Essays /

15 American Romantism N Hawthore H Essay

Essay preview

15. American Romantism. N. Hawthore. H. Melville
In America Romanticism(1820-1860) emerged 30 years later than it did in England or France due to the peculiarities of American history. American Romanticism had much in common with European. The development of the self became the mayor theme(self-awareness), self and nature were one Ch-s:values feelings and intuition over reason, places faith in inner experience and the power of the imagination, nature, prefers youthful innocence to educated sophistication, individual freedom, looks backwards to the wisdom of the past, finds inspiration in myths, legends and folk culture Nathaniel Hawthorne His greatest work is "The Scarlet Letter" which is based on real events of the 17th century. It deals with problems of crime & repentance, confession, sexual & spiritual repression. The author showed how the puritanical fanatism ruined the life of noble (благородные) & decent (порядочные) people. Herman Melville

His greatest work was the novel "Moby Dick; or, White Whale" It's an adventure novel full of exotics of the sea. Secondly, it's a realistic n о v e 1, for the reader learns a lot about the whaling business in the 19th c. It's also a philosophical novel dealing with issues of life, its objectives & other moral matters.

Rip Van Winkle
By Washington Irving (1783-1859)
Plot Summary
.......At the foot of the Catskill Mountains of New York was a picturesque village founded by Dutch colonists. Approaching it, one would see gabled homes with smoke curling up from the chimneys and shingle roofs reflecting the sunlight.  .......A simple, easygoing man named Rip Van Winkle lived in this village, in a weather-beaten house, at the time when New York was an English colony. He was a descendant of the Van Winkles who served with distinction under Peter Stuyvesant in his struggles against Swedish settlers at Fort Christina (in present-day Delaware).  .......Because he was kind and gentle, Rip was popular with all of his neighbors. Children especially loved him, for he would play with them, make them toys, and tell them stories. No one had a cross word for Rip–except his wife, who, taking advantage of his meekness, regularly nagged him. Her treatment of him earned Rip the sympathy of other wives.  .......His only weak point was his inability to work for profit. It was not that he lacked patience or perseverance; for, as the narrator points out, “He would sit on a wet rock, with a rod as long and heavy as a Tartar’s lance, and fish all day without a murmur, even though he should not be encouraged by a single nibble.” Moreover, he was always ready to help a neighbor with hard work and frequently ran errands and did odd jobs for housewives. But when it came time to tend his own farm and keep up his own property, he was of little use. Fences would collapse, a cow would run off, and rain would fall at the very moment he decided to work. The only plants that thrived on his farm were weeds. Consequently, he had the least productive and least attractive farm in the area. .......One of his children, little Rip, seemed to take after his father. Not only did he look like the elder Rip but he also wore Rip’s hand-me-down clothes, including a pair of galligaskins (loose-fitting trousers) which he would continually hitch up with one hand.  .......Dame Van Winkle ceaselessly browbeat Rip for his failings, saying he was bringing the family to ruin. Rip would shrug and go outside, out of range of her scolding tongue. She treated his dog, Wolf, the same way, and Wolf began to resemble Rip in submissiveness. Rip often sought refuge with a village group that convened on a bench in front of an inn to gossip, tell stories, and on one occasion discuss events reported in a newspaper left behind by a traveler. The village schoolmaster, Derrick Van Brummel, would read the newspaper accounts. Old Nicholas Vedder, the owner of the inn, was the gray eminence of this group, guiding its thought and conversation even though he did little more than smoke his pipe and shift his position on the bench to remain in the shade of a tree. Unfortunately for Rip, Dame Van Winkle would sometimes come to the inn for him and haul him off, all the while her tongue lashing him and his compatriots, including Vedder.  .......To escape his wife and the drudgery of his farm, Rip would sometimes head into the woods with Wolf and his gun. One day, high in the Catskill Mountains, he hunted squirrels, firing one shot after another. Hours later, tired from all the activity, he decided to lie down for a rest on a green knoll overlooking the rich forests and the Hudson River in the distance. When evening neared, he got up to return home, heaving a sigh at the thought of Dame Van Winkle and the terror of her tongue. At that moment, a man came up the mountain, calling out Rip’s name. Rip and Wolf both came to attention. As the man neared, Rip noticed that he was short and squat, with a beard and bushy hair, and wore old-fashioned Dutch clothes with buttons down the sides of his breeches. He was carrying a keg–probably liquor, Rip thought–and beckoned for Rip to help him. Always ready to assist others, Rip did so. As they ascended the mountain, Rip heard rumbling, like thunder, coming from a ravine. After they passed through it, they came to a hollow bordered by cliffs with overhanging trees; it resembled an amphitheater. There, Rip saw bearded men–all dressed like his companion and all of odd appearance, one with a large head and one with a large nose–playing ninepins. They neither spoke nor smiled. When they rolled their balls toward the pins, Rip again heard peals of thunder. .......Upon the arrival of Rip, the players stopped and stared at him, unnerving him. His companion opened the keg and emptied it into flagons, then motioned for Rip to serve the players, which he did. After the strange men resumed their game, Rip began to feel at ease and decided to sample the brew. It was excellent. He drank another, then another and another. By and by, the liquor had a heavy effect, and he drifted into a deep sleep.  .......When he woke up to a sunny morning, he was on the same green knoll upon which he rested when he first saw the man with the keg. His mind reviewed the events of the night before–the men, the ninepins, the liquor. Dame Van Winkle would give him a severe scolding this time. He reached out for his gun but was surprised to find that its barrel was rusted and its stock eaten away by worms. Perhaps those bowlers had stolen his gun and replaced it with a sorry old firelock. Wolf was nowhere to be found. When he arose to return to the place of the previous night’s revels to look for Wolf and retrieve his gun, he discovered that he was stiff in the joints.  “These mountain beds do not agree with me,” thought Rip, “and if this frolic should lay me up with a fit of the rheumatism, I shall have a blessed time with Dame Van Winkle.” .......However, the path he had walked with the strange man was now a mountain stream. Moreover, at the place where he entered the ravine, there was now only a wall of rock. Dumfounded, he returned to the village but was further puzzled when he saw people he did not recognize, all wearing strange fashions. Stroking his chin in bewilderment, he discovered that he had a beard a foot long.  .......The village was larger than when he left it, with more people. He saw strange houses with strange names over the doors. Dogs barked at him and children made fun of him. When he reached his house, he saw an old, deteriorating dwelling with broken windows and a collapsed roof. An old dog outside–was it Wolf?–growled at him. Inside, he looked about but found only emptiness. Immediately, he walked over to the inn–but it was gone. In its place was a ramshackle building with these words painted on the door: “The Union Hotel, by Jonathan Doolittle.” There were men outside–but none that he recognized. One man was speaking loudly about “rights of citizens–election–members of Congress–liberty–Bunker’s Hill–heroes of ’76–and other words, that were a perfect Babylonish jargon to the bewildered Van Winkle.” .......The men gathered around him and eyed him, for he was a strange sight to them. Women and children from the village also came to look at the peculiar man with the long beard and odd clothes. One man asked him how he voted. (Apparently, it was election day.)  Another asked whether he was a Federal or a Democrat. A third man with a cane, seeing the ol...

