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Canada S Subjugation Of The Plains Cree Essay

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JOHN L. TOBIAS

Canada's
Subjugation
of
thePlains Cree,ß879- 885

ONE THEMOST
OF
PERSISTENT
MYTHS Canadian
that
historians
perpetuate
is that of the honourableand just policyCanadafollowedin dealing with the PlainsIndians.Firstenunciated the Canadianexpansionist in
literature of the 187os as a means to emphasizethe distinctive Canadian
approach and the uniquecharacter theCanadian
to
of
west,
1
it hasbeengivencredence G.F.G. Stanleyin hisclassic Birthof
by
The
Western
Canada, and by all those who use Stanley's

work as the

standard
interpretation Canada's
of
relationship the Plains
with
Indians
in the period 187o-85. Thus students taughtthat the Canadian are
government paternalistic far-sighted offeringthe Indiansa
was
and
in
meansto becomecivilizedand assimilated
into white society the
by
reservesystem,and honest and fair-minded in honouring legal
commitments
made in the treaties. The PlainsIndians, and particu•
larlythe Plains
Cree,are saidto be a primitivepeople
adhering an
to
inflexible
system traditionandcustom,
of
seeking protect
to
themselves
against advance civilization, takingup armsin rejection
the
of
and
of
the reservesystem
and an agricultural
way of life.4 This traditional
Doug Owram, Promise Eden:TheCanadian
of
Expansionist
Movement the
and Ideaofthe
West,
•856-•9oo (Toronto •98o), •3•-4
G.F.G. Stanley,TheBirth of Western
Canada: History theRiel Rebellions
A
of
(Toronto
•96o)
Ibid., 2o6-• 5
Ibid., vii-viii, • 96, 2• 6-36. It shouldbe notedthat the traditionalinterpretation of a Cree rebellionin association the Metis hasbeenchallenged R. Allen, with
by

'Big Bear,' Saskatchewan
History,
xxv (•972); W.B. Fraser,'Big Bear, Indian
Patriot,'Alberta
Historical
Review, 0966), •-• 3; Rudy Wiebe in his fictional
x•v
biography, TemptationsBigBear(Toronto •973) and in hisbiography Big The
of
of
Bear in the Dictionary Canadian
of
Biography
[r•cB],x•, •88•-9o (Toronto •982),

597-6o •; andNormaSluman,
Poundmaker
(Toronto• 967).However,
noneof these
Canadian
Historical
Review,
Lx•v, 4, • 983

ooo83755/83• 2oo-o • 9 $o•. 25/o¸ University TorontoPress /
5
of

520 THE

CANADIAN

HISTORICAL

REVIEW

interpretationdistortsthe roles of both the Cree and the Canadian government, the Cree were both flexibleand activein promoting for
their own interests,
and willing to accommodate
themselves a new
to
wayof life, whilethe Canadiangovernment neitherasfar-sighted was
nor asjust as tradition maintains.Canada'sprincipalconcernin its relationship
with the PlainsCree wasto establish
controlover them,
and Canadianauthorities
were willing to and did wagewar upon the
Cree in order

to achieve this control.

Thosewho propagatethe myth would haveusbelievethat Canada
beganto negotiate
treaties
with the Indiansof theWestin • 871 aspart
of an overall plan to developthe agriculturalpotentialof the West, opentheland for railwayconstruction, bindtheprairies Canada
and
to
in a networkof commercial
and economic
ties.Althoughthere is an
element of truth to these statements,
the fact remainsthat in •87•
Canada
hadno planon howto dealwiththe Indians
andthenegotiation
of treaties
wasnot at the initiativeof the Canadiangovernment, at
but
the insistence the OjibwaIndiansof the North-WestAngleand the of
Saulteauxof the tiny provinceof Manitoba.What is ignoredby the traditionalinterpretationis that the treaty process
only startedafter
YellowQuill'sbandof Saulteaux
turned backsettlers
whotried to go
westof Portagela Prairie, and after other Saulteaux
leadersinsisted
uponenforcement the SelkirkTreaty or, moreoften,insisted
of
upon
makinga new treaty. Alsoignoredis the fact that the Ojibwaof the North-West Angle demandedrents, and createdthe fear of violence against
prospective
settlers
whocrossed
their landor madeuseof their
territory, if Ojibwa rights to their landswere not recognized. This
pressure
and fear of resulting
violence whatmotivated governis
the
ment to begin the treaty-making
process.
5
Canada's
initialoffer to the Saulteaux OjibwaIndiansconsisted
and
onlyof reserves a small
and
cash
annuity.
Thisproposal rejected
was
by
the Ojibwain •87 • and againin • 872, while the Saulteaux demanded,
much to Treaty Commissioner
WemyssSimpson's
chagrin,farm
animals,
horses,
wagons,
and farm toolsand equipment.
Simpson
did
not include these demandsin the written treaty, for he had no authority to do so, but he wrote them down in the form of a
memorandumthat he entitled 'outsidepromises'
and whichhe failed
to sendto Ottawa.Thus, the originalTreaties • and 2 did not include thoseitemsthe Saulteaux
saidhad to be part of a treatybeforethey
authorsdealswith Canada's
Indian policy,and noneexamines
whatthe Cree
were doing in the period • 876-85.
5 AlexanderMorris, TheTreaties Canada
of
withthe
Indians Manitoba the
of
and
North-West
Territories
(Toronto • 88o), 37; PublicArchivesof Manitoba,AdamsG.
ArchibaldPapers
(hereaftercitedas•,^MArchibaldPapers,
letters)

CANADA'S SUBJUGATION OF THE PLAINS CREE 521

wouldagreeto surrendertheir lands.Only in •874, after the Indian leadersof Manitobabecameirate over non-receiptof the goodsthat Simpson promised
had
them,wasan inquirylaunched,
and Simpson's
listof 'outsidepromises'
discovered
and incorporated renegotiated
in

treaties 1875 It wasonly in 1873, after the Ojibwaof the
in
.6
North-West Angle had twice refused treaties that only included reservesand annuities,that the governmentagreed to include the domesticanimals, farm tools, and equipment that the Ojibwa demanded.After this experienceCanadamade suchgoodsa standard part of later treaties.

