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15620352 Wind Power In India Globally Essay

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S.P.JAIN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH
MUMBAI - INDIA
Executive MBA
Batch 13 A (2006 – 08)

A Report on

L&T - WIND ENERGY SECTOR AS A NEW LINE
OF BUSINESS
Submitted to
Mr. Ashok Rao

In fulfillment of the course requirement for Project Report
Submitted by
Badech Raghveer Singh

EMBA/13/45

Project Guide – Prof . Harsh Mohan
Mentor – Mr. Kumar Rudra

A) Synopsis…………………………………………………………………………...1 B) Chapters
1. Introduction……………………………………………………………......2 1.1 Wind Energy Basics……………………………………………….…..2 1.2 Wind Energy Cost……………………………………………………..6 2. Current status of Wind energy market…………………………………….9 2.1 Global Wind Energy Sector…………………………………………...9 2.1.1 Africa………………………………………………………14 2.1.2 Asia………………………………………………………...14 2.1.3 Australia & Oceania………………………………………..15 2.1.4 Europe……………………………………………………...15 2.1.5 Latin America……………………………………………...16 2.1.6 North America……………………………………………..16 2.1.7 Offshore – wind farms……………………………………..17 2.1.8 SWOT Analysis……………………………………………19 2.2 Indian Wind Energy Sector……………………………………….….19 2.2.1 Wind Power development in India………………………...21 2.2.2 The Wind energy Policy structure in India………………...23 2.2.3 The Current Scenario……………………………………....24 2.2.4 Foreign Investment Policy………………………………....24 2.2.5 Regulatory Issues…………………………………………..25 2.2.6 SWOT Analysis…………………………………………....26 3. Elements of a Wind Project (Value Chain)………………………………28 3.1 Design, planning & supervision……………………………………...28 3.2 Pure component manufacturer……………………………………….30 3.3 Installation and Operation & Maintenance…………………………..31 3.4 Fully integrated service providers……………………………………34 4. Larsen & Toubro Limited………………………………………………..35 4.1 Prologue……………………………………………………………...35 4.2 Wind Energy Industry (Porter’s five force analysis)………………...36 4.3 SWOT analysis – L&T ……………………………………………...37 4.4 SWOT analysis – L&T in Wind Energy Industry…………………...39 5. Opportunities in the Wind energy market………………………………..43 5.1 International energy market………………………………………….43 5.1.1 Wind Power Development Strategies – Europe……………43 5.1.2 Wind Power Development Strategies – United States……..45 5.1.3 Wind Power Development Strategies – China……………..46 5.1.4 Wind Power Development Strategies – Offshore.................46 5.2 Domestic energy market……………………………………………..48

6. Strategies for the Wind Energy Sector…………………………………...49

C) Appendix & Tables:
1. Country-wise capacity details (as on end 2008)…………………………51 2. India - Policy & Regulation website links……………………………….53 3. India – State-wise installed capacity……………………………………..54 4. India – Tariff & Regulations……………………………………………..56 5. India – Central Incentives………………………………………………..57 6. Related Companies – website links ……………………………………..59 7. Larsen & Toubro – Organizational Structure…………………………....60

D) References.…………………………………………………….……………….61

S. P. Jain Institute of Management & Research

EMBA

Synopsis:
International wind markets have seen another impressive year in 2008, with over 27 GW of new capacity brought online and a total installed capacity close to 121GW. Over the past three years the global wind turbine market has seen explosive growth in terms of competitors, capacity investments, and project orders as the industry races to keep up with booming global demand. Scaling exponentially in nearly all dimensions— including the size of turbines, projects, and buyers .The growth in 2008 was primarily driven by developments in China and the US, but other markets are also starting to emerge on the wind energy map — the industry is generating enormous opportunities for all players, as well as challenges to improve competitiveness and position wind energy as a long-term, reliable source of power generation.

Key trends in the international wind market include:
♦ Competition among wind turbine OEMs is rapidly intensifying as growth extends to new regions, encouraging start-ups of new manufacturers while pushing leading suppliers to expand their sales and production globally.

♦ Turbine prices, and the costs of installation, have trended upward over the last four years after nearly a decade of cost reductions per megawatt of nameplate capacity. The global market’s boom in demand has clearly shifted the industry from a buyer’s to a seller’s market in the past three years, with corresponding price increases.

