibility.
§21.175   Airworthiness certificates: classification.
§21.177   Amendment or modification.
§21.179   Transferability.
§21.181   Duration.
§21.182   Aircraft identification.
§21.183   Issue of standard airworthiness certificates for normal, utility, acrobatic, commuter, and transport category aircraft; manned free balloons; and special classes of aircraft. §21.184   Issue of special airworthiness certificates for primary category aircraft. §21.185   Issue of airworthiness certificates for restricted category aircraft. §21.187   Issue of multiple airworthiness certification. §21.189   Issue of airworthiness certificate for limited category aircraft. §21.190   Issue of a special airworthiness certificate for a light-sport category aircraft. §21.191   Experimental certificates.

§21.193   Experimental certificates: general.
§21.195   Experimental certificates: Aircraft to be used for market surveys, sales demonstrations, and customer crew training. §21.197   Special flight permits.
§21.199   Issue of special flight permits.

Subpart I—Provisional Airworthiness Certificates
§21.211   Applicability.
§21.213   Eligibility.
§21.215   Application.
§21.217   Duration.
§21.219   Transferability.
§21.221   Class I provisional airworthiness certificates. §21.223   Class II provisional airworthiness certificates. §21.225   Provisional airworthiness certificates corresponding with provisional amendments to type certificates.

Subpart J [Reserved]
Subpart K—Parts Manufacturer Approvals
§21.301   Applicability.
§21.303   Application.
§21.305   Organization.
§21.307   Quality system.
§21.308   Quality manual.
§21.309   Location of or change to manufacturing facilities. §21.310   Inspections and tests.
§21.311   Issuance.
§21.313   Duration.
§21.314   Transferability.
§21.316   Responsibility of holder.
§21.319   Design changes.
§21.320   Changes in quality system.

Subpart L—Export Airworthiness Approvals
§21.321   Applicability.
§21.325   Export airworthiness approvals.
§21.327   Application.
§21.329   Issuance of export certificates of airworthiness. §21.331   Issuance of export airworthiness approvals for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles. §21.335   Responsibilities of exporters.

Subpart M [Reserved]
Subpart N—Acceptance of Aircraft Engines, Propellers, and Articles for Import §21.500   Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. §21.502   Acceptance of articles.

Subpart O—Technical Standard Order Approvals
§21.601   Applicability and definitions.
§21.603   Application.
§21.605   Organization.
§21.607   Quality system.
§21.608   Quality manual.
§21.609   Location of or change to manufacturing facilities. §21.610   Inspections and tests.
§21.611   Issuance.
§21.613   Duration.
§21.614   Transferability.
§21.616   Responsibility of holder.
§21.618   Approval for deviation.
§21.619   Design changes.
§21.620   Changes in quality system.
§21.621   Issue of letters of TSO design approval: Import articles.

Subpart P—Special Federal Aviation Regulations
§21.700   SFAR No. 111—Lavatory Oxygen Systems.

Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 88—Fuel Tank System Fault Tolerance Evaluation Requirements 1. Applicability. This SFAR applies to the holders of type certificates, and supplemental type certificates that may affect the airplane fuel tank system, for turbine-powered transport category airplanes, provided the type certificate was issued after January 1, 1958, and the airplane has either a maximum type certificated passenger capacity of 30 or more, or a maximum type certificated payload capacity of 7,500 pounds or more. This SFAR also applies to applicants for type certificates, amendments to a type certificate, and supplemental type certificates affecting the fuel tank systems for those airplanes identified above, if the application was filed before June 6, 2001, the effective date of this SFAR, and the certificate was not issued before June 6, 2001. 2. Compliance: Each type certificate holder, and each supplemental type certificate holder of a modification affecting the airplane fuel tank system, must accomplish the following within the compliance times specified in paragraph (e) of this section: (a) Conduct a safety review of the airplane fuel tank system to determine that the design meets the requirements of §§25.901 and 25.981(a) and (b) of this chapter. If the current design does not meet these requirements, develop all design changes to the fuel tank system that are necessary to meet these requirements. The FAA (Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), or office of the Transport Airplane Directorate, having cognizance over the type certificate for the affected airplane) may grant an extension of the 18-month compliance time for development of design changes if: (1) The safety review is completed within the compliance time; (2) Necessary design changes are identified within the compliance time; and (3) Additional time can be justified, based on the holder's demonstrated aggressiveness in performing the safety review, the complexity of the necessary design changes, the availability of interim actions to provide an acceptable level of safety, and the resulting level of safety. (b) Develop all maintenance and inspection instructions necessary to maintain the design features required to preclude the existence or development of an ignition source within the fuel tank system of the airplane. (c) Submit a report for approval to the FAA Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), or office of the Transport Airplane Directorate, having cognizance over the type certificate for the affected airplane, that: (1) Provides substantiation that the airplane fuel tank system design, including all necessary design changes, meets the requirements of §§25.901 and 25.981(a) and (b) of this chapter; and (2) Contains all maintenance and inspection instructions necessary to maintain the design features required to preclude the existence or development of an ignition source within the fuel tank system throughout the operational life of the airplane. (d) The Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), or office of the Transport Airplane Directorate, having cognizance over the type certificate for the affected airplane, may approve a report submitted in accordance with paragraph 2(c) if it determines that any provisions of this SFAR not complied with are compensated for by factors that provide an equivalent level of safety. (e) Each type certificate holder must comply no later than December 6, 2002, or within 18 months after the issuance of a type certificate for which application was filed before June 6, 2001, whichever is later; and each supplemental type certificate holder of a modification affecting the airplane fuel tank system must comply no later than June 6, 2003, or within 18 months after the issuance of a supplemental type certificate for which application was filed before June 6, 2001, whichever is later. Subpart A—General

§21.1   Applicability and definitions.
(a) This part prescribes—
(1) Procedural requirements for issuing and changing—
(i) Design approvals;
(ii) Production approvals;
(iii) Airworthiness certificates; and
(iv) Airworthiness approvals;
(2) Rules governing applicants for, and holders of, any approval or certificate specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section; and (3) Procedural requirements for the approval of articles.
(b) For the purposes of this part—
(1) Airworthiness approval means a document issued by the FAA for an aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or article which certifies that the aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or article conforms to its approved design and is in a condition for safe operation; (2) Article means a material, part, component, process, or appliance; (3) Commercial part means an article that is listed on an FAA-approved Commercial Parts List included in a design approval holder's Instructions for Continued Airworthiness required by §21.50; (4) Design approval means a type certificate (including amended and supplemental type certificates) or the approved design under a PMA, TSO authorization, letter of TSO design approval, or other approved design; (5) Product means an aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller; (6) Production approval means a document issued by the FAA to a person that allows the production of a product or article in accordance with its approved design and approved quality system, and can take the form of a production certificate, a PMA, or a TSO authorization; (7) State of Design means the country or jurisdiction having regulatory authority over the organization responsible for the design and continued airworthiness of a civil aeronautical product or article; (8) State of Manufacture means the country or jurisdiction having regulatory authority over the organization responsible for the production and airworthiness of a civil aeronautical product or article. §21.2   Falsification of applications, reports, or records. (a) A person may not make or cause to be made—

(1) Any fraudulent, intentionally false, or misleading statement on any application for a certificate or approval under this part; (2) Any fraudulent, intentionally false, or misleading statement in any record or report that is kept, made, or used to show compliance with any requirement of this part; (3) Any reproduction for a fraudulent purpose of any certificate or approval issued under this part. (4) Any alteration of any certificate or approval issued under this part. (b) The commission by any person of an act prohibited under paragraph (a) of this section is a basis for— (1) Denying issuance of any certificate or approval under this part; and (2) Suspending or revoking any certificate or approval issued under this part and held by that person. §21.3   Reporting of failures, malfunctions, and defects. (a) The holder of a type certificate (including amended or supplemental type certificates), a PMA, or a TSO authorization, or the licensee of a type certificate must report any failure, malfunction, or defect in any product or article manufactured by it that it determines has resulted in any of the occurrences listed in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) The holder of a type certificate (including amended or supplemental type certificates), a PMA, or a TSO authorization, or the licensee of a type certificate must report any defect in any product or article manufactured by it that has left its quality system and that it determines could result in any of the occurrences listed in paragraph (c) of this section. (c) The following occurrences must be reported as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section: (1) Fires caused by a system or equipment failure, malfunction, or defect. (2) An engine exhaust system failure, malfunction, or defect which causes damage to the engine, adjacent aircraft structure, equipment, or components. (3) The accumulation or circulation of toxic or noxious gases in the crew compartment or passenger cabin. (4) A malfunction, failure, or defect of a propeller control system. (5) A propeller or rotorcraft hub or blade structural failure. (6) Flammable fluid leakage in areas where an ignition source normally exists. (7) A brake system failure caused by structural or material failure during operation. (8) A significant aircraft primary structural defect or failure caused by any autogenous condition (fatigue, understrength, corrosion, etc.). (9) Any abnormal vibration or buffeting caused by a structural or system malfunction, defect, or failure. (10) An engine failure.