7
Justasit waspressure
from the Indiansof Manitobathat forcedthe
government Canadato initiatethe treaty process, waspressure
of
it
from the Plains Cree in the period 187•'- that compelled the 5
government Canadato continue process the Indiansof the
of
the
with
Qu'Appelleand Saskatchewan
districts.
The PlainsCree had interfered with the geological
surveyand preventedthe construction
of
telegraphlinesthroughtheir territory to emphasize
that Canadahad

to dealwiththe Creefor Creelands. The Creehadlearned 187o
8
in
about Canada'sclaim to their lands, and not wanting to experience what had happenedto the Indians in the United Stateswhen those peoplewere facedwith an expansionist
government, Cree made
the
clear that they would not allow settlement useof their landsuntil or
Creerightshadbeenclearly
recognized.
They alsomadeclearthatpart
of anyarrangement Creelandshad to involve
for
assistance theCree
to
in developing new agricultural
a
wayof life?
6 PublicArchives Canada,RecordGroup • o Indian Affairs Files, of
vol. 357•, file
•'4-2, alsovol. 36o3, file 2o36 (hereafercited asP^c,•tc;•o, vol. file). Seealso Morris, Treaties Canada,
of
25-43 and • 26-7, for a printed account the
of
negotiations the textsof the originaland renegotiated
and
treaties, 3 •3-2o,
pp
338-42. Two articles JohnTaylor, 'Canada's
by
Northwest
Indian Policy the
in
•87o's:TraditionalPremises Necessary
and
Innovations' 'Two Viewson the
and
Meaningof TreatiesSix and Seven' TheSpiritofAlberta
in
IndianTreaties
(Montreal• 98o), 3-7 and 9-45 respectively,
providea goodaccount the Indian
of
contribution

and attitude

towards the treaties.

7 Morris, Treaties Canada,
of
44-76; on pp • 2o- 3 Morris demonstrates he had to
how
makeTreaty 3 the modelfor the Qu'AppelleTreaty to get the Saulteaux and
Creeof the Qu'Appelle
Riverregionto accept
whathe originally
offeredthem.
CompareTreaties•-6 to seewhatthe government forcedto concede. was
Also
seeTaylor's'Traditional Premises' Indian contributions the negotiation for
to
process.

8 Pt, •tc •o, vol.3586,file • •37, Lieutenant-Governor c,
Morristo Secretary
of
Statefor the provinces, Sept.•872; P^c,•tc •o, vol.3576, file 378 entirefile; vol. •3
36o9, file 3229; vol. 36o4, file 2543; vol. 3636, 6694-•
9 v^c,•tg •o, vol. 36•2, file 4o•2, entirefile; v^MArchibaldPapers, WJ. Christie
to
GeorgeW. Hill, 26 Apr. • 87•; Archibaldto Secretary Statefor the Provinces, of
5_
Jan. •872; also
letters note•; WilliamFrancis
in
Butler,. Great
The
Lone
Land

522 THE

CANADIAN

HISTORICAL

REVIEW

In adopting position, Creeweresimply
this
the
demonstrating
a skill
thattheyhadshown
since
theirinitialcontact
withEuropeans x67o.
in
On numerous
occasions
duringthefur tradeera,theyhadadapted
to
changed
environmental economic
and
circumstances,
beginning
first
ashunters,
thenasprovisioners middlemen the Hudson's
and
in
Bay
Company
tradingsystem, finallyadapting
and
from a woodland
to
parkland-prairie
buffalohunting
culture retaintheirindependence
to
and their desiredties with the fur trade.•ø Having accommodated themselves the Plains
to
Indian cultureafter x8oo,theyexpanded
into
territoryformerlycontrolled the Atsina,
by
and asthe buffaloherds
began to declineafter x85o, the Cree expandedinto Blackfoot
territory. Expansion

was one response the threat posedby
to
declining
buffaloherds;anotherwasthat somePlains
Cree bands
beganto turn to agriculture. Thus, whenthe Cree learnedthat
•2
Canadaclaimedtheir lands, part of the arrangement
they were
(Rutland,v•r •97o), 36o-2,368; v^c, Manuscript
Group 26A,JohnA. Macdonald
Papers,
vol. •o4, entirevolume(hereaftercitedasP^c,Mg 26^,letters),P^M, Archibald
Papers,
Joseph
Howeto Archibald,
3oJune• 872;•^•, Alexander
Morris
Papers, Governor's
Lt
Collection,
Morristo Ministerof the Interior 7 July • 873
(hereaftercitedas•^•, Morris Papers,
letter);v^c,Rg •o, vol. 3625, file 5366,
Morris to Ministerof the Interior, David Laird, 22 July and 4 August•875; Rg •o vol. 3624, file 5 • 52, ColonelFrench,Commissioner the NW•Vto the Minister of
of Justice, and •9 August•875; Morris,•7o-•, •g •o, vol.36•2, file4o•2, entire 6
file; AdamsG. ArchibaldPapers,
Petitionof James
Seenum Archibald, Jan.
to
9
•87•, and attached
lettersof Kehewin,Little Hunter, and Kiskion;
Archibald
to
Secretary Statefor the provinces, Jan. • 872
of
5
Two excellent
studies the Cree in the pre-• 87o era are thoseby Arthur J. Ray, of
Indians the
in Fur Trade.'
TheirRoleasHunters,
Trappers, Middlemen the
and
in Lands
Southwest
ofHudson •66o-•87o (Toronto•974), andDavidG. Mandelbaum, Bay
ThePlainsCree,
xxxvII, Part II of Anthropological
Papers the AmericanMuseum
of
of Natural History(New York • 94o).
Ibid. An excellent
studyof the Creeexpansion the unpublished thesis John
is
•^
by
S. Milloy,'The Plains
Cree:A Preliminary
Trade andMilitaryChronology,
• 67o-• 87o' (CarletonUniversity• 972); alsoHenryJohnMoberlyand WilliamB. Cameron,When
Fur WasKing (Toronto • 929), 2o8- • 2, describes
part of the last
phase thismovement.
of
The shrinking
rangeof buffaloandhowthe Creereacted
are alsodiscussed Frank Gilbert Roe, TheNorthAmerican
in
Buffalo: Critical
A
Study
of theSpecies Its Wild State
in
(Toronto •95•), 282-333.
Henry YouleHind, Narrative theCanadian River
of
Red
Exploring
Expedition
of
ß857 andof the
Assiniboine Saskatchewan
and
Exploring
Expedition ß858 (Edmonton
of
• 97 •), vol. I, p. 334; Irene Spry, ThePalli•erExpedition: Account John An
of
Palliser's
British
NorthAmerican
Expedition,857-• 86o (London • 964), 59-6o;