♦ Multiple players moving on 2 MW and above segment: Vestas and Enercon— pioneers in 2 MW and larger turbines—are aiming to protect their share of this market. However, multiple proven machines from Gamesa, Siemens, Suzlon/REpower, Alstom/Ecotecnia and others are providing buyers more options. ♦ Component suppliers face new challenges to keep pace with turbine demand, calling for major production capacity investments in the multi-megawatt segment, as well as a focus on local supply in booming new markets while keeping costs competitive.

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1. Introduction
In order to understand the business of wind power we must initially understand the basic fundamentals and terms which are common in the arena of wind energy and its related businesses.

1.1 Wind Energy Basics:
What is wind energy?
In reality, wind energy is a converted form of solar energy. The sun's radiation heats different parts of the earth at different rates-most notably during the day and night, but also when different surfaces (for example, water and land) absorb or reflect at different rates. This in turn causes portions of the atmosphere to warm differently. Hot air rises, reducing the atmospheric pressure at the earth's surface, and cooler air is drawn in to replace it. The result is wind.

Air has mass, and when it is in motion, it contains the energy of that motion ("kinetic energy"). Some portion of that energy can convert into other forms mechanical force or electricity that we can use to perform work.

What is a wind turbine and how does it work?
A wind energy system transforms the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be harnessed for practical use. Mechanical energy is most commonly used for pumping water in rural or remote locations- the "farm windmill" still seen in many rural areas of the U.S. is a mechanical wind pumper - but it can also be used for many other purposes (grinding grain, sawing, pushing a sailboat, etc.). Wind electric turbines generate electricity for homes and businesses and for sale to utilities. There are two basic designs of wind electric turbines: vertical-axis, or "egg-beater" style, and horizontal-axis (propeller-style) machines. Horizontal-axis wind turbines are most common today, constituting nearly all of the "utility-scale" (100 kilowatts, kW, capacity and larger) turbines in the global market.

Turbine subsystems include:



a rotor, or blades, which convert the wind's energy into rotational shaft energy; a nacelle (enclosure) containing a drive train, usually including a gearbox* and a generator;
a tower, to support the rotor and drive train; and
Electronic equipment such as controls, electrical cables, ground support equipment, and interconnection equipment

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*Some turbines do not require a gearbox
Wind turbines vary in size. This chart depicts a variety of historical turbine sizes and the amount of electricity they are each capable of generating (the turbine's capacity, or power rating).

Rotor (meters)
Rating (KW)
Annual MWh

1981
10
25
45

1985
17
100
220

1990
27
225
550

1996
40
550
1,480

1999
50
750
2,200

2000
71
1,650
5,600

The electricity generated by a utility-scale wind turbine is normally collected and fed into utility power lines, where it is mixed with electricity from other power plants and delivered to utility customers.

What is wind turbines made of?
The towers are mostly tubular and made of steel. The blades are made of fiberglassreinforced polyester or wood-epoxy. How big is a wind turbine?
Utility-scale wind turbines for land-based wind farms come in various sizes, with rotor diameters ranging from about 50 meters to about 90 meters, and with towers of roughly

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the same size. A 90-meter machine, definitely at the large end of the scale at this writing, with a 90-meter tower would have a total height from the tower base to the tip of the rotor of approximately 135 meters (442 feet).

Offshore turbine designs are under further development and will have larger rotors—at the moment, the largest has a 110-meter rotor diameter—because it is easier to transport large rotor blades by ship than by land.

Small wind turbines intended for residential or small business use are much smaller. Most have rotor diameters of 8 meters or less and would be mounted on towers of 40 meters in height or less.
How much electricity can one wind turbine generate?
The ability to generate electricity is measured in watts. Watts are very small units, so the terms kilowatt (kW, 1,000 watts), megawatt (MW, 1 million watts), and gigawatt (pronounced "jig-a-watt," GW, 1 billion watts) are most commonly used to describe the capacity of generating units like wind turbines or other power plants. Electricity production and consumption are most commonly measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). A kilowatt-hour means one kilowatt (1,000 watts) of electricity produced or consumed for one hour. One 50-watt light bulb left on for 20 hours consumes one kilowatt-hour of electricity (50 watts x 20 hours = 1,000 watt-hours = 1 kilowatt-hour). The output of a wind turbine depends on the turbine's size and the wind's speed through the rotor. Wind turbines being manufactured now have power ratings ranging from 250 watts to 5 megawatts (MW).

Example: A 10-kW wind turbine can generate about 10,000 kWh annually at a site with wind speeds averaging 12 miles per hour, or about enough to power a typical household. A 5-MW turbine can produce more than 15 million kWh in a year--enough to power more than 1, 400 households. The average U.S. household consumes about 10,000 kWh of electricity each year.