Read more

Keywords

-1500 -1770 -1820 -1859 -1860 -1865 -1880 /classical /identity /outcasts 1 10 11 1200 15 1609 1700 1770 1783 17th 18 1819 1820 1828 1830 1835 1859 1860 19 1900 1997 19th 2 20 28 3 30 30503 4 40 5 6 7 76 8 9 abl abstract accord account across action activ actual acut addict addit admir adult advantag adventur adventurist affirm afflict afraid age agit ago agoni agrarian agre ah ahab alien aliv almost alon along aloud also alter although alway amalgam america american among amount amphitheat analysi ancestor ancient and/or anoth anti anti-sentiment antiqu apart appalachian appar appear approach appropri archetyp area argu aris aristocrat aros around arrang arriv art arthur artifici artist ascend ask aspect aspir assist associ assur atempor atmospher attain attempt attend attent attract attribut author autopsi autumn averag awaken awar away awe awesom babylonish back backward bad ball ballad bark barrel base bath be beard beaten beauti becam beckon becom bed bedchamb beecher beg began begin behav behind belief believ belov bench best best-sel better bewild bewilder beyond bildungsroman birthright bit bizarr blake bland bless blood bloodi bloodlin blow blue boat bodi bond book border bottl bottle-shap bourgeoi bowl bowler box boyhood brad brain branch break breech brew bridg bright bring britain british broke broken brom brother brought browbeat bruis brummel build bunker burden buri burial bushi busi button byron c cabin call calm came cane canning capabl captain career carri carv case catalepsi catalept catch catskil caus causal ceaseless celebr celtic centuri certain ch ch-s chair chamber champion chanc chang charact character characterist charm chase cheek child childhood children chimney chin chivalr christina circumst cite citizen civil claim clang class classic cliff climax close closer cloth cloud cloudless coffin coleridg collaps collect colleg coloni colonist come commit common communiti compani companion compar compatriot compet conclud condens condit confess confin confirm conflict conform confus congreg congress connect conscious consequ conserv constraint construct contain context continu contrast control conven convent convers convey copyright corridor could counten counterpart countri cours cow crack crane crazi creat creativ creek creepi creepy-look crew crewmen cri crime crisi critiqu cross crowd crown cultur curl dame dank dare dark daughter day dead deal death decent decid declar decorum dedic deep deeper defin definit delawar delight democraci democrat demonstr depart depict depress deriv derrick descend describ descript desir destroy destruct detail deterior determin develop devilish devot dial diamond dick dickinson die differ digniti direct disband discern discov discover discuss diseas disord distanc distant distinct distinguish distribut divin doctor doctrin doesn dog dogma domain domest domin doolittl doom door doubt douglass dr drank dream dreiser dress drift driven drudgeri due dull dumfound dutch dutcher duti dwell e e.g earli earlier earn earth eas eastern easygo eat eaten edific edit educ eeri effect effort egalitarian egotist eight elder elect electr eleg element elev eliot elit els embrac emerg emerson emersonian emili emin emot emphas empti enabl enchant enclosur encount encourag end endur energi energy/power engag england english englishman enlighten enough enter entir entomb environ er er-do-wel era erad errand escap especi essenc establish estat etc ethelr europ european even event eventu everi everyon everyth evid evil exact examin excel except excess exclus exot expans experi explain explicit explor express extern extrasensori eye eye-lik face fact fail faint fair fairytal faith fall fallen famili famous fanat fantast fantasy/introspection farm farmer fascin fashion father fault fear featur feder feel fellow felt femal fenc fiction figur find fire firelock firm first fish fissur fit five flagon flee float floor flush focus folk folklor food foot forc foreshadow forest form formal fort forth forward found foundat foundl franc freak frederick free freedom frequent fresh friend frolic front frontier fulfil full fuller fun futil ga gabl gain gainesvill galligaskin game gap gardeni gaseous gather gay gaze general generat genr gentl georg german germani get girl give given gloom gloomi gloomier glori glorious glow go god goe goeth gone good gorg gossip got gothic govern gradual grandchild grandeur grant gray great greatest green greet grotesqu ground group growl grown growth guardian guid guitar gun gust h habit habitu hair half half-moon hallway hand hand-me-down happen happi hard harm harriet hasn haul haunt hawthor hawthorn head hear heard heart heav heavi heighten help helpless hendrick henrdrick henri herman hermit hero heroin hester heterosexu hierarchi high highlight hill hinder hire histori historian hitch hold hollow home homer homer-lik honor hood hors hotel hour hous housew howev hu hudson hue huge human humor hung hunt hurt husband hyper hyper-sensit ichabod idea ideal idealist ident identifi ii iii ill illustr imagin imaginari imagination/intuition imit imitation/parroting imman immedi immigr implicit import impress improb inabl includ incoher incomprehens inde independ indian indic individu individualist industri infant influenc inform inhabit initi inn inner innoc inquir insecur insid inspir institut instruct integr intellectu intens interest interfer interlud intern intuit invert invest invok involv inward irrat irv isol isolates/purifies issu jacksonian jargon job joint jonathan judith jump justic kaaterskil keat keep keg key kill kind king knew knock knoll know knowledg known lack laiss laisse-fair lake lanc