Viscount
Milton and W.B. Cheadle,The
Northwest
Passage Land,Being Narrative
by
the
ofanExpedition the
from Atlantic the
to Pacific
(Toronto • 97o),66-7; Edwin
Thompson
Perry,FiveIndianTribes theUpper
of
Missouri:
Sioux,
Arickaras,
Assiniboine,
Crees,
Crow(Norman, oI• •969), 99-•37; J. Hines, TheRedIndiansof thePlains: ThirtyYears'
Missionary
Experience Saskatchewan
in
(Toronto • 9 • 6), 78-8o, 88- 9 •

CANADA'S SUBJUGATION OF THE PLAINS CREE 523

determined makeandsucceeded making to receive
to
in
was
assistance
in adaptingto an agricultural
wayof life. So successful theyin
were
negotiatingsuch assistance
that when the Mackenziegovernment
received copyof Treaty 6 in 1876it accepted treatyonlyafter
a
the
expressing protest
a
concerning too-generous
the
termsgrantedto the
Cree. • 3

While willingto explorethe alternative agriculture,
of
three Cree
leaders the 187os
in
sought
means guarantee
to
preservation the
of
buffalo-hunting
culture as long as possible.
Piapot (leader of the
Cree-Assiniboinetheregion
of
south theQu'Appelle
of
River),
andBig
BearandLittlePine(leaders twoof thelargest
of
Creebands
from the
SaskatchewanRiver district) led what has been called an armed

migrationof the Cree into the Cypress
Hills in the latter 186os.All
threemen werenotedwarriors,
and Big Bearand Piapotwerenoted
religious
leaders, their prowess not enough prevent Cree
but
was
to
a
defeatat the Battleof the BellyRiver in 187o, and asa resultthey •4
exploredthe alternative dealingwith the government Canada,
of
of
but in a manner to extractguarantees the preservation Cree
for
of
autonomy.
They weredetermined getthegovernment promise
to
to
to
limitthebuffalohunt to the Indians- a goalthatCreeleaders been had
advocating
since the 185os. When Big Bear met with Treaty
'5
Commissioner
AlexanderMorris at Fort Pitt in September
1876,he
extracteda promisefrom Morris that non-Indian hunting of the

buffalo
would regulated.'6
be
Big Bear refusedto take treatyin 1876,despite
receiving
Morris's
assurances
aboutthe regulationof the hunt. Little Pineand Piapotalso
did not taketreatywhenthe treatycommissions cameto dealwith
first
•3 Morris,Treaties Canada,
of
77-•23 and •68-239, discusses negotiations
the
of
Treaties and6 withtheCreeandhowhe was
4
forcedto modifyhisoffer.Also
described is the Cree concern about their land. The reaction of the Mackenzie

government detailed •,^c,Ro •o, vol.3636,file 6694-2andin particular, is
in
Minister the InteriorReportto PrivyCouncil, • Jan. •877 andorder-in-council, of
3
•o Feb. •877.

•4 Milloy,'The Plains
Cree'25o-62; Alexander
Johnson, Battle Belly
The
at
River:
Stories the
of LastGreat
IndianBattle(Lethbridge• 966)
•5 HenryYouleHind, vol. •, pp 334, 36ø-•, carries
reports Mistickoos Short
of
or
Stick's comments on a cot•ncil of Cree leaders that resolved to limit white and

Metis
hunting
privileges.
Viscount
MiltonandW.B.Cheadle, Northwest
The
Passage
by
Land,
Being Narrative anExpedition the
the
of
from Atlantic the
to Pacific, 67,
66,
contains comments on the Cree determination

to limit non-Indian

involvement in

the hunt. •'^M,E. AdamsArchibald
Papers,
letter#2oo, Macdonald Archibald,
to
14 Feb. 1871;letter#•7 o, English
halfbreeds Archibald,•oJan. •87•, all stress
to
that Creewere takingactionto limit non-Indianinvolvement the buffalo in
hunt.

•6 Morris, Treaties Canada,
of
24•

524

THE

CANADIAN

HISTORICAL

REVIEW

the Cree. Oral tradition among the Cree maintainsthat all three leaderswishedto see how faithful the government
would be in
honouring treaties,7butequally
the

important allthreeleaders
for
was
their belief that the treaties
were inadequate
and that revisions
were
necessary.
Piapot
thought
Treaty4 (theQu'Appelle
Treaty)needed
to
be expanded includeincreased
to
farm equipment
and tools,
and to
stipulate
that the government
had to providemills,blacksmith
and
carpentry
shops
and tools,
and instructors farmingand the trades.
in
Only after receivingassurances
that Ottawa would considerthese

requests Piapot
did
taketreaty •875 Big BearandLittlePine
in
.•s
objectedto Treaty 6 (Fort Pitt and Carlton) because
Commissioner