Example: A 250-kW turbine installed at the elementary school in Spirit Lake, Iowa, provides an average of 350,000 kWh of electricity per year, more than is necessary for the 53,000-square-foot school. Excess electricity fed into the local utility system earned the school $25,000 in its first five years of operation. The school uses electricity from the utility at times when the wind does not blow. This project has been so successful that the Spirit Lake school district has since installed a second turbine with a capacity of 750 kW. Wind speed is a crucial element in projecting turbine performance, and a site's wind speed is measured through wind resource assessment prior to a wind system's construction. Generally, an annual average wind speed greater than four meters per second (m/s) (9 mph) is required for small wind electric turbines (less wind is required for water-pumping operations). Utility-scale wind power plants require minimum average wind speeds of 6 m/s (13 mph).

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The power available in the wind is proportional to the cube of its speed, which means that doubling the wind speed increases the available power by a factor of eight. Thus, a turbine operating at a site with an average wind speed of 12 mph could in theory generate about 33% more electricity than one at an 11-mph site, because the cube of 12 (1,768) is 33% larger than the cube of 11 (1,331). (In the real world, the turbine will not produce quite that much more electricity, but it will still generate much more than the 9% difference in wind speed.) The important thing to understand is that what seems like a small difference in wind speed can mean a large difference in available energy and in electricity produced, and therefore, a large difference in the cost of the electricity generated. Also, there is little energy to be harvested at very low wind speeds (6-mph winds contain less than one-eighth the energy of 12-mph winds). How many turbines does it take to make one megawatt (MW)?

Most manufacturers of utility-scale turbines offer machines in the 700-kW to 2.5-MW range. Ten 700-kW units would make a 7-MW wind plant, while 10 2.5-MW machines would make a 25-MW facility. In the future, machines of larger size will be available, although they will probably be installed offshore, where larger transportation and construction equipment can be used. Units up to 5 MW in capacity are now under development.

How many homes can one megawatt of wind energy supply?
An average U.S. household uses about 10,655 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity each year. One megawatt of wind energy can generate from 2.4 to more than 3 million kWh annually. Therefore, a megawatt of wind generates about as much electricity as 225 to 300 households use. It is important to note that since the wind does not blow all of the time, it cannot be the only power source for that many households without some form of storage system. The "number of homes served" is just a convenient way to translate a quantity of electricity into a familiar term that people can understand. (Typically, storage is not needed, because wind generators are only part of the power plants on a utility system, and other fuel sources are used when the wind is not blowing. ) What is a wind power plant?

The most economical application of wind electric turbines is in groups of large machines (660 kW and up), called "wind power plants" or "wind farms." Wind plants can range in size from a few megawatts to hundreds of megawatts in capacity. Wind power plants are "modular," which means they consist of small individual modules (the turbines) and can easily be made larger or smaller as needed. Turbines can be added as electricity demand grows. Today, a 50-MW wind farm can be completed in 18 months to two years. Most of that time is needed for measuring the wind and obtaining construction permits—the wind farm itself can be built in less than six months. What is "capacity factor"?

Capacity factor is one element in measuring the productivity of a wind turbine or any other power production facility. It compares the plant's actual production over a given

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period of time with the amount of power the plant would have produced if it had run at full capacity for the same amount of time.
A conventional utility power plant uses fuel, so it will normally run much of the time unless it is idled by equipment problems or for maintenance. A capacity factor of 40% to 80% is typical for conventional plants.

A wind plant is "fueled" by the wind, which blows steadily at times and not at all at other times. Although modern utility-scale wind turbines typically operate 65% to 90% of the time, they often run at less than full capacity. Therefore, a capacity factor of 25% to 40% is common, although they may achieve higher capacity factors during windy weeks or months.

It is important to note that while capacity factor is almost entirely a matter of reliability for a fueled power plant, it is not for a wind plant—for a wind plant, it is a matter of economical turbine design. With a very large rotor and a very small generator, a wind turbine would run at full capacity whenever the wind blew and would have a 60-80% capacity factor—but it would produce very little electricity. The most electricity per dollar of investment is gained by using a larger generator and accepting the fact that the capacity factor will be lower as a result. Wind turbines are fundamentally different from fueled power plants in this respect.

If a wind turbine's capacity factor is 33%, doesn't that mean it is only running onethird of the time? No. A wind turbine at a typical location in the Midwestern U.S. should run about 65-90% of the time. However, much of the time it will be generating at less than full capacity (see previous answer), making its capacity factor lower.