lane languag larg larger lash last late later latter launcelot launch law lawyer lay lead leaden leaden-hu lean learn least left legend less letter liber liberti librari lie life light like limit line link lip liquor list listen literari literary/cultural literary/philosophical/theological literatur littl live local long longer look loos loose-fit lord loss lost lot loud love love-sick loyal luster mad made madelin madman madmen magazin magic main majest major make male man mani manner mansion margaret marker marri mass materi materialist materialist/empirical matter maxim may mayor mean meant meanwhil mechan mediev meek meet melancholi melvill member men menfolk mental mention met metaphys middl middle-class might mind miser mobi moby-dick modern moment monarchi money monomaniac monstrous mood mood-driven moon moral moreov morn mother motion mountain move movement mr much mundan murmur muse music must mysteri mystic myth mytholog n nag name narcissist narrat nathaniel nativ natur ne near neat necessari neglect neighbor neither neoclass nervous never new newspap next nibbl nichola night nine ninepin nobl nobodi non non-artifici non-heterosexu non-romant none nors north nose notabl note noth nothing notic nourish novel nowher number object observ obsess obtain occas occur odd often oh old old-fashion old-tim old-world oldest one open opinion opium opportun oppos opposit oppress optim option order ordinari organ organic orient origin other otherwis outgrowth outset outsid overal overhang overlap overlook overthrown overview own owner pace pain paint painter pair palac pale paradox paragraph parson part partial particip particular pass passion passiv past path patienc patriarch peal peculiar peddler peopl perceiv percept perfect perhap period permiss persever person personf personif perspect pestil peter phenomenon philosoph philosophi picturesqu piec pin pink pipe place plan plant play player pleas plot poe poem point polar polit pond pool poor popular pore portray posit possibl post post-seizur potenti power practic predict prefer preoccup present present-day preserv previous primari principl privileg prize probabl problem process product profit progress promis proper properti proport protagonist protest proud prove provid psycholog public publish punish puritan purpl purpos pursu put puzzl qualiti quest quiet quit radic rag rage rain ramshackl ran rang rank rather ravin ray reach react read reader readi real realism realist realiti realiz realli reason reason/calculation rebelli receiv recent recept recogn recount refer reflect reform refug regain region regular relat relev relianc reliant religi religion remain rememb remind render repent replac repli report repres repress reproduc reput request resembl reserv resid resound respond respons rest resum resuscit retriev return reunit reveal revel reverber review revolt revolut revolutionari reward rheumat rich ride right riot rip river road roam rock rod roderick roll romanc romant romantic roof room root rough row ruin rule rule/convention rumbl run rush rust said sampl sanctum satisfact savag saw say scare scari scarlet scene schaick scholar school schoolmast scienc scold scorn scream screw sea search season second secondari secret secular see seek seem seen seizur seldom self self-analysi self-awar self-consci self-real self-reli seller selv sens sensat sensibl sensit sentient sentiment serv servant set settler seven sever sexual shade shakespearean shall shambl shape share shelley shield shift shine shingl ship shock shook short shot shout show shown shrug sick side sigh sight silenc similar simpl simpli simultan sinc sincer singl sink sir sister sit six skeptic sketch skin sky slave slaveri sleep sleepi slowli sluggish smash smile smoke social societi solitud sometim somewhat son song soon sophist sorri sorrow sort sought soul sound sourc south speak special spend spent spi spirit spiritu spiritually/psychologically split spoke spontan spooki sport squat squirrel stand stanza stare start state static status stay step stephen stiff still stock stolen stop stori storm stormi stow strang stranger stream strickland stroke struggl stuyves style sub subject sublim submiss succeed suffer suggest suicid summari summit sun sunlight sunni sunnysid supernatur superstit superstiti support suppos sure surpris surround swedish swore symbol sympathi tactil tad take taken tale talent tapestri tarn tarrytown tartar tast tear techniqu tell tend term terrifi terror testifi text theme theodor thing think third thoreau though thought three thrive throw thunder thunderstorm thus time timer tini tire today togeth told tom tomb tongu took tori touch tourist toward townspeopl toy tradit transcend transcendent transcendentalist travel treat treatment tree trembl tri trick trist trophi troubl trouser true truth turn twenti twin two type tyrann tyranni u.s ultim unabl unchart uncl underground underneath understood unfortun union uniqu unit univers unnam unnatur unnerv unpredict unpublish unsurpris upon urban us usa use usher usual v valet valley valu van vanderdonk vapor vapour various vault vedder vener ventur vers versus vessel victorian villag violent vision visit vivid vote walden walk wall wander want war washington wast watch waterfal way weak wear weather weather-beaten weed week weird well went werther west wet whale whenev wherea whether white whitman whole widen wife wildcat wilder wind window wink winkl wisdom wish within without wive woke wolf woman women wonder wood wooden word wordsworth wore work world worm worri worth would wrench write writer written wrong wrote year yes yet yonder york young younger youth благородные о порядочные