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14 Th Amendment Essay

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____________

IN THE

SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES

Spring TERM 2013
___________

Francis Lake, Petitioner, v.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Respondent. ________________

On Writ of Certiorari to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourteenth Circuit ________________ BRIEF FOR PETITIONER ________________

TEAM IDENTIFICATION: CA

Team Letter: CA
Attorneys for Petitioner

Table of Contents

Question Presented.......................................... iii Table of Authorities........................................ iv Statement of Jurisdiction................................... 1 Statement of the Case ....................................... 2 Statement of the Facts...................................... 2 Summary of the Argument...................................... 10 Standard of Review .......................................... 12 Argument ................................................. 12

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TEAM IDENTIFICATION: CA

QUESTIONS PRESENTED 1. Whether the Compliance Order issued under the Clean Water Act violated Mr. Lake’s due process rights under the Fifth Amendment. 2. Whether the Environmental Protection Agency violated the Eminent Domain clause of the Fifth Amendment of the United States Constitution. 3. Whether the Defense of Marriage Act is federal action encroaching on an area traditionally occupied by the states and thus unconstitutional under the 10th and 14th Amendments.

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TEAM IDENTIFICATION: CA

Table of Authorities Cases 545 U.S. 515 Am. Civil Liberties Union Found. v. U.S. Dept. of Justice, 833 F. Supp. 399 (S.D.N.Y. 1993)……………………………………………………………………. 20 30

Andrus v. Allard, 444 U.S. 51 (1979)…………………………………………………………………… 18 Armstrong v. Manzo, 380 U.S. 545,(1965)…………………………………………………. 7, 8

Bd. of Regents of State Colleges v. Roth, 408 U.S. 564 (1972)… 11 Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186, 106 S. Ct. 2841, 92 L. Ed. 2d 140 (1986)………………. 30 Commonwealth Edison Co. v. United States, 46 Fed. Cl. 29 (Fed. Cl. 2000)……………………………………………………………………………… 18 Connolly v. Pension Ben. Guar. Corp., 475 U.S. 211 (1986)…………… 15 Goldberg v. Kelly,397 U.S. 254 (1970)…………………………………………………………………… 9 Golinski v. U.S. Office of Pers. Mgmt., 824 F. Supp. 2d 968 (N.D. Cal. 2012)………………………………………………………………… 29 Hawaii Hous. Auth. v. Midkiff, 467 U.S. 229 (1984)……………………………… 19 In re Balas, 449 B.R. 567 (Bankr. C.D. Cal. 2011)………………………………… 24 Kelo v. City of New London, 545 U.S. 508 (2005)…………………………………… 19

Keystone Bituminous Coal Ass'n v. DeBenedictis, 480 U.S. 470 (1987)………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Kirby Forest Indus., Inc. v. United States, 467 U.S. 1 (1984)… 20 Lands Council, 537 F.3d 987, 989 (9th Cir. Idaho,2008)…………………… 4 Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558, 123 S. Ct. 2472, 156 L. Ed. 2d 508 (2003)……………… 30 Lucas v. S. Carolina Coastal Council, 505 U.S. 1003(1992)…………… 16

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TEAM IDENTIFICATION: CA

Massachusetts v. U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, 698 F. Supp. 2d 234 (D. Mass. 2010)……………………………………………………… 22, 23 Mathews v. Eldridge, 424 U.S. 319 (1976)……………………………… 4, 5, 10, 11 Mathews v. Lucas, 427 U.S. 495(1976)…………………………………………………………………… 26 Mullane v. Cent. Hanover Bank & Trust Co., 339 U.S. 306,(1950………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5, 6, 7 Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon, 260 U.S. 393,(1922)…………………………. 15 Rapanos v. United States, 547 U.S. 715(2006)…………………………………… 12, 13 Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996)……………………………………………………………………. 25 Rowland v. Mad River Local Sch. Dist., Montgomery County, Ohio, 470 U.S. 1009,(1985)…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28 Schroeder v. City of New York, 371 U.S. 208,(1962)………………………………… 5 Schweiker v. Wilson, 450 U.S. 221,(1981)………………………………………………………… 26 Thomas v. Sullivan, 922 F.2d 132 (2d Cir. 1990)……………………………………… 25 U. S. Dept. of Agric. v. Moreno, 413 U.S. 528,(1973)………………………… 25 United States v. Miller, 317 U.S. 369,(1943)…………………………………… 20, 21 United States v. Norwood, 602 F.3d 830 (7th Cir. 2010)…………………… 20 United States v. Riverside Bayview Homes, Inc., 474 U.S. 121,(1985)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12

Webb's Fabulous Pharmacies, Inc., v. Beckwith, 449 U.S. 153, 163-165(1980)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15 Williamson County Reg'l Planning Commission v. Hamilton Bank of Johnson City, 473 U.S. 173, 186 (1985)………………………………………………………… 14 Windsor v. United States, 833 F. Supp. 2d 394 (S.D.N.Y. 2012)………………………………………………………………… 26

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TEAM IDENTIFICATION: CA

Statutes 1 U.S.C.A. § 7 (West)………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26, 27 11 U.S.C.A. § 302 (West 2012)……………………………………………………………………………………… 24 26 U.S.C.A. § 2056(A) (West 2012)…………………………………………………………………………… 26 33 U.S.C.A. § 1251 et seq. (West 1972)……………………………………………………….. 12

33 U.S.C.A. § 1311(a) (West 2012)………………………………………………………………… 12, 18 33 U.S.C.A. §§ 1311, 1344, 1362(7)(West 2012)…………………………………………… 12 5 U.S.C.A. § 706 (West 2012)…………………………………………………………………………………………… 3 5 U.S.C.A. § 706(2)(A)(West 2012)……………………………………………………………………………… 3 U.S.C. § 302(a)(West 2012)…………………………………………………………………………………………… 24