(11) Any structural or flight control system malfunction, defect, or failure which causes an interference with normal control of the aircraft for which derogates the flying qualities. (12) A complete loss of more than one electrical power generating system or hydraulic power system during a given operation of the aircraft. (13) A failure or malfunction of more than one attitude, airspeed, or altitude instrument during a given operation of the aircraft. (d) The requirements of paragraph (a) of this section do not apply to— (1) Failures, malfunctions, or defects that the holder of a type certificate (including amended or supplemental type certificates), PMA, TSO authorization, or the licensee of a type certificate determines— (i) Were caused by improper maintenance or use;

(ii) Were reported to the FAA by another person under this chapter; or (iii) Were reported under the accident reporting provisions of 49 CFR part 830 of the regulations of the National Transportation Safety Board. (2) Failures, malfunctions, or defects in products or articles— (i) Manufactured by a foreign manufacturer under a U.S. type certificate issued under §21.29 or under an approval issued under §21.621; or (ii) Exported to the United States under §21.502.

(e) Each report required by this section—
(1) Must be made to the Aircraft Certification Office in the region in which the person required to make the report is located within 24 hours after it has determined that the failure, malfunction, or defect required to be reported has occurred. However, a report that is due on a Saturday or a Sunday may be delivered on the following Monday and one that is due on a holiday may be delivered on the next workday; (2) Must be transmitted in a manner and form acceptable to the FAA and by the most expeditious method available; and (3) Must include as much of the following information as is available and applicable: (i) The applicable product and article identification information required by part 45 of this chapter; (ii) Identification of the system involved; and

(iii) Nature of the failure, malfunction, or defect.
(f) If an accident investigation or service difficulty report shows that a product or article manufactured under this part is unsafe because of a manufacturing or design data defect, the holder of the production approval for that product or article must, upon request of the FAA, report to the FAA the results of its investigation and any action taken or proposed by the holder of that production approval to correct that defect. If action is required to correct the defect in an existing product or article, the holder of that production approval must send the data necessary for issuing an appropriate airworthiness directive to the appropriate aircraft certification office. §21.4   ETOPS reporting requirements.

(a) Early ETOPS: reporting, tracking, and resolving problems. The holder of a type certificate for an airplane-engine combination approved using the Early ETOPS method specified in part 25, Appendix K, of this chapter must use a system for reporting, tracking, and resolving each problem resulting in one of the occurrences specified in paragraph (a)(6) of this section. (1) The system must identify how the type certificate holder will promptly identify problems, report them to the responsible FAA aircraft certification office, and propose a solution to the FAA to resolve each problem. A proposed solution must consist of— (i) A change in the airplane or engine type design;

(ii) A change in a manufacturing process;
(iii) A change in an operating or maintenance procedure; or
(iv) Any other solution acceptable to the FAA.
(2) For an airplane with more than two engines, the system must be in place for the first 250,000 world fleet engine-hours for the approved airplane-engine combination. (3) For two-engine airplanes, the system must be in place for the first 250,000 world fleet engine-hours for the approved airplane-engine combination and after that until— (i) The world fleet 12-month rolling average IFSD rate is at or below the rate required by paragraph (b)(2) of this section; and (ii) The FAA determines that the rate is stable.