Morris
hadmade
clear
thatin taking
treaty Creewould bound
the
be
by
Canadian
law.To accept treaties
the
wouldmeanbeingsubject an
to
external
authority whichthe Crees
of
hadlittleknowledge upon
and
whichtheyhadlittleinfluence.
NeitherBigBearnor LittlePinewould
countenance
sucha loss autonomy.
of
BigBearhadraised matterof Creeautonomy FortPittin • 876
the
at
whenhe met Commissioner
Morris.At thattimeBig Bearsaid: will
'I
makea requestthat he [Morris]save from what I mostdread,thatis me

theropeaboutmyneck... It was given usto havetheropeabout
not
to
our neck. Morrisand mostsubsequent
'•9
historians
haveinterpreted
BigBear's
statements bea specific
to
reference hanging, such
to
but
an
interpretation
ignores factthatBigBear,likemost
the
Indianleaders,
oftenuseda metaphorto emphasize point.In • 875, he hadmadethe a
same
pointbyusing different
a
metaphor
whenhespoke messengers
to
informinghim that a treatycommission to meetwith the Cree in was
•876. At that time Big Bear said: 'We want none of the Queen's presents:
whenwe seta foxtrapwe scatter
pieces meatall around,
of
butwhenthe fox gets
into the trapwe knockhim on thehead;wewant
no bait ...,20 more accurate
A
interpretation Big Bear's
of
wordsto
Morrisin • 876isthathefearedbeing
controlled 'enslaved,'justan
or
as
animal controlled
is
whenit has ropearound neck. In • 877,when
a
its
2•
•7 Interview
withWalterGordon,
Director theIndianRights Treaties
of
and
Program,Federation Saskatchewan
of
Indians,
Mar. • 974.Poundmaker
made similar
a
statement aninterview
in
quoted 'Indian
in
Affairs,'
Saskatchewan • Aug.
Herald,
• 88o.The importance Big Bear,Piapot,
of
and LittlePinecannot underestibe
mated, of those
for
Cree
chiefs took
who
treaty
only
Sweetgrass thestanding
had
of
these
men, Sweetgrass within fewmonths taking
and
died
a
of
treaty.
•8 Morris, Treaties Canada,
...

