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THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA
LOS ANGELES

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SOCIALISM

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Snowden, M.P.

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(of

(2nd Ed.)
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W.

GERMANY.

Ed.)

INDUSTRIAL

(2nd

V.

Osborne
William

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MODERN VIEWS ON EDUCATION.
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(2nd

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on

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D.Lit.,
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Education in the University of Manchester.

THE PRACTICAL SIDE OF SMALL HOLDINGS.
(2nd Ed.)
James Long, Member of Departmental
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EUGENICS: A SCIENCE AND AN IDEAL.
Ed.)

Edgar

Fellow of

AVIATION.

New

Schuster,

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(Oxon.),

(2nd

D.Sc,

College, Oxford.

Claude Grahame-White.

THE CASE FOR RAILWAY NATIONALISATION.
Emil Davies (Chairman Railway Nationalisation
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THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT.

Ethel

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(Mrs Philip Snowden).

THE

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Joseph
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PRINCIPLES

M'Cabe,

OIL FUEL. Vivian

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of Chemistry at the
CJ.F.

a.

THE NATION'S LIBRARY— Continued
THE CASE AGAINST RAILWAY NATIONALISAEdwin

TION.

American

Pratt, Author oi

A.

Railways.

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR.
Greenwood, M.P.,

Hamar

Barrister-at-Law.

THE STORY OF TRUSTS.

M. E. Hirst, M.A. (Birm.).
With an Introduction by F. W. Hirst, Editor of
The Economist.

THE LAND PROBLEM AN IMPARTIAL SURVEY.
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By 'Home Counties' (J.
A BOOK OF FOLK-LORE.

Robertson-Scott).

Rev.

S.

Baring-Gould,

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SURVEY.

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BURNS.

Rev.

MacLean

Lauchlan

Watt,

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TWENTIETH CENTURY INVENTIONS:

Chas. R.

Gibson, F.R.S.E.

THE STAR WORLD.

A. C.

de la

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(Oxon.), D.Sc.

THE

MODERN

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BRITISH

Charles Robinson, R.N.

Commander

(Ret.).

CO-OPERATION AND CO-PARTNERSHIP.
ford

Lovell Price, M.A., Reader

in

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History in the University of Oxford.

POVERTY AND THE STATE.

Geoffrey Drage,

M.A. (Oxon.).

MODERN GERMANIC NOVELISTS AND DRAMATISTS.

Taco H. de Beer.

THE FUTURE OF EGYPT.

W. Basil Worsfold,

M.A. (Oxon.).

THE RELATIONS OF CAPITAL AND LABOUR.
W.

T. Layton, M.A.

THE PANAMA CANAL.

C.

Reginald

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CANADA
AS AJV

IMPERIAL FACTOR
^6y

HAMAR GREENWOOD.M.R

/-

/OXo

PREFACE
^2
9

<
S

One

most

of the

life is

the feeling of the corporate unity of the

Empire.

No

discussioa of general politics in

Kingdom

the United
is

striking features of political

complete unless

it

or in the Dominions

takes into consideration

the Imperial bearing of the problems under

o
^

review.

This

of

feeling

unity

has grown

with the wider diffusion of knowledge of the

CO

n Dominions and

a

The aim

their ideals

of this

book

is

and aims.
to give the reader

a general idea of the Dominion of Canada
as a factor in the Empire.

After a short

review of the history of the country, the
constitution
out,

and material resources are

set

and the bonds which unite the Dominion

CD

5 to

the Empire are examined.

The Author's thanks are due
Commissioner
staff,

to

Mr

J.

(Lord

to the

Strathcona)

Obed Smith, and

381693

and

to the

High
his

Agents

PREFACE

4
of the Provinces.

He has

acknowledge

also to

whose works

his indebtedness to the authors

are mentioned in the Bibliography.

Finally,

he would gratefully mention the assistance of
his friend,

Mr Roland Burrows,

M.A., LL.D.,

Barrister-at-Law, whose untiring efforts have

enabled him to complete a task which the
calls

of a

professional

busy Parliamentary Session and
life

would otherwise have pre-

vented him from accomplishing.

HAMAR GREENWOOD.
4 Crown Office Row,
Temple, London.

CONTENTS
CHAP.
I.

II.

HISTORY

.....
...

THE CONSTITUTION

...

HI.

ADMINISTRATION

IT.

POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION

V.
VI.

IX.

25
67
95

109

THE DOMINION AND THE PROVINCES

123

NATURAL RESOURCES

179

VH. TRADE
Vin.

.

PAGE

.

AND MANUFACTURES

.

.

.

.196

WATERWAYS AND RAILWAYS

.

211

RELATIONS BETWEEN THE MOTHER

COUNTRY AND THE DOMINION
APPENDIX

.....
.....
......

.

241

258

BIBLIOGRAPHY

261

INDEX

263

INTRODUCTION
an inhabitant of the Mother
Country to understand the immensity of
Canada. All his ideas of space and distance
must be readjusted.
Accustomed to the
It

is difficult

for

and the intercourse of

coasts, the journeys,

Europe, he naturally applies the units of the

Old World

and

—the

of England, Scotland,

size

Germany, and the other

Ireland, France,

countries of Western Europe.

however,

country,

he

has

Distance

continent.

