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For the exclusive use of P. Chua, 2015.

Nonprofit Organizations
Exc e r p t e d fro m

Strategy Maps:
Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Outcomes

Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton

Harvard Business School Press
Boston, Massachusetts

ISBN-13: 978-1-4221-1590-9


This document is authorized for use only by Pei Ying Chua in Strategic Management Spring 2015x taught by Bowman, at Harvard University from January 2015 to June 2015.

For the exclusive use of P. Chua, 2015.

Copyright 2006 Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation All rights reserved
Printed in the United States of America
This chapter was originally published as chapter 15 of Strategy Maps: Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Outcomes, copyright 2004 Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior permission of the publisher. Requests for permission should be directed to [email protected], or mailed to Permissions, Harvard Business School Publishing, 60 Harvard Way, Boston, Massachusetts 02163. You can purchase Harvard Business School Press books at booksellers worldwide. You can order Harvard Business School Press books and book chapters online at, or by calling 888-500-1016 or, outside the U.S. and Canada, 617-783-7410.

This document is authorized for use only by Pei Ying Chua in Strategic Management Spring 2015x taught by Bowman, at Harvard University from January 2015 to June 2015.

For the exclusive use of P. Chua, 2015.

chapter fifteen


a p p ly i ng t he ba la n c e d sc o r e c a r d to nonprofit organizations has been one of the most gratifying extensions of the original concept. These organizations strive to deliver mission outcomes, not superior financial performance. So even more than for-profit companies, these organizations need a comprehensive system of nonfinancial and financial measures to motivate and evaluate their performance.

The Boston Lyric Opera (BLO) strategy map demonstrates how organizational performance can be measured even when the output is as intangible as beautiful music and an aesthetic experience. The BLO adopted the Balanced Scorecard after a period of rapid growth and success so that it could have a clear strategy for the future that would be easily understood and supported by its staff, board of directors, and artistic directors. The BLO strategy map represents desired outcomes and performance drivers for its three core constituents—loyal and generous donors, the national and international opera community, and Bostonarea residents. The strategy map has led to mission-related initiatives bubbling up from frontline employees, better alignment of management and board processes, and support for a major community opera event in Boston.

Teach for America (TFA) recruits a national teacher corps drawn from talented, highly motivated graduating college seniors who commit two years to teach in urban and rural public schools. TFA developed its

This document is authorized for use only by Pei Ying Chua in Strategic Management Spring 2015x taught by Bowman, at Harvard University from January 2015 to June 2015.

For the exclusive use of P. Chua, 2015.


the case files

strategy map to represent the objectives and drivers for its two core themes for social change by corps members. First, corps members would enhance the educational experience of existing students through their two-year teaching positions. Second, they would influence future and fundamental educational reform through subsequent career decisions and voluntary participation activities. TFA has used its strategy map to engage a new generation of funders in its mission, to align recruiting for its teaching corps, staff, and board members, and to focus more intensively on activities that support alumni initiatives.

The Boston Lyric Opera (BLO) features world-class emerging singers, conductors, directors, and designers. Its mission is to produce high-quality professional opera productions, develop future opera talent, and promote opera appreciation through educational and community outreach. This threepronged mission statement was enough to sustain the BLO through its early growth. Between 1995 and 2000, subscribers more than doubled, and the number of performances increased by 50 percent, making it the fastest-growing opera company in North America.

The Situation
In 2000, the company faced the challenge of what it should become. Even with the higher audience base, revenues from ticket sales remained less than 40 percent of operating expenses. The BLO needed to convert more subscribers to donors and attract significant funding from its supporters. A key board member felt that the BLO’s kitchen cabinet-style governance structure was no longer sufficient and that a formal strat...

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