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asjust askedth ason asp aspart assail assault assembl assert assess assimil assiniboin assiniboinetheregion assist associ assum assur assurecanadiancontrol asth asthey aswil atlant atpoundmak atsina attach attack attackth attempt attemptedto attemptingto attemptto attend attendingpiapot attendingth attentionon attitud attributedto aug august author authoritiesdid authorityof authorityposedbi authorsdealswith autonomi autonomyif avoid awar awareof awarethat b back backon backsettl backto bait ballendin ballendinealsodevelop ballendinebelievedthat ballendinecould ballendinewon band bandsand bandsdewdneyhad bandsfrom bandsleft bandssettl bandssouthto bandwa bargain barney base basi batoch battl battleford battleford.a battleford.alsomuch battleford.fear battleford1929 battlefordand battlefordareaif battlefordcreewerepreparingtheir battleforddistrict battlefordenlist battlefordto battlefordwithoutencount battleof bay baycompanypractic bea bear bear.however bearand bearandlittlepin beardi beardyalsolostcontrolof beardyand beardywasa bearrefus bearsaid bearthen bearwa bearwasagaintold bearwentto becam becauseh becauseso becomecivilizedand beennew beenrelativelyinact befoundin began beganto begg beggto begin begunth behav behaviour beingchalleng beingfulfil beingheldon belief believ believedthat believingthat belli bellyriv benefici benefit benton best better betterrecord betweenpitt betweenth big bigbear bigbearhadrais bigbearris bindtheprairi bingman biographi birthof blackfoot blackfootand blackfootsupport blacksmith blame blind blood bothh bound break breakthetreati breakup bresaylor bring bringth bringthecreeund bringthem british broad broke broken brought broughta buck buffalo buffalo-hunt buffaloandhowth buffaloherd buffalohunt buffalolak bull bulletin butalso butler butwhenbig butwhenth c c.g c4 calgari call cameron cameto cametoward camp camp.this campand campani campat campwasimminent.the canada canada.mostcree canada.not canada.with canadaclaimedtheir canadahad canadato canadian canadianassiniboin canadianauthor canadianauthoritieswishedto canadianexpansionist canadiangovern canadiangovernment.big canadiangovernmentth canadianlaw canadianoffici canadianofficialsin canadianpacif canato cannotb cap captur carletonunivers carlton carltondistrict.beardy carltondistrictcameto carpentri carri cart cartridg cash cattleand caughtup caus cb centof centresof certain certainthat chagrin chang charg chargedto chargeof charl cheadl cheat cheekuk chief chiefsof chiefsto chiefswho chiefswould chiefwho children chosen christi circumst cite citedascs citedasp civil civilauthor civilianresid clark clash clashcoincid clashwith clear clearthat clearto close closelyth closureof cloth co co-oper coerc coercion coerciv coercivepolicydesignedto coercivepolicyeffective.the collect colonel colonelfrench colonelott colonelwilliam come cometo command commanderin comment commerci commisof commiss commission commit committedwhen common communic compani companion comparetreati compel complain complainedthat complainingabout complet completewhen comptrol compuls conced concentr concern concernedabout concernedbecaus concernednot concerninga concertedact conclud conduct confederaci confer confid confidedto confisc conflict confront consider considerationth considerhow considerthes construct contain contempl content contigu contiguousreservesin continu contradictori contribut control control.taking controlaft controlof controlov controlthem convict convinc copi copyof correspond cot could couldb couldexpecttroublefrom couldhunt council council.irvine counciland councilin councilon councilor councilto councilwaspart counten cours courseof courtsand courtsin creat createan createdth createdwer creation cree cree-assiniboinetheregion cree-blackfoot cree-meti cree.5 cree.a cree.only cree.this creeaid creeand creeautonomi creeband creedemand creeexpans creefor creehadbeentoldabouthowreserv creehadlearn creei creein creeland creelandshad creeleaders.the creeleadersrefusedto creemov creeof creepolit creepossess creereact creerequest creereserv creerightshadbeenclear creeto creetoler creetooktreatyfor creeunder creewer creewereplanninga creeweresimpli creewould creewouldb creewouldfightan crew crimin crisi critic crook crookedlak crossth crow crowfoot crowfootto crozier crozierarguedfor crozierto cs csp cuckold cultur culturalautonomyse cultureaft cur current custodi cut cypress cypresshil d.a d2and dakotasiouxin danc danceand danger dangerof date dationwith david day de dead deal dealingwith dealwith dealwithth death dec deceiv decid decidedthat decidedto decis declarewar declin declineaft defeatat defenc defer delaney delaneyhad deliv deliveryto demand demanded.after demandedr demandedthat demandsin demonstr deni dennyto depart departmentemploye departmentfarm departmentoffici depos deposeani deposedcre deposit depriv deprivedth deputi deputysuperintend deputysuperintendent-gener deputysuperintendent-generalt describ designedto desir desiredti desirousof desmond desper despit destroy destroyedth destroyth destroythat detach detachmentat detail detailedinform detailedlist detailin determin develop developth devic devotedten dewdney dewdneyadopteda dewdneyalso dewdneyand dewdneyannounc dewdneybelievedthat dewdneychoseto dewdneydecidedto dewdneyexpect dewdneyhad dewdneyhav dewdneyhir dewdneyhop dewdneyin dewdneyincreas dewdneyord dewdneyorigin dewdneypap dewdneypreparedto dewdneyproclaim dewdneyrecommend dewdneyrelatedto dewdneyst dewdneythat dewdneyto dewdneytoj.a dewdneytook dewdneywantedto dewdneywasconvinc dewdneywasimpl dewdneywasthusb dewdneywishedto dian diand diari dicken dickieson dictionari die differ difficulti difficultyfor difficultywasdewdney direct director disappear disarma disarmand disasterfor disciplin discourag discov discretionarypowersand discuss dispossess dissatisfi dissatisfiedwith distanc distinct distributeth distributionof district docil doingin doingsobecaus doingwasa domesticanim donald donein doubt doug dramat dramaticincreas drive drop drum duck ducklak duringthefur duti e e.d e.t e6a eachcre earlier earliereffortsto earlierperiodisdu earlyapr earnedth east econom economymeasur ed eden edgar edgardewdney edmonton edward edwin effect effecta effecteda effectof effectsof effectthetreatywouldhaveon effort effortsto either eitheran element elicitprisonsent eludedth emphas emphasizeth employe employmentof encourag end endedin engag engagein english english-speak enlist enmityof enough enslav ensurethatjail enter enteredth enteringth entir entirefil entirevolum entitl entreariesfrom environment eo4 eoo equip equipmentprovidedfor equipmentthat era erect erexpedit escort especi establish europeangood even evenbigbeardiscov evenh event eventsat eventsin evid evidenceto exact excel exclus excus excusedewdneyneededvirtu expand expandedinto expans expansionist expansionof expect expectedthat expedit experi experienc experiencea experiencecanadamad expir explain explainedthat explicitinstruct exploit exploitth explor exploredth