Constitutions U.S. Const. amend. V……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3, 14 U.S. Const. art. XIV……………………………………………………………………………………………………passim U.S. Const. art. V…………………………………………………………………………………………………………passim Other Authorities Joseph L. Sax, Takings and the Police Power, 74 Yale L.J. 36 (1964)……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

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TEAM IDENTIFICATION: CA

Statement of Jurisdiction The opinion and judgment of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourteenth Circuit was entered in response to appeal of an August 12, 2012 order from the District Court of State X. This court has jurisdiction under --------------(West

2012). Lake petitioned for Writ of Certiorari under -------- . Certiorari was granted. STATEMENT OF THE CASE Appellant Francis Lake (F.L.), a homosexual music producer married his husband, Barry Rockford (B.R) a professional football player in Santa Barbara, California. F.L. and B.R.

were in a serious relationship for many years including living together for five of those. F.L. decided to come out with the

relationship publicly after proposing to B.R. The two had an extravagant wedding ceremony and F.L. served as a spokesperson for gay rights and same-sex marriage. Later, the two moved to

Sleepy Town Valley in STATE X. F.L, along with his spouse B.R., purchased a home in Sleepy Town Valley. B.R., a homosexual professional football player, left town to pursue a new NFL contract. F.L. decided to purchase a plot of land to build a bed and breakfast. R at 7. Adjacent to the plot a spring overflowed 7

TEAM IDENTIFICATION: CA

and encroached onto the land, but only a few feet. R. at 8. The regional Director of Environmental Protection Agency ( Herein “EPA” ) Tom Grady ( Herein “TG”), was the brother of Senator Wayne Grady (Herein “SWG” ), openly vowed to run F.L. and B.R. out of Sleepy Town because he opposed their lifestyle. R at 9. F.L. timely applied for the necessary permits required by the Clean Water Act. R. at 9, 33 U.S.C. § 1319(b), (g). F.L. left for business for three months. Id. Director Tom Grady learned everything he could about F.L., including his purchase of the plot of land and his plans to leave town soon. R at 9. Director Tom Grady contacted his administrative assistant and personally informed her not to file the necessary building permits. R at 9. At the time of Director Tom Grady’s unscrupulous, deceptive conduct F.L. was unaware of any dealings. Id. Upon F.L. return to his home of Sleepy Town, F.L. was notified, through the mail, that his plot was sitting on a “wetland” and thus in violation of the Clean Water Act. R. at 10. The EPA issued a notice for F.L. to appear before an administrative law judge in a hearing. Id. F.L. was away on business when the hearing was scheduled and F.L. was intentionally not actually notified of the hearing and thus was not present at the hearing. Id. The EPA issued a compliance order upon F.L. failing to appear at the hearing. R at 10. The Compliance Order was issued pursuant to 33 U.S.C. § 8

TEAM IDENTIFICATION: CA

1311 (a). R at 10. The Compliance Order mandated that F.L.: (1) remove fill and; (2) restore the wetlands on or before Oct. 1, 2011. R at 11. In addition the Compliance Order also “encouraged” F.L. to contact EPA and address any inaccuracies or requirements that could not be remedied and explain why they couldn’t be and the Compliance Order penalized F.L. $37,500 a day for each day that F.L. is out of compliance. R at 11. F.L. requested a new hearing with the EPA, but was denied. The EPA denied the new hearing on the basis of it’s power of discretion under the Administrative Protection Act. R at 11. Director Tom Grady approached F.L. with a offer, on behalf of the EPA, to purchase the plot from F.L.—no negotiations. R at 11. F.L. declined the offer and filed for bankruptcy to help elevate the massive amount of debt from the Compliance Order. Id. SUMMARY OF THE ARGUMENT This Court should affirm the Fourteenth Circuit’s decision that the EPA’s actions were arbitrary and capricious and were a violation of the APA. This Court should reverse the Fourteenth Circuits decision and hold that the EPA’s actions were in violation of the takings clause of the 5th Amendment of the United States Constitution. Contrary to assumption that the EPA has set-forth against F.L., the appellant not know and had no way of knowing of the notice issued by the EPA. R at 7-11. F.L. 9

TEAM IDENTIFICATION: CA

seeks judicial review of the EPA’s compliance order, which places massive civil fines in the amount of 600,000.00. R at 8. In addition, the F.L. dream of opening up an bed and breakfast on his purchased land in put on hold. The compliance order issued deprives F.L. of his fundamental property interest rights. By placing a 600,000.00 fine that grows by 37,500.00 a day. R. at 7. The Compliance Order was issued under the Clean Water Act. R at 10. The Compliance order violates F.L. due process rights because it fails to afford F.L. a notice reasonably calculated to satisfy all circumstances. A notice that would afford F.L. the personal choice to contest, denies, or not appears for the hearing. A right that is fundamental to the possessing a property interest. The EPA deprived F.L. of this right by mailing F.L. the notice for a hearing at a time when Director Tom Grady had knowledge that F.L would not receive the notice in a timely manner. Secondly, the EPA deprives F.L. of his fundamental property interest by failing to afford him an opportunity to be heard in a meaningful manner at a meaningful time. F.L. was not afforded a meaningful time nor manner because to do so the EPA would have notified F.L. while he was present or upon returning awarded him a new hearing. A new hearing would have given F.L. an adequate opportunity to contest the “wetland” dispute. 10

TEAM IDENTIFICATION: CA
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