Instead of a
to

resolves

consider
itself

a

into

become square
miles, and journeys
are counted by days
instead of hours.
Everything in Canada
is on a titanic scale
even the climate is
subject to variations possible, only in a
thousands

of

acres

miles,

continent.

The

coast-line of

Canada would surround

the world at the Equator, and the waters

which wash

its

shores are of infinite variety.

In the extreme north the icefield

wholly

banished

harbours of

Nova

;

in

the

Scotia

and

east,

New

is

the

never
great

Brunswick

INTRODUCTION

8

are free from ice in
of

winter.

The climate

the British Columbian coast

as that of England.

The coast

as mild

is

lines

are

broken by innumerable inlets, forming splendid

The seas are full of fish a source
employment for 80,000 fishermen.
But to the British visitor the rivers and lakes
are the greatest surprise.
The rivers are
mighty straits running through the land for
harbours.

of regular

many hundreds

of miles; the lakes are inland

and bear upon their bosoms a mighty
Far out of sight of land a vessel may
fleet.
be storm-tossed upon waters many hundreds
of miles from the ocean.
The mountains may not wholly surprise
seas,

the Britisher.

He

has seen the mountains of

him nothing that is
he approaches the West
the stern Rockies and the

Europe, and ours offer
strange.

But

if

across the prairies,

snow-clad Selkirk Range, succeeding to the

immensity of the plains, cannot fail to impress
him with their grandeur.
If he has come with the idea that Canada
is a new country devoid of luxuries and even
comforts, he is surprised to find a land whose
history stretches back over 300 years, where
quiet country life can be enjoyed and men can
live

wrapped up

in the pursuit of learning.

If

INTRODUCTION

9

on the other hand he has not given thought to
Canada, but comes with European ideas
undisturbed, he

the young

astounded at the vigour of

is

the ease with which the people

life,

what to him are indispensable necesof life, a sign of vigorous growth which

discard
saries
is still

At

from complete development.
he thinks that there are no classes

far

first

the classes

But he soon realises that, while
known in Europe do not exist,

Canada

has social distinctions, though the

of society.

still

line is

not drawn as in the Old World.

matter

who

if

the

man

he be worthy of

is,

it

;

No

any office,
no matter what his

he can

fill

family, he cannot maintain his position unless
like his father before

him he can make
'

good.'

Canada has neither time, opportunity, nor
desire for the ultra-niceties of the smart set,

nor would the

women

of

Canada permit them.

Canadians are rightly proud of their whole-

some family

life.

Again, regarding Canada as a Dominion
of
will

the

British

Crown, the English

discover with

unbounded

visitor

surprise that

there are vast districts in which the English,

language

rarely spoken

is

converse

which was

in

the

lost to

—where the people

charming French dialect
Europe at the Revolution.

INTRODUCTION

10

In matters of administration, the universal
application of the rule of self-government

is

familiar to the new-comer, but he will find

it

understand the Constitution. In
United Kingdom the omnipotence of

difficult to

the

Parliament

is

as fixed as the laws of gravity,

but Canada's Parliament is limited in two
Firstly, it can only make laws for
ways.

Canada so

far as the Constitution permits.

Parliament

is

subject to and not above the

Parliament

Secondly,

Constitution.

the only law-making body

in

of the nine Provinces has its

is

Canada.

own

not

Each

Legislature,

upon the matters entrusted to it without being controlled by the Dominion Parliament. But every law is not
necessarily valid.
It can be challenged and
which can

legislate

pass through the ordeal of a formal

trial.

Constitutional struggles are carried on in the
Courts.

It

is

for the judges to say

whether

Parliament or the Provincial Legislature has

exceeded
istics

its

are

Canadians,

powers or not.

familiar

under

to

a

These character-

peoples

Federal

living,

like

Constitution.

South Africa and Australia are united in
The statesmen of these
a similar way.
Dominions have, therefore, a thorough training in the special difficulties which beset a

INTRODUCTION

—a

federation

11

training which will be invalu-

able

in

determining not

form

in

which the Empire

the

exact

to be

drawn

only
is

closer together but also in the administration

of its affairs.

A

Federal

Government must

necessarily

chafe under the restraint of a rigid Constitu-

and its inability to deal with questions
withdrawn from its competence, however
tion

urgently

those

questions

for

call

answer.

Moreover, loyalty to the Dominion coexists

with loyalty to one's Province.
feeling is

bound to

vitally affecting the

exist

Sectional

even on matters

whole country.

In Canada the framers of the Constitution
foresaw the consequences of provincial feeling
being

carried

to

excess.

Just

before

the

North America Act was passed, the
United States had passed through a terrible
war caused by the fact that Congress could
not legislate upon any question which was
British

not expressly placed within

its

competence.

The individual States alone could pass laws
upon such questions. When the interests of
the Republic demanded that one answer alone
should be given to the Slavery question, State
rights
until

prevented that answer being given

war had decided which

side

was the

INTRODUCTION

12

North
America Act declared that powers not
expressly given to the Provinces should be
vested in the Dominion, and also gave to
the Dominion a veto over the Provinces.
Consequently the

stronger.