(4) For an airplane-engine combination that is a derivative of an airplane-engine combination previously approved for ETOPS, the system need only address those problems specified in the following table, provided the type certificate holder obtains prior authorization from the FAA: If the change does not require a new airplane type certificate and .  .  . Then the Problem Tracking and Resolution System must address .  .  . (i) Requires a new engine type certificate

All problems applicable to the new engine installation, and for the remainder of the airplane, problems in changed systems only. (ii) Does not require a new engine type certificate
Problems in changed systems only.
(5) The type certificate holder must identify the sources and content of data that it will use for its system. The data must be adequate to evaluate the specific cause of any in-service problem reportable under this section or §21.3(c) that could affect the safety of ETOPS. (6) In implementing this system, the type certificate holder must report the following occurrences: (i) IFSDs, except planned IFSDs performed for flight training. (ii) For two-engine airplanes, IFSD rates.

(iii) Inability to control an engine or obtain desired thrust or power. (iv) Precautionary thrust or power reductions.
(v) Degraded ability to start an engine in flight.
(vi) Inadvertent fuel loss or unavailability, or uncorrectable fuel imbalance in flight. (vii) Turn backs or diversions for failures, malfunctions, or defects associated with an ETOPS group 1 significant system. (viii) Loss of any power source for an ETOPS group 1 significant system, including any power source designed to provide backup power for that system. (ix) Any event that would jeopardize the safe flight and landing of the airplane on an ETOPS flight. (x) Any unscheduled engine removal for a condition that could result in one of the reportable occurrences listed in this paragraph. (b) Reliability of two-engine airplanes—(1) Reporting of two-engine airplane in-service reliability. The holder of a type certificate for an airplane approved for ETOPS and the holder of a type certificate for an engine installed on an airplane approved for ETOPS must report monthly to their respective FAA type certificate holding office on the reliability of the world fleet of those airplanes and engines. The report provided by both the airplane and engine type certificate holders must address each airplane-engine combination approved for ETOPS. The FAA may approve quarterly reporting if the airplane-engine combination demonstrates an IFSD rate at or below those specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section for a period acceptable to the FAA. This reporting may be combined with the reporting required by §21.3. The responsible type certificate holder must investigate any cause of an IFSD resulting from an occurrence attributable to the design of its product and report the results of that investigation to its FAA office responsible for administering its type certificate. Reporting must include: (i) Engine IFSDs, except planned IFSDs performed for flight training. (ii) The world fleet 12-month rolling average IFSD rates for all causes, except planned IFSDs performed for flight training. (iii) ETOPS fleet utilization, including a list of operators, their ETOPS diversion time authority, flight hours, and cycles. (2) World fleet IFSD rate for two-engine airplanes. The holder of a type certificate for an airplane approved for ETOPS and the holder of a type certificate for an engine installed on an airplane approved for ETOPS must issue service information to the operators of those airplanes and engines, as appropriate, to maintain the world fleet 12-month rolling average IFSD rate at or below the following levels: (i) A rate of 0.05 per 1,000 world-fleet engine-hours for an airplane-engine combination approved for up to and including 120-minute ETOPS. When all ETOPS operators have complied with the corrective actions required in the configuration, maintenance and procedures (CMP) document as a condition for ETOPS approval, the rate to be maintained is at or below 0.02 per 1,000 world-fleet engine-hours. (ii) A rate of 0.02 per 1,000 world-fleet engine-hours for an airplane-engine combination approved for up to and including 180-minute ETOPS, including airplane-engine combinations approved for 207-minute ETOPS in the North Pacific operating area under appendix P, section I, paragraph (h), of part 121 of this chapter. (iii) A rate of 0.01 per 1,000 world-fleet engine-hours for an airplane-engine combination approved for ETOPS beyond 180 minutes, excluding airplane-engine combinations approved for 207-minute ETOPS in the North Pacific operating area under appendix P, section I, paragraph (h), of part 121 of this chapter. §21.5   Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual.