exploreth express extern extract extracteda extractguarante extrem extremelyharshwinterof face facedstarv facedwith facil fact facto factthatbigbear fail failur fair fair-mind fair-mindednessand faith fall falseinform far far-sight farm farmer farmingand farminginstructor farminginstructorpet fate faultyor favour fear feareda fearedthatbigbear fearingth fearingthatthecouncil feb feb.1885 feb.and februari feder feed feloni fewermenworkingwith fewmonth fiction fifti fifty-six fiftyyear fight file file3o9 file4o file5489 file57 file69 file749 file949 finallyadapt find fine fineday fire first firsttimein firstweekof fiveindiantrib fled flexibleand follow followerseith foment food foodresourc forbadeani forc forcedth forcedto forceth forciblyremovinghim forcingthem foreknowledg forgotthata form former fort fortbenton fortpitt fortpittin forum found four fox foxtrapw franci frank fraser fred fredwhit freeman freylinghausen frighten frog froglakeasth fromhiscamp fromthehung full fulli fur g g.f.g gait gaitto gather general generalf.d generallorn generalt generalthomasstrang generous geolog georgew get getbigbear getsom getth getthegovern gettinga getto gg gilbert girl girl.the give givedewdneyth given givenassist giventh givento giveusgood givingcaus glenbow go goal goalthatcreelead goingto gone goneto good goodaccount goodsthat got govern governa governi governmentagre governmentcould governmenthad governmentstorehous governmentwa governmentwhat governmentwould governor grand grant granted.dewdney granted.only granteda grantlittl grantreserv grantth great greaterautonomi greatest greatproport grew grievanc group group27ic4 growingconcern growlargerif grub guarante guaranteesafetyto guiltyof gun gunsand hadgoneto hadlittleknowledg hadmad hadmadeth hadno hadreach hadto half halfbre hand handl hang happen happened.however happenedto harass harm hasbeenchalleng hasbeengivencred hat havea havebeen havebeenlostor havebetteraccess haveinterpret haveoccurred.in havetheropeabout haveusbelievethat havingtroopsst hayter hayterre head headmen heard hearingof hearingthisreport heattempt heighteningof heightenth held help henri henryyoulehind hera/d herald herchmerto hereaf hereafercit hereaft hereafterciteda hereaftercitedasdewdney hereaftercitedasp heritag hewa hewantedto hi hill hills.34 himselfand hine hire hisabilityto hisband hisband.he hisbandbi hisbiographi hisclass hiseffort hisfollow hisinform hisletterto hisnewapproach hispeoplenorth hispeoplewantedhim hisreserv hissonimas hissubordin histor histori historian historyof historythat histroopswouldnot hisyoung hisyoungmen hold holdhisowncouncil holdinga holdingth holdingtheir homeland homesno honest honour honourableand honourth hope hopedthey hopingto horn hors horse-st horsesfrom hostil houseof housesfil howeto howev howth howto hudson huge human hungercrisi hungri hunt hunter i.d ibid ideaofth ignor ignoredbi ii iii imas immedi immediatelymak impend implement implementthisnew import impos impoverish impressupon imprison imprisonlittl improv improvedintellig inadequ inadequaci inadequatefor incarcer incid incidentof incidenton incit includ includeincreas includingmostof incorpor increas increasedr independ indian indianag indianbattl indiancouncil indianinvolv indianlead indianpatriot indiansa indiansand indiansandcontrol indiansfrom indianshad indiansin indiansof indianssothat indiansundercontrol.therefore indianswho indiantreati individu individualreserv individuals.s4 individualswer induc ineffectualbecaus inferior inflex influenc influencein influenceof influenceon inform informationin informationon informeddewdneythat informinghim ingrati initi initialoff initiatedbi initiateth initiativeof inn innov inopportun inquirylaunch insist insistedthat insistedupon inspector instead insteadth institut instruct instructor instructoron instructorswer instrument insufficientr insultsand insurrect intellig intendedor intendedto intent interest interf interfer interim interior interiorreportto interpret interpretationdistortsth intervenemilitarili interview intimid intimidatedbi intimidatepiapotand introduc investig invit invited.arrangements involv involvedin involvedwith iren ironi ironicquirksof irvin irvineto isabel ison issu issuingrationsat itself.bigbearwas itsoffici iv j j.a j.m jame jan jan.1885 jan.and january1885 jeanlamour jefferson jeopard john johna johnson johntaylor join joiningth joint joseph journal journeyingconst judg juli june justan justasit justic justifi keep keepth kehewin killedpayn killinggovern killingrangecattle.american kiskion knife knockhim know knowledg known l label lack laird lairdto lake lakeand land landor lands.only landsuntil landswer larg largea largenumb larger largerconcentr larlyth last lastgreat lastwardrum late later laterreject latespringof latter launch law law.to lawrenc lawson lead leader leaders.63 leaders.subsequent leadershad leadership leadershipof leadersinsist leadersof leadersund leaderswer leaderswereeith leaderswho leaderswishedto learn learnedthat learningaboutth leastlimit leav leaveth leavevoluntarili leavewith led left legal legalandjudici legitimizesuchact less lethbridg letter lettersof level levelof lie lieuten lieutenant-governor life life.4 lift likemost limit limitedbi limitedsuccess limitthebuffalohunt listof literatur littl littlepinecannot littlepinement littlepinewould live lives.nevertheless lo lo4 lo7 local localindian locat locatednear london lone long loo loot lootingwouldnot lorn lose loss lot loui lower lt lt-gov.laird lucki luckyman lukewarm lx m m.g ma macdonald mackay mackenzi mackenziegovern macpherson macra macraeto made madefor madeto madetothecypress madeuseof madewith magistr magnus maintain maintains.canada maintainsthat majorinstru majorprojectth majorprovis majorsourc make makea makean makeandsucceed makeit maker maketreati makinga makingth makingthes male malerel malnutrit man mandelbaum mani manitoba manitoba.what manitobabecameir manitobathat manner mannerto manuscript manyof mar march marchibaldpap massacr mate materi materialcit materialrelatingto materialspromisedbi matter matterof may mc mcilreeto mckay mean meaningof meansbi meansof meansto meant measur meatal medicin medicinechest.the meet meetin meetingin meetingwith meetwith membersof memorandumthat men menof mensought ment meredith messag messeng met metaphor metaphorto meti metis.althoughhe metis.as metishad metismadeth metisof metisweredo mg mg26 mg27ic mid mid-apr middlemen middleton middletonand middletonveto might migrationof militari militarycampaign militaryor militaryunit milk milloy milton miltonandw.b.cheadle mind mindednessand minist ministerexpress ministerof minor missionari missouri mistawasi mistickoo mistreatedat mix mixed-blood modelfor modifyhisoffer.also moment monitor montana montana.on montanabuffalorang montanareturnedstarv montanato montanawereupsetbycompetit monthsin montreal moosomin moreeasili moreoften morethan morethanfifti morri morris.at morrisand morrisin morristo morton mostcre mostdread mostminor mostof mostrecalcitr mostsubsequ mosttownspeopl