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Artificial Intelligence
Course Code: ECE434

UNIT -III

References
 Text

 1. “Artificial Intelligence” Saroj Kaushik 1st Edition Cengage Learning 2011
 Reference Books

 2. “Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems” Dan. W. Patterson 1st Edition 1990 PHI
(Pretice Hall India).
 3. “Artificial Intelligence- A Modern Approach”
Stuart Russel Peter Norvig 3rd Edition Pearson, 2009 .
 4. “Artificial Intelligence” Elaine Rich Kevin Knight 3rd Edition 2008 Tata McGraw Hill, India

INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC CONCEPTS &
LOGIC PROGRAMMING

 Logic was to be a branch of philosophy;
however formal logic has been studied in the
context of foundation of mathematics where it
is referred to as symbolic logic.
 Logic is concerned with the principles of
drawing valid inferences from a given set of
true statements.
 Hence, it is referred to as symbolic logic.

LOGIC
Logic is concerned with the truth of statements about the world.

Generally each statement is either TRUE or FALSE. Logic includes : Syntax , Semantics and Inference Procedure.
 Syntax :
Specifies the symbols in the language about how they can be combined to form sentences. The facts about the world are represented as sentences in logic.
 Semantic :
Specifies how to assign a truth value to a sentence based on its meaning in the world. It Specifies what facts a sentence refers to. A fact is a claim about the world, and it may be TRUE or FALSE.

 Inference Procedure :
Specifies methods for computing new sentences from an existing sentences.

Branches of Symbolic logic
It is divided into 2 branches:
 Propositional logic
 Predicate logic
 A Proposition refers to a declarative statement
that is either true or false (but not both) in a
given context.
 One can infer a new proposition from a given
set of propositions in the same context using
logic.

Propositional Calculus
 Propositional Calculus (PC) refers to a language
of propositions in which a set of rules are used
to combine simple propositions to form
compound propositions with the help of
certain logical operators.
 These logical operators are also called as
connectives;
 These operators are: not(~), or (v), and (^),
implies ( ), and equivalence (
).

Well-formed formula (wff)
 A wff is defined is defined as a symbol or a string
of symbols generated by the formal grammar of a
formal language of a formal language.
Properties of wff:
 The smallest unit (or an atom) is considered to be
al w...

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Keywords

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