(a) With each airplane or rotorcraft not type certificated with an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual and having no flight time before March 1, 1979, the holder of a type certificate (including amended or supplemental type certificates) or the licensee of a type certificate must make available to the owner at the time of delivery of the aircraft a current approved Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual. (b) The Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual required by paragraph (a) of this section must contain the following information: (1) The operating limitations and information required to be furnished in an Airplane or Rotorcraft Flight Manual or in manual material, markings, and placards, by the applicable regulations under which the airplane or rotorcraft was type certificated. (2) The maximum ambient atmospheric temperature for which engine cooling was demonstrated must be stated in the performance information section of the Flight Manual, if the applicable regulations under which the aircraft was type certificated do not require ambient temperature on engine cooling operating limitations in the Flight Manual. §21.6   Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based on a type certificate unless the person— (1) Is the holder of the type certificate or has a licensing agreement from the holder of the type certificate to manufacture the product; and (2) Meets the requirements of subpart F or G of this part.

(b) A person may manufacture one new aircraft based on a type certificate without meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section if that person can provide evidence acceptable to the FAA that the manufacture of the aircraft by that person began before August 5, 2004. (c) The requirements of this section do not apply to—

(1) New aircraft imported under the provisions of §§21.183(c), 21.184(b), or 21.185(c); and (2) New aircraft engines or propellers imported under the provisions of §21.500. §21.7   Continued airworthiness and safety improvements for transport category airplanes. (a) On or after December 10, 2007, the holder of a design approval and an applicant for a design approval must comply with the applicable continued airworthiness and safety improvement requirements of part 26 of this subchapter. (b) For new transport category airplanes manufactured under the authority of the FAA, the holder or licensee of a type certificate must meet the applicable continued airworthiness and safety improvement requirements specified in part 26 of this subchapter for new production airplanes. Those requirements only apply if the FAA has jurisdiction over the organization responsible for final assembly of the airplane. §21.8   Approval of articles.

If an article is required to be approved under this chapter, it may be approved— (a) Under a PMA;
(b) Under a TSO;
(c) In conjunction with type certification procedures for a product; or (d) In any other manner approved by the FAA.
§21.9   Replacement and modification articles.
(a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to be installed on a type-certificated product, the person may not produce that article unless it is— (1) Produced under a type certificate;

(2) Produced under an FAA production approval;
(3) A standard part (such as a nut or bolt) manufactured in compliance with a government or established industry specification; (4) A commercial part as defined in §21.1 of this part;
(5) Produced by an owner or operator for maintaining or altering that owner or operator's product; or (6) Fabricated by an appropriately rated certificate holder with a quality system, and consumed in the repair or alteration of a product or article in accordance with part 43 of this chapter. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(2) of this section, a person who produces a replacement or modification article for sale may not represent that part as suitable for installation on a type-certificated product. (c) Except as provided in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(2) of this section, a person may not sell or represent an article as suitable for installation on an aircraft type-certificated under §§21.25(a)(2) or 21.27 unless that article— (1) Was declared surplus by the U.S. Armed Forces, and

(2) Was intended for use on that aircraft model by the U.S. Armed Forces. Subpart B—Type Certificates
§21.11   Applicability.
This subpart prescribes—
(a) Procedural requirements for the issue of type certificates for aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers; and (b) Rules governing the holders of those certificates.
§21.13   Eligibility.
Any interested person may apply for a type certificate.
§21.15   Application for type certificate.
(a) An application for a type certificate is made on a form and in a manner prescribed by the FAA and is submitted to the appropriate aircraft certification office. (b) An application for an aircraft type certificate must be accompanied by a three-view drawing of that aircraft and available preliminary basic data. (c) An application for an aircraft engine type certificate must be accompanied by a description of the engine design features, the engine operating characteristics, and the proposed engine operating limitations. §21.16   Special conditions.

If the FAA finds that the airworthiness regulations of this subchapter do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for an aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller because of a novel or unusual design feature of the aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller, he prescribes special conditions and amendments thereto for the product. The special conditions are issued in accordance with Part 11 of this chapter and contain such safety standards for the aircraft, aircraft engine or propeller as the FAA finds necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established in the regulations. §21.17   Designation of applicable regulations.