British

In Canada, therefore, the struggle has not
been, as in the United States, to extend the

powers of the Central Government so as to
with
modern problems, but for
cope
the

Provinces
the

against

to

maintain

strength

their

the

of

position

Dominion.

Nevertheless the principles are the same, and

the same problems arise for decision. Hardly

had the Dominion started on its career than
stormy questions arose. Manitoba was for
years at issue with the Dominion over educational matters, and ultimately won. Quebec has always asserted the rights of the Provinces,

and

in settling its

own

own problems has

steered

Thus the compensation
awarded to the Jesuit Order in 1888 was
assailed, but upheld; and so late as last year

its

course.

the Province established

its

right to settle

the form of marriage in accordance with the

views of
too, has
I

its

had

For years

inhabitants.

British Columbia,

its

disputes, but with less success.

it

passed

statutes

against

the

inhabitants of the East, and as often as these

INTRODUCTION

13

Acts were passed, so often were they

dis-

But the Province obtained its wish
through the treaty making power of the
British Government, and the acute difficulties
allowed.

as to the Japanese in California

the

United

are

States

hardly

now before
known in

Canada.

The

position

Canada as one of the
the Empire is of great

of

daughter States of

Nearest to the British

importance.

and

Isles,

next to them, the largest

possessing,

white population,

it

has cordially taken part in

the Conferences which have been held since
1887,

and which form

so important a factor

in enabling the statesmen of the

Empire to
Except

consider Imperial questions at large.
at the

Conference, Canada has hitherto

first

been represented at these Conferences by
Liberal Ministers, who have applied to these
problems the principle that every solution
must be compatible with the rights of selfgovernment.
held

There

by many

is

an alternative view now

Colonials

—namely,

that there

should, in London, be a centralisation of the

greater Imperial forces like the Navy, on the

ground that the British Admiralty can do
this

work

infinitely

better than a

of scattered Dominions.

number


INTRODUCTION

14

The

principle

is

important.

Sir Wilfrid

Laurier has apparently disclaimed any right

Canada at the moment to be consulted on
treaties, because adhesion in any
form implies that Canada will be bound to
take action if war broke out, and would thus
lose her free hand.
Thus in the debates on
the Canadian Naval programme of 1910 he
for

political

said,

England is at war, we are at war, and liable to
I do not say we shall always be attacked,
neither do I say that we would take part in all the
wars of England. That is a matter that must be
determined by circumstances, upon which the
Canadian Parliament will have to pronounce and will
have to decide in its own best judgment.
If

attack.

And

again,

during

the

second

debate on 27th February, 1913, he

reading

said,

'The conception of the policy which is occupying
is based upon the supposed
statements of Great Britain; our conception of a
our attention to-day

policy of naval defence

is

based upon our faith in

the gradual development of the Empire.

That

is

the difference between our policy and that of our

opponents.

You

proclaim to the world your belief

that Great Britain cannot fight her battles alone.

We

proclaim the same

belief; but, at the same time,
you want to obtain a true conception of
the grandeur of Great Britain, let the young nations

we

say,

if


INTRODUCTION
of the

Empire

has already

Canada,

let

made a

let

beginning, let

15

Australia,

New

which

Zealand,

let

South Africa prepare their own naval defences,
and throw around their seaports and their towns

and

cities

a

line of effective defence,

should an emergency

That

fighting line.

is

being ready,

take their place in the

arise, to

our policy, and upon

it

we

if

we

challenge the verdict of the Canadian people.

'But,

Sir, I

have said enough to show that

cannot support this measure we have nevertheless

no intention of folding our arms and saying we have
no duty to perform with regard to Great Britain.
On the contrary, we have a duty, but our conception
of it is different.
We must have a policy of some
kind, but what policy
.?
.

.

.

.

The bearing
misinterpreted.

.

of these

As

words must not be

far as the great majority

of Canadians are concerned, there

is

no doubt

Dominion to the Empire.
The part that she played in Egypt and South
Africa, and the preference granted to British
as to the duty of the

goods manifest the sincerity of the feeling

towards the Mother Country.
are agreed as to the duty
to method.
his

:

Most Canadians

they

differ

only as

Sir Wilfrid Laurier has expressed

view that the Empire must be drawn

more

closely

together.

Thus,

on the 12th

June, 1897, at Liverpool, he said,
'As thoughts of separation disappear thoughts of

INTRODUCTION

16

union, of a closer union, take their place.
will

.

be the future of the British Empire?

—the time

may come

is

coming probably

.

.

What

The time
when the

present citizenship of the Colonies, satisfied as they
are with

it

at

present,

when the sentiments and
a closer union
and satisfied.

will

In

may become

inadequate;

aspirations in favour of

have to be met, and acknowledged,

my

estimation, the solution

may

be found in the old British principle of representation.'

The Right Hon. R. L. Borden, the present
Pnime Minister of Canada, emphasised in
a recent speech in the House of

Commons

in

Canada the view that Canadians should have
a real voice and vote in Imperial matters.
'We say

that

if

we

are to remain an

Empire we

cannot have five foreign policies and five separate
navies.

