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16 Sg Essay

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Ch. 16 Study Guide

Sovereign - When something possesses a monopoly over the instruments of justice and the use of force within a clearly defined boundary. No system of courts, such as ecclesiastical tribunals, competes with state courts in the dispensation of justice, and private armies, such as those of feudal lords, present no threat to royal authority because the state’s army is stronger. Totalitarianism – Culture such as art, economy, politics, education, and religion are in the interests of the state. Totalitarian rule is total regulation. Absolute monarch power was limited. Absolutism – In an absolutist state, the king claim rule by divine right, and have absolute power. The kings made law. Sovereignty was embodied in the king. Mercantilism – Collection of governmental policies for the regulation of economic activities, especially commercial activities, by and for the state. Colbert believes in more than a favorable balance of trade – sell abroad and buy nothing back (France should be self – sufficient). Republicanism – Republican government installed in England known as the Commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell. Theoretically, power rested in Parliament and a council of state. However, Cromwell ruled as a virtual dictator – The Protectorate. Constitutionalism – Limitation of government by law. Implies a balance between the authority and power of the government, and the rights and liberties of the subjects. Cabinet government – Leading ministers, who must have seats in and support of a majority of the House of Commons, formulate common policies and conduct the business of the country (Established in England, after Glorious Revolution) French Classicism – Art and literature of the age of Louis XIV. Work resembled Renaissance Italy, and that French art possessed the classical qualities of discipline, balance, and restraint. Official style of Louis XIV’s court. Quixotic – “Idealistic but impractical”. Characterizes 17th century Spain. Commonwealth – England, when Oliver Cromwell (The Protectorate) ruled. Republican government, but Oliver Cromwell was a dictator. England was divided into twelve military districts, each governed by a major general. The French intendants – Controlled France’s entire civil administration. Gave attention to settlement and economic development, and to the administration of justice. Sully – Chief Minister of Henry IV. Revived trade which increased France’s revenue. Subsidized the Company for Trade with the Indies. Sully and Henry IV restored public order in France and laid the foundations for economic prosperity. Paulette- Annual fee paid by royal officials to guarantee heredity in their offices. Made in compensation for the lost revenues by Henry IV. Cardinal Richelieu – Used strong influence over King Louis XIII& to exalt the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state. Policy was the total subordination of all groups and institutions to the French monarchy. Richelieu recognizing nobility as a threat, so he eliminated potential power brokers by shuffling the royal council. Extended the use of royal commissioners called intendants, someone who performed specific tasks in each of France’s thirty – two districts. Richelieu’s generalites – Richelieu utilized intendants, which transported messages from France’s thirty two districts to Paris and back. Intendants basically watched over each district, recruiting men for the army, supervising taxes, presiding over the administration for local law, checked up on nobility, and regulated economic activities. The French Academy – Founded by Cardinal Richelieu in 1635. Members were fixed at forty to discuss literary subjects. Louis XIV of France – In the reign of Louis XIV, the French monarchy had reached the peak of its absolutist development. Greatest innovation was the “complete domestication of the French nobility”. Through mutual collaboration, the nobility and the king achieved goals that could only be achieved through cooperation. Louis built a professional army that was considered modern. He reached the peak of territorial expansion, to the point where wars did not win any new land. Installed a royal court at Versailles to lessen the threat of the nobility toward his power. Relied on mercantilism for the prosperity of France’s economy. Revoked the Edict of Nantes to get rid of the Huguenots, uniting France while taking a great blow to the French economy. Versailles – Louis XIV installed royal courts at Versailles full of games and partying for the nobility. He noticed that the nobility was a threat to his own power, so he put the nobles in Versailles, soon being addicted to everything happening there that they would not have time to “take power” from the King. Moliere/Racine – Playwright, stage manager, director, and actor. Moliere produced comedies that exposed hypocrisies and follies of society through brilliant caricature. Poussin – Great artist during 17th century France. Said to be a foun...

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