mount mountainpenitentiari mountedpolic mountedpolicepostof move movednorth movedto movement movement.bigbear movementfor movementseemedon movementto movenorth movingto much muchconcern muchdisturb muchof muis mulvaney murder museum myth n narrat nation nationsor natur natureof ncil near necessari neck need neededtojustifi needto negoti negotiatingsuch neighbour neither neitherasfar neitherasfar-sight neitherbigbearnor neithermanserv networkof neutral nevertheless new newband newli newly-cr newsfrom newyearhadbegunth next nextto nez night non non-indian non-indianinvolv non-receiptof non-viol none noneexamin noneof norman north north-east north-west north-westangleand north-westmount north.43 northamerican northern northernsaulteaux northwest notablyin notbeliev note notedthat noth nothingto notref notresultfrom nov nov.and26 number numberof numberthreaten numer nw nwmp o o4 o5 o7 o8 o9 object objectedto obvious occas occur occurred.in oct oct.and26dec octob oe.jefferson ofanexpedit ofcontrol offenc offens offer offeredthem offeringth offic offici officialsmaintain officialsopen officialsto officialswishedto ofhudson often oftenuseda oi ojan ojibwa ojibwain ojibwaindiansconsist ojibwaindiansof ojibwaof ol old one onecontinu onlyeffect onlyl onlylookat onlyof onlyth onthesaskatchewan oo ooo83755/83 ooocre ooocreeconcentr oooindians.this oooplain open opentheland oper opinion oppon opportun opportunitypres oral order order-in-council orderd ordereda orderedreduct orderedth orderedthat orderedto ordersin orderthatal orderthatth organ origin originaland originaltreati orphansshouldreceiver other othersbeforeh othersfrom othersto ottawa ottawa.thus ottawaand ottawadecid ottawaeffect ottawagav ottawathat otter outlin outof outsidepromis overal overcom overto owncouncil owram oxen p pac pacif pallis panic paper papercarriedan paperno paramount parkland parkland-prairi parliament part parti participatedin particu particular pasquah pass passag passim past paternalist patrickto patriot payn peac peacefulint peigan peopl people.to peopleand peoplein peoplelivingin peoplethreaten peoplewer per perc6s period period.mandelbaum period.therefore permiss permit perpetratedagainstth perpetu perri persist person personsnot peter petit petitionof phase pheasant piapot piapot.by piapotactedash piapotalso piapotand piapotbi piapothad piapotkept piapotwas piapotwasorgan piapotwer piapotwerenot piapotwould piec pile pine pinealsost pineand pineattempt pinefrom pinehad pinehimself pinemet pinemetwith pinewer pineweredoingth pinewereon pitt placat placatethem placeth placewher placingan plain plainscre plainsindian plainsindians.firstenunciated plan plannedfor plannedto planon plans.it plansfor plot point.in pointbyus polic police.in policeallowedto policeat policecommission policedetach policeforc policefound policegarrisonat policeinform policepost policepostthat policesoughtto policeto policewer policewerebeingrecruitedfor policewerecalleduponto policewerepowerless policewouldinform polici policycanadafollowedin policyof polit poplar poplarbands.however populac populationof portagela portionof portray pose posedbi posit possibl possiblydefus post post.the pounda pounder poundmak poundmakerin poundmakerwa poundmakerwer power pp practic practiceof prairi pre precis preliminari preludeto premis prepar preparefor present preserv preservetheir press pressur prevail prevent preventa preventbig preventconcentr preventedmostcre preventedpiapotholdinga preventedth preventhi preventivedetent preventor preventpiapotfrom preventth preventthi previous previousyear prime primeminist primitivepeopl princip principalcre principalcreelead print prison privat privileg privycouncil problem problemswith problemwassever process proclam program prohibit promin promis promiseand promisedto promisefrom promot propagateth proport proposedindian prospect protect protectpiapot protectth protest provid providea provideal provideddewdneywith providedmor providedon provideenough providemil provider providerationshad provideth providingsomeservic provinc provinceof provis provok provokedin provokingarmedhostil prowess pt public publicarch publicarchivesof punish purchas pure qu qualitywagon queen question questionwa quickly.asdewdney quicklysoughtto quicklyto quinn quinnhadphys quit quot r rae raid railway railwayconstruct rais rancher rang rangeof ranges.these rangeson rather ratherthan ratherthanfollow ration rations.as rations.the rationsb rationsto rationswer rationswould ray rayto rc reach reacheddewdneyof reachedpasquah reachedthem reactedse reaction realiz realizingth reason rebel rebellion rebellion.both rebellion.dewdney rebellion.eyewitnesses rebellion.privately rebellioncould rebellionin rebellionof recalcitr receiptof receiv receivereserv receivingassur recogn recognizehim recommend reconcil record recordgroup recordof recov recruit red redressfrom redthesun reduceth reduct reed reedand reedissu reedstat reedto reedwasa refer refug refus refusedto refusingto regard regardeda regardless region regionhad regionnot regionswher regul regulationof reject rejectedth relat relationship releas religi remain remainedin remainedon remainingamericanbuffalorang remainsthat remediedbi remov removecreelead removedbefor renegoti renew repatri repatriatedindian repetitionof report reportfor reportin reportno reportof reportsind reportsof reportsthat request requestfor requestsfor requestthat requir reserv reserve.dewdneyhad reserve.irvine reservefor reservein reservesand reservesitenext reservesitesthey reservesnext reserveswould reservesystem reservewassurvey reservewithoutpermiss resist resolv resolveweakened.little resort respect respons restor restoreassist result resultedin resultoth resultthey retaintheirindepend return returnedto reveal reveng revengefor review revis reviseth revisethem.4 rewardsand rg rgxo riel right riot river riverregionto ro road roe role ropearound rose royal rudi rumoursthat ruth rutland sackvill sackville-west saction safeti said saidhad saidto sakemay samef samepractic sametim sandraestlinbingman saskatchewan saskatchewanriv sassumpt satisfi sattackon saulteaux saulteauxof save savedott saw sawhow sawth sband sbandof sbay sbaycompanyand scanti scarc scatter schedul scitizensassum sclaim scontrol scounciland second secretari see seeaction.he seealso seealsobenton seealsodewdneypap seealsoraeto seealsosettl seeingan seek seem seemorri seen seenth seenum seetaylor seewhatth select selectedreserv selectreservesitesat selkirktreati sell send sendto sentenc sentiment sentword sept sept.1883 sept.x884 septemb serious serv servic session set seta setout settl settlein settlement settlement.if settler settlersto seven seven-pound sevenmil sgrow sharehisview sheadmen shed sheer sheercompuls shop short shortlybefor shorttim shouldb shouldmakecommon show shownmuch shownto shrink sic sick sidelightsindiancondit sieg sight sign signific signof similar similarexperi similarreport similarto simpli simpson sinc sioner sioux siouxin sit site sitescontigu sittingbul situat situationsin six size