Area: 9,984,670 km²
Language(s): English (official), French (official), Chinese, Italian, German, Punjabi, Ukrainian, Arabic, Dutch, Tagalog, Greek, Vietnamese, Native languages. Religion(s): Roman Catholic - 42.6%, Protestant - 23.3%, other Christian - 4.4%, Muslim - 1.9%, others - 11.8%, none - 16%. Ethnic Group(s): British Isles origin- 28%, French - 23, other European - 15%, Aboriginal - 2%, other (including Asian, African and Arab) - 6%, mixed background - 26%.
In its broadest sense, Canadian culture is a mixture of British, French, and American influences, all of which mixed in. From film making and writing to cooking and playing sports. Other peoples have added distinctive elements, to this mixture: for example, Canada’s large foreign-born population is evident in the splendid, and varied restaurants (notably South Asian) that line Toronto’s Yonge Street, Vancouver’s Chinese community has given that city a tradition of folk opera and puppetry that rival those found in China, Italian is widely spoken in the coffeehouses of Montreal, and Canada’s indigenous peoples are finding a growing voice through a broad range of fine and folk arts. In 1971, 20 years after the release of the Massey Report, Canada adopted multiculturalism as official national policy, and the federal government now gives support to various ethnic groups and assistance to help individuals participate fully in Canadian society. Since the mid-20th century, economic growth has provided Canadians with greater means for practicing and enjoying the arts. Most provincial governments provide some form of financial assistance for the arts and for cultural organizations within their borders, and many have advisory and funding councils for the arts. At the national level 2(Hall, "Cultural life", 2014 )
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Social factors
Age category gender and heredity are critical factors that determine health. The choices we also make the matter, but these decisions are influenced by environments, experiences, cultures and other factors (the determinants of health). Moreover, for some, even when the best choices known are made, their health outcomes are limited by these other factors. Economic and social drivers such as income, education and social connectedness, have a direct bearing on health, These socio-economic determinants strongly interact, to influence health and, in general, an improvement in any of these can produce an improvement in both health behaviours and outcomes among individuals and/or groups. Those with very low incomes, for example, often lack resources and access to nutritious food, adequate housing, safe walking paths and working conditions, which can impact negatively on their health. As well, they may face financial and life stress, which – over time – can have health consequences such as high blood pressure, or immune and circulatory complications. On the other hand, those who have adequate income and employment are likely to experience health outcomes that are less dependent on material needs but are nonetheless affected by the demands they face at home and at work and the degree to which they have control and decision-making influence in those settings. Generally, the degree to which people feel they have control over their circumstances is related to how healthy they are. Increased exposure to stress, as well as a lack of resources, skills, social support and connection to the community can contribute to less healthy coping skills and poorer health behaviours such as smoking, over-consumption of alcohol and less healthy eating habits. The structure of society also influences health through the distribution of public goods and resources. In fact, the extent to which these are equally shared across the population has been shown to influence the health of the population.2 Social support, social networking and connection to culture can protect against the health effects of living in disadvantaged circumstances. As well, having a good start in life can help set the trajectory for a healthier life. Research now shows that many challenges for adults (e.g. mental health issues, obesity, heart disease, criminality, low literacy) have roots in early childhood. Providing children with environments that are stimulating, supportive and include positive parental involvement – particularly during the first six years of life – can influence health (e.g. by mitigating poor health outcomes in later life). The following socio-economic determinants of health will be discussed in further detail in this chapter. The order of this discussion reflects the importance of the broader economic and social context for health behaviours, access to health care and ultimately the health of the population. The determinants include:
employment and w...