Essays /

Can We Leave The Past Behind Essay

Essay preview

Queen Mary’s University of London
Jane Anghelatos                                                      Words 2863 Can we ever leave the past behind?
Firstly I shall briefly discuss Erik Erikson’s life stage theory. Secondly this essay shall look at Object relation theory and discuss the work of Melanie Klein. Following on I shall discuss the power of the past and the effect it has on the presence. I shall conclude by deciding whether we can leave the past behind us or not. Erik Erikson described development that occurs throughout the entire human life span. He described stages of psychosocial development. Erikson split a human life span into 8 different stages. From infancy to birth the basic conflict is between trust and mistrust. The important event at this stage is feeding. Children learn to trust their carer. If a lack of trust is felt then this obviously leads to mistrust. Between the ages of 2-3 autonomy and shame or doubt are in conflict. Toilet training is a very important time here and personal control and independence is developing. Success leads to feelings of independence and failure leads to feelings of shame and doubt. Between the ages of 3 and 5 children begin to explore and discover. Children take control in their own environment finding their own sense of purpose. If they fail to do this they feel disapproval leading to guilt. From the age of 6-11 school is an important factor in the child’s life. New social and academic demands are placed on the child. If successful they feel competent and if they do not feel that they have achieved at this then they feel inferior. From the ages of 12-18 the child is creeping towards the most impressionable time in their life. Personal identity is being discovered here and social relationships are a dominating factor. A child can either stay true to oneself, be who they want to be or be intimidated leaving them feeling confused and of a weak character. Relationships again are of great importance between the ages of 19-40. Young adults need to form intimate relationships. Relationships can either be strong and successful or young adults can be left feeling lonely and isolated. By the ages of 40-65 adults need to have had children or created something positive that benefits others. If fulfilled adults feel worthwhile and complete yet if not achieved adults may feel pointless in the world. At the maturity age, 65 yrs old until death, adults reflect on life. They look back on life and feel that they have achieved. They have used their knowledge and experience to make good judgements and decisions throughout their lives. If they have not achieved they will pass away feeling bitter and full of regret. Erikson’s stage theory helps us to locate where a client is psychologically and how their presenting issue might be related to the different ages. Erikson believed if one stage was successfully developed then the child could move on to the next stage. Erikson said completing one stage and moving on to the next gave the child both physical and emotional confidence. If all stages are completed then a healthy, stable, mature adult will grow. The first line of thought relating to Object Relations Theory emerged in 1917 with Ferenczi and Rank. Melanie Klein amongst others continued the study of this the...

Read more


-11 -18 -3 -40 -65 12 19 1917 1940s 1950s 1st 2 2863 3 40 5 6 62 65 8 abil abl abus academ accept accord achiev acquir act activ adult adulthood affect age aggress agre alcohol allow along also alway ambigu amongst analyt anger anghelato anoth answer anxieti anxious anyon area aris attempt attend author autonom autonomi away b babi back bad basic be becam becom begin behav behaviour behind believ benefit better birth bitter block breast briefli built buri busi call cannot carer caus certain chang charact characterist cherish child childhood children chubbi clarifi class clear client close club combin come commit compet complet complic concentr concept concern conclud confid conflict confus conscious consequ consid constant continu contradictori control could creat creep daughter deal death decid decis deep defeat defenc defend demand denial dentist depress describ destroy determin develop deviat didn diet differ differenti difficult disapprov discov discuss doesn domin doubt dress drive drug due earli eat effect ego either elabor elimin emerg emot employ empti end enough entir environ erik erikson essay etc even event ever everyth evid exampl exercis exist expect experi experienc explain explor express extent face fact factor fad fade fail failur fairbairn famili fat father fatti fay fear feed feeder feel felt ferenczi figur file find first fix follow forev forget forgotten form forward foundat freud friend frighten frustrat fulfil full fulli function futur gain gave gene genet get give go good great greater grey grow growth guardian guilt guilti gym happen harm harmoni he/she healthi hear help his/her histori hold hostil hous housework howev huge human i.e idea idealis ident ill imag immedi import impression impuls includ independ individu infanc infant inferior influenc inherit innat instinct intens interact interest interfer intermingl intern internalis intim intimid introduc introject investig isn isol issu jane jibe join journey judgement key klein know knowledg lack laid latch later lead learn learnt leav left let life light like line link live locat londo3s london lone longer look lose loss love made make manag mani mari mate matur may mean melani memori mental mess might milk mine misinterpret mistak mistrust moment mother move much mum must name natur need negat neglect nervous never new next nippl nois normal notic number nurtur object obsess obvious occur often old older one oneself oral origin other outcom over overcom overweight overwhelm pain paramount paranoid paranoid-schizoid parent part particular partner pass past pattern peopl perhap person perspect pet petrifi phantasi phase photo physic place play player pointless posit power preconcept predict presenc present primari prior problem progress project prone protect proud provid provok psycholog psychosoci public purpos quarter queen question rank rather react real realis realiti refer reflect regress regret relat relationship relev remain rememb remind renegoti reoccur repar repeat repetit repress reshap resist resolut resolv respons revel reveng revisit reward role root ruin safe said satisfact saw say schizoid school second section see seek seen self self-analyt self-def self-harm sens separ set sexual shall shame shape share shift show simultan sit slim smell social sole someth soon sooth span spend split stabl stage start stay still stop store strengthen stress strong structur struggl stuck studi subconsci subject success suffer suicid suppress sweet sympathi take talk taunt teenag term test theori therapi therapist therefor thing think thought throughout time titl today toilet toler toward toy train trainer trait trauma traumat treat treatment tri trigger troublesom true truer trust turn two unchang unconsci understand unexpect unfinish unhappi unhealthi univers unresolv unwork upon us use ve visitor want watch way weak wealthi wed weight well wheaton whether whole wish word work world worthwhil would year yet young yrs