We

say that the people of the Overseas

Dominions cannot be indefinitely excluded from such
a voice as may be just in foreign affairs if this Empire
is to be continued.
Our opponents say no voice
and possible neutrality in time of war; we say:
a just voice of all the Dominions in foreign policy
and in the concerns of the Empire, and a united
Empire to face every peril.'
:

The total absence of wars directly affecting
Canada in 1915 the celebrations of the
Hundred Years' Peace will be held has

resulted in discussions on the subject turning

— —
INTRODUCTION

17

on general principles of government more
than is possible in England.
Earlier in the speech Mr Borden said,

'We all know that up to the present time the
Mother Country has practically taken entire charge
of our defence upon the high seas, and, if I understand aright the utterances of men, not only in the Mother Country but all over Canada, the time
seems to have come when certain responsibilities
must be undertaken by these great Dominions
and

they

not

are

responsibilities

afraid

to

undertake

those

.'

'I say that the defence of

Canada

will

be by the

united naval forces of the whole Empire, and I
it would be impossible for
on the Atlantic, or a single fleet

further maintain that

a

single fleet unit

unit on the Pacific, to defend the shores or coast-

Canada against such an attack as might be
On the
if an attack were to take place.
other hand, if you have the British Navy, the most
powerful navy in the world, if you co-operate with
it, if you assist in maintaining and building it up,
I venture to say that you have arrived, for the
present at least, at the best solution of this problem
that could possibly be devised, and in support of
line of

expected

this I take the clear

that the best

way

in

statement of the Admiralty,
which Canada can aid the

Empire at the present time is by the provision of
a certain number of the strongest and most powerful
battleships that
devise.'

money can procure

or science can

INTRODUCTION

18

These utterances are of vital importance.
They show that in Canada, as elsewhere,
public opinion

is

not yet informed on the

question of the joint action of the Empire.

We are not yet decided upon the form of
a closer union. We say that it is desirable.
Our statesmen consult and endeavour to
cultivate the closest understanding, but unless
the fundamental principle of self-government
by
and no part of the
Empire has yet seriously faced the problem
how or in what proportion such representatives are to be chosen or what powers are to be surrendered by the Mother Country and
the Dominions to enable this to be done.
Canadians may be unwilling to sacrifice any
is

to be superseded closer union can only be

elected representatives,

of their

privileges,

country cannot

but the people of this

realise

the cataclysmic change

which such a union would involve

The immediate material future
is

comers arrived.

many

of

Canada

Last year over 400,000 new-

favourable.

But

there

is

a tendency for

to settle in the towns, which can only

exist as centres for

community.
most of all

a vigorous agricultural

Canada needs
;

if

agriculturalists

with capital, so

much

the

INTRODUCTION

19

but willing hands are always welcome.
The other countries of Europe have discovered Canada, and thousands of aliens better,

The proportion

flock there every year.

British population

is

diminishing.

of

Including

immigrants from the United States as British,
the percentage of the total population in 1901

was

and

57,

in

1911

54.

It

must not be

forgotten, however, that this does not include

the French Canadians,

who form more than

Canada has
of the people.
shown the same power of assimilating foreigners as the Mother Country. In two generations their descendants have merged in the two-sevenths

prevailing English or French population of the
district

where they have settled.
make good Canadians;

incomers
of

them know not England.

All these

but most

They can never

be made into Englishmen, but they might
become good Imperialists.

no doubt that Canada will, as in
the past, attract labour from other lands.
Capital is also needed.
As in most rapidly
developing countries, Canada suffers from two
opposite evils lack of capital and too abundant capital. Rightly applied, borrowed money consolidates rising industries; but if squandered, the day of reckoning may involve not There

is

——


INTRODUCTION

20

only the delinquents but the whole com-

One must say that no country

munity.

in

history has absorbed in remunerative enterprises as

much

capital in the

same period as

has Canada during the past thirteen or fourteen years.

In a notable address recently delivered at
the Royal Colonial Institute, Sir

Bank

Williams-Taylor, of the
said

Frederick

of Montreal,

:

'Acceding to the most

reliable English records,

Great Britain and Ireland have invested more
in

Canada than

in

any other country

only the United States

—the

total being approxi-

mately £430,449,000, made up as follows

Dominion Government

.

money

—excepting

.

.

:

£50,484,000

Provinces

16,700,000

Municipals

32,327,000

Railways

236,129,000

Miscellaneous

74,809,000

£410,449,000
Sundries not publicly recorded (estimated) 20,000,000

£430,449,000

A

huge

and growing

total

;

but as

Sir

Frederick Williams -Taylor said in the same

address

:


INTRODUCTION
'Though the sum of money invested

21
in

Canada by

Great Britain and Ireland aggregates £430,449,000
sterling,

total

and although some £225,043,900 out of that

has been

borrowed

in

the

Canada's requirements are not yet

demands must continue
is

to be developed.

if

last

this great British

It is true there

to her phenomenal progress, but

the nature of a pause.

ten years,

and her
Dominion

satisfied,

may

it will

be a check
be merely in

The development of the
this country and from

Dominion with funds from

other countries will continue beyond peradventure,

and

if

I

may

say

so,

under proper advice, there

is

no

better field for investment the world over.'