(a) Except as provided in §§23.2, 25.2, 27.2, 29.2, and in parts 26, 34 and 36 of this subchapter, an applicant for a type certificate must show that the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller concerned meets— (1) The applicable requirements of this subchapter that are effective on the date of application for that certificate unless— (i) Otherwise specified by the FAA; or

(ii) Compliance with later effective amendments is elected or required under this section; and (2) Any special conditions prescribed by the FAA.
(b) For special classes of aircraft, including the engines and propellers installed thereon (e.g., gliders, airships, and other nonconventional aircraft), for which airworthiness standards have not been issued under this subchapter, ...

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Keywords

0.01 0.02 0.05 000 1 10 100 103.1 11 111 119 119.51 12 120 121 121.1500 121.207 13 133.1 137.3 14 145 14571 147.3 15 150 16 17 18 180 1955 1956 1958 1959 1964 1966 1976 1979 1981 1987 1989 1where 2 20 2001 2002 2003 2004 2007 2008 207 21 21.1 21.101 21.11 21.111 21.113 21.115 21.117 21.119 21.120 21.121 21.122 21.123 21.125 21.127 21.128 21.129 21.13 21.130 21.131 21.132 21.133 21.135 21.137 21.138 21.139 21.140 21.141 21.142 21.143 21.144 21.145 21.146 21.147 21.15 21.150 21.16 21.17 21.171 21.173 21.175 21.177 21.179 21.181 21.182 21.183 21.184 21.185 21.187 21.189 21.19 21.190 21.191 21.193 21.195 21.197 21.199 21.2 21.20 21.21 21.211 21.213 21.215 21.217 21.219 21.221 21.223 21.225 21.23 21.24 21.25 21.27 21.29 21.3 21.301 21.303 21.305 21.307 21.308 21.309 21.31 21.310 21.311 21.313 21.314 21.316 21.319 21.320 21.321 21.325 21.327 21.329 21.33 21.331 21.335 21.35 21.37 21.39 21.4 21.41 21.43 21.45 21.47 21.49 21.5 21.50 21.500 21.502 21.51 21.53 21.55 21.6 21.601 21.603 21.605 21.607 21.608 21.609 21.610 21.611 21.613 21.614 21.616 21.618 21.619 21.620 21.621 21.7 21.700 21.71 21.73 21.75 21.77 21.79 21.8 21.81 21.83 21.85 21.9 21.91 21.93 21.95 21.97 21.99 23 23.1529 23.2 23.49 24 25 25.1529 25.1729 25.2 25.807 25.901 25.981 250 26 27 27.1529 27.2 27.923 28 29 29.1529 29.2 29.923 3 30 300 31 31.82 33 33.4 34 35 35.4 36 36.1 36.1583 375 39 4 43 43.15 45 45.11 45.15 45.33 49 4b 5 50 500 5085 6 61 65 7 700 8 830 88 9 90 91 91.1017 91.1411 91.317 91.409 abil abnorm accept access accessori accid accommod accompani accomplish accord accumul accuraci aco acoust acrobat act action actual ad add addit address adequ adjac administ advertis aerial aeronaut affect agent aggress agre agreement agricultur air air-rac airborn aircraft airfram airplan airplane-engin airship airspe airworthi allow alreadi also alter altitud amateur amateur-built ambient amend analysi analyz and/or anim anoth anticip apparatus appendix appli applianc applic apply1 appreci appropri approv appurten area arm articl aspir assembl assign assist associ assumpt assur atmospher attach attitud attribut audit aug august auspic author autogen automat avail averag aviat b back backup baile balanc balloon banner base basi basic began benefit best beyond bilater blade board bolt bracket brake break break-in buffet built burden c cabin calendar calibr canal cancel capabl capac car carri carriag carrier case categori caus certif certifi certificate-primari cfr chang chapter characterist check check-off choos circul citizen civil class classif classifi clear clearanc cloud cmp co co-pilot cogniz combin commerci commiss commut comparison compart compat compens compet complement complet complex compli complianc compon comput concept concern condit conduct configur conform conjunct connect consensus consequ conserv consid consist construct consum consumpt contain content context continu contribut control convert cool copi correct correspond corros could counterpart countri cover crew criteria critic current custom cycl d damag danger data date day decemb declar defect defici defin definit degrad degre deleg deliv deliveri demonstr deni denot deriv derog describ descript design desir detail deterior determin develop deviat differ difficulti dimens direct director disc discard discontinu dispens disposit district divers docket document done door draw drive driven due durat dust e e.g earli earlier educ effect egress either elect electr elig elimin emerg emiss endur engin engine-hour engine-pow english enough ensur entir entitl entri enumer equal equip equival escap establish estim etc etop evacu evalu event everi evid examin except excess exchang exclud exclus