Essays /

15692 Manie Essay

Essay preview

Artificial Intelligence
Course Code: ECE434


 Text

 1. “Artificial Intelligence” Saroj Kaushik 1st Edition Cengage Learning 2011
 Reference Books

 2. “Introduction to Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems” Dan. W. Patterson 1st Edition 1990 PHI
(Pretice Hall India).
 3. “Artificial Intelligence- A Modern Approach”
Stuart Russel Peter Norvig 3rd Edition Pearson, 2009 .
 4. “Artificial Intelligence” Elaine Rich Kevin Knight 3rd Edition 2008 Tata McGraw Hill, India


 Logic was to be a branch of philosophy;
however formal logic has been studied in the
context of foundation of mathematics where it
is referred to as symbolic logic.
 Logic is concerned with the principles of
drawing valid inferences from a given set of
true statements.
 Hence, it is referred to as symbolic logic.

Logic is concerned with the truth of statements about the world.

Generally each statement is either TRUE or FALSE. Logic includes : Syntax , Semantics and Inference Procedure.
 Syntax :
Specifies the symbols in the language about how they can be combined to form sentences. The facts about the world are represented as sentences in logic.
 Semantic :
Specifies how to assign a truth value to a sentence based on its meaning in the world. It Specifies what facts a sentence refers to. A fact is a claim about the world, and it may be TRUE or FALSE.

 Inference Procedure :
Specifies methods for computing new sentences from an existing sentences.

Branches of Symbolic logic
It is divided into 2 branches:
 Propositional logic
 Predicate logic
 A Proposition refers to a declarative statement
that is either true or false (but not both) in a
given context.
 One can infer a new proposition from a given
set of propositions in the same context using

Propositional Calculus
 Propositional Calculus (PC) refers to a language
of propositions in which a set of rules are used
to combine simple propositions to form
compound propositions with the help of
certain logical operators.
 These logical operators are also called as
 These operators are: not(~), or (v), and (^),
implies ( ), and equivalence (

Well-formed formula (wff)
 A wff is defined is defined as a symbol or a string
of symbols generated by the formal grammar of a
formal language of a formal language.
Properties of wff:
 The smallest unit (or an atom) is considered to be
al w...

Read more


1 15692 1990 1rule 1st 2 2008 2009 2011 3 32 3rd 4 5 6 a1 a2 absorpt ad add advantag ai al allow also among apart approach appropri argument artifici assign associ atom automat ava avb axiom axiomat b backward base basi better binari bind book boolean branch built bva bvc c calcul calculus call cannot case cengag certain chain check claim claus clausal cnf code collect combin comment common commut complimentari compound comput concept concern condit conjunct connect consequ consid consist constant construct contain context contradict convers convert cours d dan de deal declar deduc deduct defin definit delet deriv describ descript determin develop difficult direct disadvantag disjunct distribut divid dnf doubl draw due e easi ece434 edit either elain elimin english enough equival establish evalu exampl exclud exist expert exponenti express extens f fact fals favour fig finit follow form formal formula forward foundat g general generat get given goal grammar grandmoth ground grow guess hall help henc hill homework howev humid hypothesi idea idempot iii immedi impli import includ inconsist india infer inferenc input instanc intellig interpret introduc introduct kaushik kevin knight languag law learn least let liter logic man mani mari mathemat may mcgraw mean mechan men method middl mike mimic modern modus morgan mortal mp n1 name natur nds need negat new nj normal norvig notat nt object often one oper order output p p1 pair part pattern patterson pc pearson peter phi philosophi pi pk pl ponen posit power predic pretic principl procedur produc program proof properti proposit prove provid push q quantifi queri rain reason reduc refer refut relat relationship remain repres requir resolut resolv rich root row rule russel said saroj satisfi scope select semant sentenc set show shown sign simpl sinc singl situat size smallest socrat solut solv special specifi standard statement straightforward string stuart studi symbol syntax system tabl tableau take tata tautolog techniqu term text theorem therefor time today togeth tree true truth two u uniqu unit unsatisfi upon us use usual v valid valu variabl various w wastag well well-form wff whether world written x y α α1 α2 αn β ϒ і