British

money

is

always

available

for

sound business concerns and municipal development, but not for speculation. Urban land has boomed throughout Western Canada,

and the

tribe of speculators has inflated the

price in

many

districts,

but

efforts are

made

to keep land jobbing within reasonable limits.

There is some indisposition among manufac-

and wholesale merchants to extend
Western credits, and there seems no reason
to doubt that any inability to meet payments
is explained partly by general land speculaturers

tion.

Mr

J.

C.

Douglas, chairman of the

Wholesale Dry-goods Section of the Toronto

Board

of Trade, said, in April, 1918

:


INTRODUCTION

22

'The banking pressure exercised

West has

in

the North-

seriously affected settlements there

throughout Canada generally.

and

People of the highest

standing are unable to obtain banking accommodation, and, as

a consequence, jobbers have to be con-

tent to accept smaller payments than usual and have

to grant

more and

larger extensions.

We

believe

that trade conditions generally are healthy, and that

an easing of the money market will make them normal
again, and this may be looked for in the near future.'
Sir

Edmund

Walker,

president

of

the

Canadian Bank of Commerce, in a statement
to the Toronto News, said

'Canada
there

in

is

have

:

a quite abnormal position.

been

depressions

in

other

While

countries,

Canada has not had a depression since 1893 and the
The reason is immigration and the consequent building operations. following three or four years.

I should say that a period of depression

is

years

We

have been saved by an immigration
equalled by no other country in relation to its population.
Completion of the trans-continental railways will mean that men now working as navvies overdue.

As a result the foodstuffs
will be put on the land.
which they consumed will be released for export,
and in addition these men will produce something in
Too large a proportion
Canada has not been going on
the land. The consumers of foodstuffs have increased
at a more rapid rate than the producers of foodstuffs.
Branch building will take a considerable number of
excess of their consumption.
of the immigrants to


INTRODUCTION
navvies, but a great

many

will

23

be released and be

able to go on the land. 1

Canada

inspires

all

Connaught

who know her with
H.R.H. the Duke

complete confidence.

finely expressed this

his speech, April, 1913, to the

of

thought in

Canada Club

:

'To those Englishmen who have not been to
Canada I can only say the sooner they go there the
better.
justice

(Cheers.)

and

There

being built up.
It

moving with

is

They will

learn how, under British

British freedom, the great
is

Dominion

is

a great future before Canada.

leaps

and bounds.

It

to keep pace with the immigration that

is difficult

is

taking

place.

'We

all

know and we

railways that have

all

been

admire the magnificent
under such great

built,

and at such great expense, in developing
I do not know where Canada would
be without those lines. But I hope that, as the railways are pushing forward, so also will the roads push forward. I hope that every year the Government may see its way to do all they can to promote the great highways which will have such an impordifficulties

the Dominion.

tant future in Canada.

Canada is a great field for all Englishmen who
have a little money and are ready to put their shoulder
to the wheel, and my advice to the young Englishmen is that, if they are prepared to work, and if they are prepared to believe in the country, they will get

on

splendidly.'
1

Times, 25th April, 1913.

INTRODUCTION

24

What is the future of Canada.
may say that she will, as in the

First,

one

past, yield

to none in loyalty and devotion to the Empire,
unless the indifference or the stupidity of

some

Home Government

Dominion
an actual
danger, because Home Ministries are composed of men who, by training and environment, are by no means always sympathetic drives the

out of the Imperial ambit.

with

the

vigorous

This

overseas

is

democracies.

Secondly, that the immense development of the
last fifteen

greater

years will continue at an even

rate

than

before.

when the Dominion has come
session of her agricultural

Thirdly,

that

into full pos-

and manufacturing

resources she will be one of the wealthiest

and most populous countries in the world;
and, lastly, and most important of all, her
sons and daughters will form a united people,
second to none in courage, steadfastness, and
truth.

Canada
an Imperial Factor

as

CHAPTER

I

HISTORY

Down

to the year 1867 the history of Canada

—that of New

comprises four separate stories

France, including Upper Canada, the Maritime
Provinces, the Fur-traders of the North

and

West,
the

of

and

Whalers

the

Pacific

Coast.

In

and

Gold-miners

that

year the

Dominion' came into actual being, and the
land started on a new destiny. Hope, which
had brightened into promise, has now
merged into the light of success.
*

I.

For

—DISCOVERY

AND EXPLORATION

earliest discovery, the strongest claim-

ants hailing from Europe are the Vikings.

986

a.d., Bjarin Hergulfson, driven

In
southward

by storms while on the voyage from Iceland
to Greenland, sighted land to the West.

His

who

first

news

fired
CUP.

Leif,

son

of

Eric,

B

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

26

taught the Gospel in Greenland, to seek this
land,

and

in the year 1000

he coasted the

shores of North America, visiting Kelluland

(Labrador),

Markland

(Nova

Scotia),

and

Vineland (Massachusetts).

But the voyages of the Norsemen were
mere incidents. They left few tangible proofs
and for a long time before the
Columbus the sagas were the only

of their visits,
discoveries of

records of these voyages to the

New

World.