execut exhaust exhibit exist exit expediti experi experiment explor export extend extens extent exterior extern f faa faa-approv fabric facil facilit factor fail failur fals falsif far fatigu fault featur feb feder feedback fight file final find fire first five five-hour flammabl fleet fli flight float flown fluid follow foot forc foreign forest form forth forward found four fr fraudul free fuel fuel-carri full function furnish g gase gear general generat geograph give given glider good govern grant greater ground group gyroplan h handl hazard held helicopt higher hire hold holder holiday hour howev hub hydraul ident identif identifi ifsd ignit ii iii imbal immedi impend implement import impos impract improp improv in-servic inabl inadvert inappropri includ inclus incorpor increas indic individu industri inform initi inspect instal instead instruct instrument intend intent interest interfer interim intern interv introduc investig involv irrespect issu issuanc item itinerari iv ix j januari jeopard jet juli june jurisdict justif justifi k keep kept kit kit-built knot know l land languag larg last later lavatori lbs leakag least leav left less letter level licens license life light light-sport like limit line list livestock load locat long longer loss m made main maintain mainten major make malfunct man manag maneuv manner manual manufactur map march mark market materi maximum may mean meaningless measur mechan meet met method militari miner minimum minor minut mislead model modif modifi monday monitor month motion mount much multipl multiple-categori must n nacell name nation natur navig necessari need new next nois non non-turbin noncompli nonconform nonconvent normal north note notif notifi notwithstand novel noxious number nut o obtain occur occurr oct octob offic offici oil one open oper order organ organiz origin otherwis outsid owner oxygen p pacif packag parachut paragraph part particip particular pass passeng past patrol payload peculiar per perform period permiss permit person pertin photograph photographi pictur pilot pilot-own pipelin pitch placard place plan pma pmas point portion posit potenti pound power powerpl practic precautionari preced preclud predatori preliminari prepar prescrib present preserv prevent previous primari principl prior privileg problem procedur process procur produc product profici program progress prohibit project prompt propel propeller-driven proper propos propuls protect prototyp provid provis provision public publish purchas purpos pylon qualif qualifi qualiti quarter race rang rate read reason receiv reciproc reciprocating-engin reconfigur record recreat reduc reduct refer reflect regard regardless region regist registr regul regulatori relat relationship releas relev reliabl reliev remain remaind remov render renew repair replac report repres reproduct request requir research reserv resid resolut resolv respect respons restor restrict result retain retract retriev return review revis revoc revok right rocket roll rotor rotorcraft rule run safe safeguard safeti safety-of-flight sale sampl satisfactori satisfactorili saturday sea seaplan seat section secur seed seek segreg select sell send sent separ seri serial servic set sever sfar shall sheet shorter show shown sign signific similar simpl singl six ski skin skywrit small sole solut sooner sought sourc space spare special specif specifi speed sport spray squar stabl stall standard start state statement station status stc storag store strength strict structur sub sub-assembl subchapt subject submit subpart subsequ substanti success suffix suitabl summar sunday supersed supervis supplement suppli supplier supplier-furnish surplus surrend survey suspend suspens symbol system tabl take taken takeoff tank tc technic techniqu televis temperatur temporari term termin test thereaft therein thereof thereon thereto three three-view throughout thrust tiltrotor time time-limit titl togeth toler tow toxic traceabl track trademark train transfer transfere transferor transit transmit transport trim tso turbin turbine-pow turbojet turn twelv two two-engin type type-certif u.s u.s.c unabl unassembl unavail uncorrect understrength undertook undu unduli unit unless unlimit unnecessari unpow unpressur unrestrict unsaf unschedul unus unusu unwil upon use util v valid variabl vent vi vibrat view vii viii voluntari vso water way weather weigh weight whenev whether whichev wildlif window wit withdrawn within without workday world world-fleet would write written x year