What is "availability" or "availability factor"?
Availability factor (or just "availability") is a measurement of the reliability of a wind turbine or other power plant. It refers to the percentage of time that a plant is ready to generate (that is, not out of service for maintenance or repairs). Modern wind turbines have an availability of more than 98%--higher than most other types of power plant. After more than two decades of constant engineering refinement, today's wind machines are highly reliable.

1.2 Wind Energy Costs:
A number of factors determine the economics of utility-scale wind energy and its competitiveness in the energy marketplace. The cost of wind energy varies widely depending upon the wind speed at a given project site. The energy that can be tapped from the wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed, so a slight increase in wind speed results in a large increase in electricity generation. Consider two sites, one with an average wind speed of 14 miles per hour (mph) and the other with average winds of 16 mph. All other things being equal, a wind turbine at the second site will generate nearly 50% more electricity than it would at the first location.

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The three examples above are for costs per kilowatt-hour for a 51 MW wind farm at three different average wind speeds expressed in meters per second. Cost figures include the current wind production tax credit.

Improvements in turbine design bring down costs. The taller the turbine tower and the larger the area swept by the blades, the more powerful and productive the turbine. The swept area of a turbine rotor (a circle) is a function of the square of the blade length (the circle’s radius).

Therefore, a fivefold increase in rotor diameter (from 10 meters on a 25-kW turbine like those built in the 1980s to 50 meters on a 750-kW turbine common today) yields a 55fold increase in yearly electricity output, partly because the swept area is 25 times larger and partly because the tower height has increased substantially, and wind speeds increase with distance from the ground. Advances in electronic monitoring and controls, blade design, and other features have also contributed to a drop in cost. The following table shows how a modern 1.65-MW turbine generates 120 times the electricity at one-sixth the cost of an older 25-kW turbine:

A large wind farm is more economical than a small one. Assuming the same average wind speed of 18 mph and identical wind turbine sizes, a 3–MW wind project delivers electricity at a cost of $0.059 per kWh and a 51-MW project delivers electricity at $0.036 per kWh—a drop in costs of $0.023, or nearly 40%. Any project has transaction costs that can be spread over more kilowatt-hours with a larger project. Similarly, a larger project has lower O&M (operations and maintenance) costs per kilowatt-hour because of the efficiencies of managing a larger wind farm.

Optimal configuration of the turbines to take the best advantage of micro-features on the terrain will also improve a project's productivity.

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The cost of financing affects the cost of wind energy. Wind energy is capital-intensive, so the cost of financing constitutes a large variable in a wind energy project's economics. For a variety of reason financing for wind project remains more expensive than for mainstream form of electricity generation.

Project ownership affects cost of financing and the economics of a wind power project. Independent ownership—that is, financing of projects by private power producers on a stand-alone basis, is more expensive than utility-owned financing. How do utility-scale wind power plants compare in cost to other renewable energy sources?

Wind is the low-cost emerging renewable energy resource.

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2. Current Status of Wind Energy Market
In order to understand the available business opportunity in the wind energy market we need to initially access the existing global wind energy market and determine future growth areas in various subcontinents globally

2.1 Global Wind Energy Sector
Salient features
™ Worldwide capacity reaches 121,188 MW, out of which 27,261 MW were added in 2008.
™ Wind energy continued its growth in 2008 at an increased rate of 29 %. ™ All wind turbines installed by the end of 2008 worldwide are generating 260 TWh per annum, equaling more than 1.5 % of the global electricity consumption. ™ The wind sector became a global job generator and has created 440,000 jobs worldwide.

™ The wind sector represented in 2008 a turnover of 40 billion Euros. ™ For the first time in more than a decade, the USA took over the number one position from Germany in terms of total installations.

™ China continues its role as the most dynamic wind market in the year 2008, more than doubling the installations for the third time in a row, with today more than 12 GW of wind turbines installed.

™ North America and Asia catch up in terms of new installations with Europe which shows stagnation.
™ Based on accelerated development and further improved policies, a global capacity of more than 1,500,000 MW is possible by the year 2020.