Accurate knowledge commences with the
discoveries of the explorers of the Renaissance.

Cut

off

from the trade routes to the East by

the Moslems, they sailed to the West in search

Cathay and the

of

Indies,

and found instead

America.

On March
a

Henry VII. granted

patent to John Cabot,

had
to

5th, 1496,

settled

prosecute

in

Venice,

voyages

of

Genoese

who

authorising

him

discovery.

His

a

mariners sighted land on 24th June, 1497, and

Prima Terra Vista' is probably Cape
Bona Vista in Newfoundland. After him
came seamen of all nations, one of whom, the
Baron de Levy, in 1518, made the first
attempt to found a French colony in America.
The real discoverer of Canada was Jacques
Cartier. In 1534 he visited the St Lawrence
his

*

HISTORY
and Bay

27

where he found the land
and the fairest that could
The following year he
possibly be found.'
sailed up the St Lawrence and visited the
Indian villages of Stadacona (Quebec) and
of Chaleurs,

'hotter than Spain,

Hochelaga (Montreal).

His report led the

French king to authorise a settlement under
de

Roberval,

King's

Lieutenant,

and

Captain-General.

Their mission

'to explore, to colonise,

and to convert
on his second

Cartier, as

was

as

the heathen.'

Cartier sailed

voyage to Canada in 1541, but

Cap Rouge proved a
already on his return
at

his settlement

and he was
voyage when de

failure,

Roberval sailed in 1542.

Not for many years did the English compete.
Newfoundland, acquired by Sir Humphrey
Gilbert, on 3rd August, 1583, became the
oldest English colony, and its fisheries afforded
a rich return. In the extreme North furs
were to be obtained, but at first the lands
of the New World round the St Lawrence
did not attract the English.

along

principally

now

the

United

the

coast

States.

They settled
of what is

Moreover,

colonised in separate communities,
in

religious

of interest,

beliefs

uniting

they

distinct

and without community
only in face of grave

28

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
Their possessions extended only so

danger.

and
They

far as the needs of a growing population

the opportunities

of trade required.

clung to the sea coast, spreading westward
only by degrees.

French colonisation, on the other hand,
was under the direct supervision of the king,
whose agents were quick to see the possibilities

No

of empire.

divided

these

religious

settlers,

for

differences

French

the

Canadians have always been loyal Catholics.

They spread rapidly along the St Lawrence
and thence southwards
to the Mississippi, and onwards to the Gulf
to the Great Lakes,

of Mexico.

The English settlements were shut
the French,

who

in

by

thus secured early success.

But the French were few in number, and help
from France was impossible while the English
held the

command

struggle between

was

issue

of the sea.

non-resident

menced

*New

the real

inevitable.

In 1609, Champlain,
the

When

them began the ultimate

who was deputy

Lieutenant-General,

his career as the

for

com-

great coloniser of

France,' as the district round the St

Under him the conthe Indians proceeded apace, and

Lawrence was
version of

called.

HISTORY
in 1615

he established

29

friars of

the Recollet

branch of the Franciscan Order at Quebec,
building a fort there in 1620.
is

The year 1625

notable for the appearance of the Jesuits.

1627

In

Company

the

of

One Hundred

Associates was formed to carry on the
government and develop the resources of

country.

It

rights except

the

the

obtained a grant of
fisheries,

Dominating the chief

all

the French king

officers.

In 1634 the company built a fort at Three

and founded a settlement at Montreal
in 1642.
The company was reorganised in
1645, when the fur trade was thrown open to
the settlers, but it failed in its object, and

Rivers,

surrendered

charter

its

in

1663.

Colbert

formed a new company to carry on the work,
but this also was a failure, and under an
Edict of April, 1663, Canada became a Royal
Province of France.

Meantime, the Scottish settlement of Nova
Scotia

On

had come

into conflict with the French.

the 18th July, 1628, three vessels com-

manded by
over

Sir

David Kirke gained a victory
near Gasp6 Point, and

the French

captured seventeen out of eighteen ships.

On

22nd July, 1629, he captured Quebec, and held
until 1632, when all French possessions in

it

30

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

North America were restored by the Treaty
Champlain reof St Germaine-en-Laye.
appeared in 1633, and remained in command
until his death on Christmas Day, 1635.
Frontenac, the next great colonist, became
Governor in 1672, and rapidly extended the
power of France to the Great Lakes. His
successes over the Indians shook the friendship of the Five Nations with the English, and a bitter conflict began which continued
almost without a halt until 1760.

The French were gradually
the English.

closing round
and Marquette discovered
on 17th June, 1673, and thus

Joliet

the Mississippi

showed the way to La

Salle,

who descended

the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, where

he arrived on 9th April, 1682.

This led to the

French acquisition of Louisiana and the founding of New Orleans by de Bienville in 1718. The New Englanders, on their side, under
Phipps, organised an expedition against Quebec
in 1690, but it miscarried. An English attack
on La Prairie, near Montreal, in 1691, was
successful, and Port Royal (Annapolis) was
reduced by Nicholson in 1710.

