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Canada Essay

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Basic Information:
- Area:
Total: 9,984,670 km2 (2nd)
Water (%) 8.92 (891,163 km2 / 344,080 mi2)
Canada is a country in North America consisting of 10 provinces and 3 territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area with 9.98 million square kilometers in total, and its common border with the United States is the world's longest land border shared by the same two countries. The land that is now Canada has been inhabited for millennia by various Aboriginal peoples. Beginning in the late 15th century, British and French colonial expeditions explored, and later settled, the region's Atlantic coast. France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America to the United Kingdom in 1763 after the French and Indian War: the Seven Years' War's theatre of war in North America. Thirteen of Britain's North American colonies subsequently revolted (the American Revolutionary War), modern Canada largely consists of the territory that was retained by Britain following the peace settlement in 1783. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, the territory was explored and additional self-governing Crown colonies were established. On July 1, 1867, three colonies were federated, forming a federal dominion that established Canada under the British North America Act of 1867. Canada is a federal parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries, with a population of approximately 35 million as of December 2012. Its advanced economy is one of the largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed trade networks. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a developed country and one of the wealthiest in the world, with the eighth highest per capita income globally, and the eleventh highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of education, government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, and economic freedom. Canada is a recognized middle power and a member of G7, G8, G10, G20, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, NATO, North American Free Trade Agreement, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Uniting for Consensus, Commonwealth of Nations, Francophone, Organization of American States, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the United Nations. - UTC ( Universal Time): -3.5 to -8

- Flag: A vertical bicolor triband of red, white, and red in the ratio 1:2:1, with a red maple leaf charged in the centre. The maple leaf has served as a symbol celebrating the nature and environment of what is now Canada Many different flags have been created for use by Canadian officials, government bodies, and military forces. Most of these flags contain the maple leaf motif in some fashion, either by having the Canadian flag charged in the canton, or by including maple leaves in the design. The Royal Union Flag is also an official flag in Canada.

- Political system:
Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy, the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II and the Queen's representative, the Governor General of Canada carries out most of the federal royal duties in Canada. In practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons and chosen and headed by the Prime Minister of Canada (at present Stephen Harper), the head of government. - Economy:

The Bank of Canada is the central bank of the country and governed by Stephen Poloz. In addition, the Minister of Finance and Ministry of Industry utilize the Statistics Canada system for financial planning. The Toronto Stock Exchange is the seventh largest exchange in the world having 1,577 companies listed in 2012. Canada is the world's eleventh-largest economy, with a 2012 nominal GDP of approximately US$1.82 trillion. It is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the G8, and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy. Canada is a mixed economy, ranking above the US and most western European nations on the Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom, and experiencing a relatively low level of income disparity. In 2008, Canada's imported goods were worth over $442.9 billion, of which $280.8 billion originated from the United States, $11.7 billion from Japan, and $11.3 billion from the United Kingdom. The country's 2009 trade deficit totalled C$4.8 billion, compared with a C$46.9 billion surplus in 2008. Since the early 20th century, the growth of Canada's manufacturin...

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