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General Situation:
Wind energy has continued the worldwide success story as the most dynamically growing energy source again in the year 2008. Since 2005, global wind installations more than doubled. They reached 121,188 MW, after 59,024 MW in 2005, 74,151 MW in 2006, and 93,927 MW in 2007. The turnover of the wind sector worldwide reached 40 billion in the year 2008. The market for new wind turbines showed a 42 % increase and reached an overall size of 27,261 MW, after 19,776 MW in 2007 and 15,127 MW in the year 2006. Ten years ago, the market for new wind turbines had a size of 2,187 MW, less than one tenth of the size in 2008. In comparison, no new nuclear reactor started operation in 2008, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Leading Wind Market:
The USA and China took the lead, USA taking over the global number one position from Germany and China getting ahead of India for the first time, taking the lead in Asia. The USA and China accounted for 50.8 % of the wind turbine sales in 2008 and the eight leading markets represented almost 80 % of the market for new wind turbines – one year ago, still only five markets represented 80 % of the global sales. The pioneer country Denmark fell back to rank 9 in terms of total capacity, whilst until four years ago it held the number 4 position during several years. However, with a wind power share of around 20 % of the electricity supply, Denmark is still a leading wind energy country worldwide. Offshore wind energy

By the end of the year 2008, 1,473 MW of wind turbines were in operation offshore, more than 99 % of it in Europe, representing slightly more than 1 % of the total installed

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wind turbine capacity. 350 MW were added offshore in 2008, equaling a growth rate of 30 %.
Diversification continues:
This development goes hand in hand with a general diversification process which can be watched with today 16 markets having installations of more than 1,000 MW, compared with 13 countries one year ago. 32 countries have more than 100 MW installed, compared with 24 countries three years ago. Altogether 76 countries are today using wind energy on a commercial basis. Newcomers on the list are two Asian countries, Pakistan and Mongolia, which both for the first time installed larger grid-connected wind turbines. Increasing growth rates:

An important indicator for the vitality of the wind market is the growth rate in relation to the installed capacity of the previous year. The growth rate went up steadily since the year 2004, reaching 29.0 % in 2008, after 26.6 % in 2007, 25.6 % in the year 2006 and 23.8 % in 2005. However, this increase in the average growth rate is mainly due to the fact that the two biggest markets showed growth rates far above the average: USA 50 % and China 107 %. Bulgaria showed the highest growth rate with 177 %, however, starting from a low level. Also Australia, Poland, Turkey and Ireland showed a dynamic growth far above the average.

Wind energy as an answer to the global crisis:
In light of the threefold global crisis mankind is facing currently – the energy crisis, the finance crisis and the environment/climate crisis – it is becoming more and more obvious that wind energy offers solutions to all of these huge challenges, offering a domestic, reliable, affordable and clean ener...

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watch water water-pump watt watt-hour wave way wberc.net.in weak weaker wear websit week weigh weight weld well well-design well-establish went west western wet whenev wherein wherev whether whilst whole wholli wide will wind wind-diesel wind-farm wind-gener wind-pv wind-solar wind-swept windi windmil wing winter wise wish wit within without wood wood-epoxi work worksit world world-wid worldwid worth would wpm write www.abb.com www.abb.com/windpower www.awea.org www.awstruewind.com www.bosch.com www.cercind.org www.cwet.tn.nic.in www.cwet.tn.nic.in/html/information_wtt.html www.emerging-energy.com www.emerging-energy.com/user/marketstudies.aspx?catid=1 www.ercap.org www.erldc.org www.euindiawind.net www.gamesacorp.com www.gepower.com www.gercin.org www.globalenergyconcepts.com www.gwec.net www.indiawindpower.com www.ingeteam.com www.kerc.org www.larsentoubro.com www.larsentoubro.com/lntcorporate/common/ui_templates/homepage_news www.lausitzer-industriebau.de www.lmglasfiber.com www.lntenc.com www.lntenc.com/lntenc/ezine/jan09/performance_for_the_quarter_ended_dec08.pdf www.mercindia.com www.mita-teknik.com www.moneycontrol.com www.moneycontrol.com/india/news/results-boardroom/lt-eyes-larger-highquality-orders-for-ec-biz/361393 www.moneycontrol.com/news_html_files/news_attachment/2008/larsento www.mongabay.com www.mongabay.com/igapo/technology/epc.html www.moventas.com www.mperc.org www.newenergyfinance.com www.nrldc.org www.orierc.org www.ramboll-wind.com www.rerc.gov.in www.shell.com www.sinoi.de www.srldc.org www.suzlon.com www.teri.res.in www.uerc.org www.uperc.org www.vestas.com www.windpower.org www.windpower.org/en/tour/econ/oandm.htm www.windpowerindia.com www.worldwatch.org www.worldwatch.org/node/5282#wind www.wrldc.org www.wwindea.org x xinjiang yard yaw year yet yield zealand