The French

succeeded in the sack of York (Maine), Feb-

and on Oyster River, and
captured Fort Pennaquid in 1696, but were

ruary,

1692,

HISTORY

31

unsuccessful in attacking Wells (Maine), in

June,

1692,

were the English in their

as

As a

expedition to the St Lawrence in 1711.

precaution

French aggression,

against

English on 19th July,

the

acquired the

1701,

beaver grounds of the Iroquois Indians to
the south of the Great Lakes.

Self-defence

was the spur which drove them to Empire.

The Maritime Provinces, then known as
La Cadie or Acadia, had a separate history.
The first colony was founded by de Mont in
Royal (Annapolis), but his
patent was cancelled in 1607 and the settlement abandoned. It was soon re-established, but was destroyed in 1613 by Samuel Oxgall,
1605,

at Port

who commanded
Company.

the forces of the Virginia

In 1621, Sir William Alexander

(afterwards

Earl

of

Scottish patent from

him

to colonise

cluded

New

Nova

obtained

Stirling)

James

I.

a

authorising

Scotia (which then in-

Brunswick), and Gordon obtained

a similar patent as to Cape Breton Island,

which was styled New Galloway.
These
grants were confirmed by Charles I. in 1625,
but nothing remains of the original Scottish
settlements but the

I.,

of

Nova

Scotia,

Nova Scotian baronets founded by
and the memory of the capture of

the Order of

James

name

82

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

Quebec

in 1629; for the Treaty of St

Germaine-

these lands to the

cn-Laye,

1632,

French.

Cromwell's capture of Acadia in

yielded

1654 was undone by the Treaty of Breda in
1667.

Aeadia was

finally

acquired by the

English in 1713, by the Treaty of Utrecht.

The northern lands fell to the English.
Henry Hudson, who discovered Hudson Bay
in 1610, was followed by Button, 1612, Baffin,
1616, and many others. Foxe completed the
exploration of Hudson Bay in 1668.
The
French were attempting to reach Hudson Bay
by land, and Albanel succeeded in 1671.
The Hudson Bay Company, formed by
floyal Charter on 2nd May, 1670, established
Fort Rupert, Fort Hayes or Moose Fort, Fort
Albany, and Fort Nelson on the shores of
Hudson Bay. The French in Canada formed
the rival Compagnie du Nord in 1682.
Fighting between these companies immediately followed.
for a period

Several times the French

overcame the English, but

in

1713 they finally relinquished their claims.
of Utrecht, which came into
marks a stage in the history of
the country.
The French possessions were
limited to New France and Cape Breton
Island, with the He de St Jean (Prince Edward

The Treaty

force in 1713,

HISTORY

88

Newfoundland (except St Pierre and
Miquelon) and all the land north of New France
Island).

were

left

to the English,

Acadia with
west

all

its

who

also acquired

French population.

To the

was undefined, and the Treaty clearly
The backwoods

could not end the struggle.

were the scene of never-ending war, even
when there was profound peace in Europe.

Cape Breton Island not only safeguarded
the St Lawrence, but menaced Nova Scotia
and New England. The New Englanders
took up the challenge, and on 17th June, 1745,
captured Louisbourg, the stronghold of the
island, after

their success

a siege of forty-seven days, but
was nullified by the Peace of

Aix-la-Chapelle, 1748.

now

new career.
In 1749 Halifax was founded, and by 1752
possessed 4000 inhabitants. In 1753 German

Nova

Scotia

entered on a

Lutherans were settled at Lunenbourg.

On

the other hand, the French inhabitants of

Nova

who

Scotia,

could not be expected to be

well affected to England, were not properly

protected against the machinations of the

Governors of

New

preaching of a few

France.
priests

Incited

by the

they became hope-

and at last were deported
and scattered about the New England colonies.

lessly disaffected,

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

34

However

justifiable this

measure

been, their sufferings call for the
all,

and

form

may have

sympathy

of

theme of Longfellow's

the

Evangeline.

Meanwhile the French had made good their
hold on the country from the Great Lakes to
the Mississippi. The upper reaches of that
river, still

unknown when La Salle made his
down to its mouth in 1682,

great voyage

had been visited in 1700, and the coureurs de
bois had heard of the Lake of the Woods and
of the Lac des Assiniboines (Lake Winnipeg).

De

la

Verendrye,

who commanded the

out-

post of Nipigon (founded in 1728), on the

north shore of Lake Superior, continued these

1743 he saw in the
Rocky Mountains.
de Bienville, who had been sent to

explorations,

and

in

distance a spur of the

In 1749,

French control over the Ohio,
found English traders there. Conflict at once
establish the

George Washington, sent to assert the
English claims, found in the spring of 1754
arose.

that Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) had been
built to withstand

the

his advance.

home government

Next year

sent regular

troops

under General Braddock against the Fort,
but his disastrous defeat inflicted a heavy
blow on British prestige, which was not

HISTORY
removed by the defeat

of the

85

French regulars

under Dieskau later in the year.

War had

not yet been declared when the

Canadians captured Fort Oswego in 1756.

The French

were under the comwhose genius triumphed
and by the end of
over the English
1757 they had to admit failure at all

mand

forces

of Montcalm,

;

points.