sizeabl sizeof sjob skill skirmish slatedfor slaughter slowto sluman small smallpolicepatrol smallreserv societi soin soldier someaccommod somenewspap someof someplain soon soonaft sooner soonerwer sor sothey sought soughtin soughtto sourc south south-western southth southto southwest speak speakto specif speopleconvinc spokesman spokesmen spri sprincipalconcernin spring springand springof springwent sreserv sruse ssitehad staf staff stand standard stanley stanleyin startedaft starv starvat starvationdid state statefor statement states.as stateswhen stationingtroop statut steal stepsto stick still stipendiari stipul stockmen stole stoney stop storehous storesand stori stour strangeand strategi strength stress strongdenunci stroopsfrom student studi studyof subjug subjugationof submiss subsequ succeed success successor sucha suchact suchgoodsa suchpractic suffer sufficientforcesto suggest summer summerof summerto superintend superintendent-gener superintendentgener supplic support supportfor supportof suppress surrendertheir surround survey surveyand surveyeduntil surveyof surveyor suscept susten sway sweet sweetgrass swift system søall tactic take taken takenin takentreaty.to taketreati taketreatyand taketreatywhenth takingactionto takingup tale taskof taughtthat tc teach telegraphlinesthroughtheir temporari temporarili temptationsbigbear tent term termsfor termsgrantedto territori territoryformerlycontrol territorythatwouldcompris textsof tg thantherehadbeenin thatbi thatbyrefus thati thatin thatpoundmak thatreserv thatth thatther thatthetown thattheyhadshown thattheywer thattimebig thebirth thecampbeforehisband thecanadian theclaus thecouncil thecre thecreewerefre thecrim thedeathof thehead thehistori thehors theindianright theirinitialcontact theirintent theirprincip theirreserv theirroleashunt thelargest thelastwardrum them.to themin themost themount themselvesviol themto thenasprovision thenorthamerican thenwmp thepal thepast theplain theplainscre thepolic thequ thequot therebi theredindiansof therefor thereforepropos therewaslittlethatth theriel theropeaboutmyneck thesam thesaskatchewan theseactswer theseand thesecomplaint theseconfrontationsth thesecouncil thesematerialsref thesemen thesereserv thesestep thesethre thesi thespeci thespiritofalberta thestand thesumm thesun theteton thetreati theupper thewest thewestin theyalteredtheir theycouldlosetheir theydid theyexpand theyfelt theyhad theyhadadapt theyhadwith theyin theyonceagainsought theyoung theyplannedno theyreport theywerejoin theywerenot theywereplac theyweresurround theywereto theywouldcaus thing thirst thirstdanc thirstdanceandcouncil thirti thirty-on thirtyyear thisfail thisimpress thismov thispolici thispropos thisregionin thistim thoma thomasquinn thompkin thompson thosebandswhichco thosebandswhichco-oper thosebi thoseitemsth thoseof thosepeopl thosewho thought thoughtof thoughtwereloyaland threat threatagainst threaten threatenedhostil threatenedth threateningto three threemen throughout throughoutth throughvigor thrown thunder thunderchild thunderchildto thus thwart ties.althoughthere time timewa tini tm tobia togetredress toj.a told tonat too-gener took tooktreatyundermosquito tool toolsand tori toronto torontopress total tour toward town toz876 trade tradeera tradermuchtrustedbi tradingsystem tradit traditionalinterpret traditionalinterpretationi traditionalpremis traditionandcustom transfer transferredor transport trapper trapw treati treaties.he treaties.however treaties.nevertheless treaties.on treaties.they treatiesa treatiesasa treatiesrequir treatiessix treaty-mak treaty4 treatyand treatybeforethey treatycommiss treatyin treatyonlyaft treatyrevis tremont trespass tri trial trialsand troopsagainst troopson troopssentinto troopsto troopsund troubl troublefor troublemak troublesom truth turn turnmightleadtoan twelv twenti twenty-sevenmil twice twine two twoof ultim unabl unawar underestib underestim undersieg understood undo uniquecharact unit unitingth univers unless unlesstheir unpublish unrelatedto untowardwashappeningand upon uponenforc uponhowwrongdewdney upris uprising.he uprising.however uprisingor upsetbi use usedin usedth usedto usemilitaryforceto useof userationsa useth usto v vac vankoughnet vehementcrit verg vergeof verygoodaccount veto vex vi via vict victori viewson vii vii-viii viii violat violationof violenc violence.87 violencethat violencewasto violent violentreactionbi viscount visitwinnipegand vividlydescrib voic vol vol.3576 vol.3582 vol.3586 vol.36 vol.3636 vol.3655 vol.3656 vol.3668 vol.367 vol.36o3 vol.3739 vol.373o vol.3745 vol.3766 vol.3768 vol.4 vol.7 vol.9x9 volunt voluntarysurrend vto w w.b w.j.christie wage wagewar wagon wait walker walsh walsh.piapotrequested walshin walshwasclos wanderingspirit wanderingspirithad wane want wantedto war warin warrior warriorsto warwouldhaveon wasabl wasadvoc wasagr wasalsoactingasa wasalsoawarethat wasalsodisconcert wasan wasat wasawareof wasawarethat wasbegun wasdon wasevacu wasfrom washappeningon wasin wasinvolvedin wask wasleft wasless waslittl wasno wasnot wason wasorderedto waspressur wasprev wasquiteevid wasreceiv wassimplya wasth wasthat wasthen wasthoroughlyfrightenedand wasto wasupset wasveri wasviol waswil watcheswer way waycanadacouldenforc wayof wayto weeek week welcom well wemysssimpson went wentto werealsoth wereattend werebas werecontrari wereconvinc weredetermin weregivento werejostledand werelisteningto werenot werenotedwarrior werenowawar werepart wererefus werereleas weresimilar werestillun weresuccess wereth werethes wereto west westandaftercar westangleand western westernreserveswa westin westmount westof westthat westto westwould wewant whatev whatevermeasur whateveroth whath whatisnow whatmotiv whatth whatthefur whatthefur-trad whenh whenhespok whenit whenth whenthey whentheysaidthatth whenw whereindian whether whetherbi whichal whichan whichh whichth whichtheyhadlittleinflu whichwasa whichwasprob whichwould whileawait whilemanyof whileten whileth white whitebrid whiteshad whiteto whocross wholeft whomhad whorefusedto whosereservewasnext whotri whowasnowlieuten whowasnowlieutenant-governor wieb wild will williamb williamfr williamlightfoot willingto winter wish wishedthat wishedto wishingto wishingtroublewith wit withbigbearandreportonthatchief withcreelead withdestruct withdraw witheuropean withheld.in withholdmanyof within without withouta withoutth withoutweapon withpiapot withth withthecreeandhowh withtreason withtreason-feloni withwaltergordon wj wmv women woodland word wordsto work worka workedfor workingon workingwith would wouldagreeto wouldb woulddeserttheir wouldhavebeenmassacr wouldhaveth wouldmeanbeingsubject wouldresultin wouldtak woulduseforceagainst written writtenin wrote x x67o x85o x879 x87o x88 x882and x884 x885 x889.saskatchewan x89o x8oo x95 x95-eo4 x975 xi xo xo3 xoobingma xvi xvii xx3o xxui xxv xxwii xxxvii xøø year yearearlieraspart yearsof yellowcalf yellowquil yellowskytooktreatyin york youlehind young youngcre younger youngmen z88 z884 z885 ß ß857 ß858 ß879 ø øthus