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Volume 2 (2012) | ISSN 2158-8708 (online) | DOI 10.5195/emaj.2012.15 | http://emaj.pitt.edu

THE EFFECTS OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM AND
CONSUMER ANIMOSITY ON THE RE-PURCHASE INTENT:
THE MODERATING ROLE OF CONSUMER LOYALTY
M. Sukru Akdogan

Sevki Ozgener

Erciyes University | e-mail: [email protected]

Nevsehir University

Metin Kaplan

Aysen Coskun

Nevsehir University

Nevsehir University

Volume 2 (2012) | ISSN 2158-8708 (online) | DOI 10.5195/emaj.2012.15 | http://emaj.pitt.edu Abstract
With the growth of international trade and travel, consumers are increasingly confronted with foreign products and services. But some negative attitudes towards foreign products can arise from several factors such as previous or ongoing political, military, economic, or diplomatic events. Thus, both consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity have become important constructs in marketing. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity affect repurchase intent towards U.S. products and whether this impact is moderated by customer loyalty. The findings of the research indicate that consumer ethnocentrism increases consumer animosity for the sampling. The present study also denotes that both consumer ethnocentrism and animosity have a negative impact on repurchase intent toward U.S. products in Turkey. According to the results of regression analyses, customer loyalty may not be an important moderating factor between consumers’ animosity and repurchase intent toward U.S. products. However, customer loyalty moderated the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and repurchase intent toward U.S. products. Further implications for Turkish consumers in supermarkets in the province of Nevşehir are discussed. The value of future research is also acknowledged.

Keywords: Consumer ethnocentrism, Consumer animosity, Customer loyalty and Repurchase Intent

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.

This journal is published by the University Library System of the University of Pittsburgh as part of its D-Scribe Digital Publishing Program, and is cosponsored by the University of Pittsburgh Press

Volume 2 (2012) | ISSN 2158-8708 (online) | DOI 10.5195/emaj.2012.15 | http://emaj.pitt.edu

The Effects Of Consumer
Ethnocentrism And Consumer
Animosity On The RePurchase Intent: The
Moderating Role Of
Consumer Loyalty
M. Sukru Akdogan
Sevki Ozgener
Metin Kaplan
Aysen Coskun
I. Introduction
 
Ethnocentrism and animosity as concepts
associated with marketing management and
organizational behavior are fairly new.
Both ethnocentrism and animosity are
variables associated with the origin of a product.
Ethnocentric consumers believe that buying foreign
products hurts the domestic economy and national
employment. Animosity refers to remnants of
antipathy, or hostility towards a country (Jimenez
and San Martin, 2010: 34-45).
Consumer ethnocentrism and consumer
animosity are considered to have an influence on
customers’ perception of the goods and services
offered. In fact, consumer animosity and consumer
ethnocentrism have a negative effect on customers’
repurchase intent to foreign products. But it is
commonly known that there is a positive
relationship between customer loyalty and
repurchase intent. In this context, the goal of this
study is to investigate the moderating role of
customer loyalty on the relationships between
consumer animosity - consumer ethnocentrism, and
repurchase intent toward U.S. products.

II. Consumer
 

Ethnocentrism
 
Ethnocentrism has a negative influence on
the evaluation and purchasing intentions of
consumers, although that may vary within cultures
and between different country-of-origin products
(Jiménez Torres and San Martín Gutiérrez, 2007: 67).
Shimp and Sharma (1987) apply
ethnocentrism to the study of marketing and
consumer behavior. They defined consumer
ethnocentrism as a belief held by consumers on the
appropriateness and indeed morality of purchasing
foreign-made products. Consumer ethnocentrism
implies the normative belief that purchasing
domestic products is more beneficial than
purchasing foreign goods.
Previous studies found that scores on the
CETSCALE are related inversely to willingness to
purchase imports, perceptions of the quality of
imported goods, cultural openness, education, and
income (Shimp and Sharma, 1987; Netemeyer et al.,
1991). Particularly, consumers who hold strong
ethnocentric beliefs are more likely to evaluate
foreign products negatively than are those who do
not hold such beliefs. Those who believe that it is
wrong to buy foreign goods also tend to perceive
those goods as lower in quality than domestic
goods; ethnocentric consumers prefer domestic
goods not only because of economic or moral
beliefs, but also because they believe that their own
country produces the best products (Klein et al.,
1998: 92).
In the minds of ethnocentric consumers,
the purchase of foreign-made products is wrong
because it hurts the domestic economy, causes loss
of jobs, and is unpatriotic. Therefore, it is
anticipated that ethnocentric consumers tend to be

The Effects Of Consumer Ethnocentrism And Consumer Animosity On The Re-Purchase Intent: The Moderating Role Of Consumer Loyalty
Emerging Markets Journal | P a g e | 1

Volume 2 (2012) | ISSN 2158-8708 (online) | DOI 10.5195/emaj.2012.15 | http://emaj.pitt.edu

biased towards domestic products (Evanschitzky et
al. 2008: 9). Ethnocentric consumers will tend to
reject people, symbols and values that are culturally
dissimilar, while intra-cultural objects will become
recipients of pride and attachment (Herche, 1994:
6).
Consumer ethnocentrism is positively
related but distinct from consumer animosity. Klein
and Ettensen (1999) suggest that consumer
ethnocentrism contributes to a consumer’s
propensity to avoid buying foreign products in
general, while animosity is directed towards a
specific country (Rose et al., 2009: 331). However,
there are limited numbers of studies on consumer
ethnocentrism and repurchase intent to foreign
goods and services in Turkey.

III. Consumer
 Animosity
 
With the growth of international trade, an
increasingly diverse array of products of different
national origins is now available in many countries
throughout the world. This has resulted in greater
interest in examining consumer attitudes towards
products of different national origins. Because
cons...

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