Course Code: ECE434
1. “Artificial Intelligence” Saroj Kaushik 1st Edition Cengage Learning 2011
2. “Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems” Dan. W. Patterson 1st Edition 1990 PHI
(Pretice Hall India).
3. “Artificial Intelligence- A Modern Approach”
Stuart Russel Peter Norvig 3rd Edition Pearson, 2009 .
4. “Artificial Intelligence” Elaine Rich Kevin Knight 3rd Edition 2008 Tata McGraw Hill, India
INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC CONCEPTS &
Logic was to be a branch of philosophy;
however formal logic has been studied in the
context of foundation of mathematics where it
is referred to as symbolic logic.
Logic is concerned with the principles of
drawing valid inferences from a given set of
Hence, it is referred to as symbolic logic.
Logic is concerned with the truth of statements about the world.
Generally each statement is either TRUE or FALSE. Logic includes : Syntax , Semantics and Inference Procedure.
Specifies the symbols in the language about how they can be combined to form sentences. The facts about the world are represented as sentences in logic.
Specifies how to assign a truth value to a sentence based on its meaning in the world. It Specifies what facts a sentence refers to. A fact is a claim about the world, and it may be TRUE or FALSE.
Inference Procedure :
Specifies methods for computing new sentences from an existing sentences.
Branches of Symbolic logic
It is divided into 2 branches:
A Proposition refers to a declarative statement
that is either true or false (but not both) in a
One can infer a new proposition from a given
set of propositions in the same context using
Propositional Calculus (PC) refers to a language
of propositions in which a set of rules are used
to combine simple propositions to form
compound propositions with the help of
certain logical operators.
These logical operators are also called as
These operators are: not(~), or (v), and (^),
implies ( ), and equivalence (
Well-formed formula (wff)
A wff is defined is defined as a symbol or a string
of symbols generated by the formal grammar of a
formal language of a formal language.
Properties of wff:
The smallest unit (or an atom) is considered to be