But
siege

Pitt changed all this.
of

forty-seven

After a second

days, in which Wolfe

distinguished himself, Louisbourg was again

captured by the English on 27th July, 1758.

was followed by
Frontenac, and in

The

repulse at Ticonderoga

the

capture

of

Fort

November an English

force reached

Fort

Duquesne only to find that it had been
burnt and abandoned by the French. The
French were beaten at all points. Help from
France was denied them by the English fleet.

who commanded the
now assumed the offensive.
Just before Christmas, 1758, Pitt named
Wolfe to command an expedition against
General

Amherst,

English forces,

Quebec.

It sailed

and was aided
England. Amherst

in 1759,

by expeditions from New
advanced by Lake Champlain.

Johnston,

the conqueror of Dieskau, captured Niagara,

86

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

while Haldimand

at

Oswego beat

off

the

French.

In these straits Montcalm remained at
Quebec to withstand Wolfe.
The latter
obtained

command

maturing

his plans, landed at Wolfe's

of the river, and, after

Cove
on the night of 12th September, 1759. Next
morning found him in battle array on the
Plains of Abraham. The attack of the French
failed, but Wolfe fell in the moment of
victory, and his opponent Montcalm was also
mortally wounded. This great and memorable
victory sealed the fate of Quebec.
Montcalm's lieutenant, de Levis, was at Montreal.
He advanced to the aid of the city, rallying
the fugitives on the way, but the city surrendered on the day when he reached its walls. In the following spring he again advanced,
and, after gaining the battle of Ste. Foy,
invested the city, but, failing to effect
capture, he raised the siege in May.

its

Montreal

then remained the last stronghold of France

Amherst
on 6th September, 1760, marks the end of the
French Empire in America.
By the Peace of Paris, signed on 10th February, 1763, the King of France renounced all pretensions to Nova Scotia, and ceded to the
in Canada,

and

its

capitulation to

HISTORY

37

United Kingdom Canada with

all its

dencies, the island of Cape Breton, and

islands in the St Lawrence.

depenall

the

All the territory

to the left of the Mississippi was declared to

be British. The British flag waved over the
whole coast of North America from Florida to
the Arctic seas.

II.

—LATER HISTORY

(QUEBEC AND ONTARIO)

During a period of eighty years after the
fall of Montreal, Canada experienced almost
all the constitutional experiments of England.
She had been under the despotic rule of the
representatives of the French king; military
rule followed the events of 1760.

while

civil

After a

administration in the hands of

nominees of the English kings was substituted,
then the legislature was made elective; but
with curious blindness the Imperial Parlia-

ment

failed

to perceive that representative

government was not the whole secret of the
British Constitution.
Only after rebellion
had broken out in 1837 did the genius of one
man solve the problem by pointing out that
representative government could not suffice
so long as the representatives of the people

38

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

did not bear the responsibility of govern-

ment.

The

found

victors

New

France under a

regime which had been set up by an Edict of

The Governor, the Intendant,
and the Council held despotic
power. The basis of the law was the Custom
of Paris, and the Council formed the Supreme
Court, hearing appeals from the three Courts
of Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal.
Petty jurisdiction was vested in the seigneurs,
whose lands lying along the river front were
cultivated by the habitants, who held under
April,

1663.

the Bishop,

them.

Nowhere was there a

vestige of popular

government;

not even a trace of municipal

institutions.

The Feudal system

was transplanted

to

the

of France

banks

of

the

St Lawrence.

The

military rule established in 1760

by

the English was to be replaced as soon as

by

possible

self-government,

which

was

indeed promised by the King's Proclamation
of 7th October, 1763.

was

impossible.

excluded from

Kingdom,
found

it

and

The promised plan

Roman
Parliament
the

were
United

Catholics
in

British

the

Government

impossible to alter the law for

them

HISTORY
in

Canada, where

89

numbered

they

69,000.

Moreover, as the troubles which led to the

founding of the United States arose and
developed,

power

became highly

it

in the

who then sympathised with
Difficulties arose

land and as to the

was
local

Roman

officers

customs and

questions

informal

settlers,

the malcontents.

both as to the law of the

settled for the time

English law

impolitic to place

hands of the English

clergy. The former
by an opinion of the

(14th April, 1766), that

usages were

as to land
recognition

to govern

the latter

;

of

by the

Mgr. Briand,

who

was in 1766 consecrated Bishop of Quebec.
The Quebec Act, 1774, endeavoured to
settle these difficulties for ever.

The law

of

Canada was declared to apply to all land except
that granted as freehold by the Crown. Wills
could be made in French or English form.
The criminal law was to be English. The

Roman

Catholic

clergy

were confirmed

in

The government was vested in
a nominated Council, whose number was fixed
at a minimum of seventeen and a maximum
of twenty-three, with power to levy such
their rights.

local

rates

as

were

necessary

for

purely

local purposes.

The American Revolution did not extend

40

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

to Canada.

The General Congress at

delphia, in October, 1774, sent

the Canadians, and followed

it

Phila-

an address to
in May, 1775,

by attacks on Ticonderoga and Crown Point.
But they recognised that Canada could not
be compelled to come in against her will.
Misled by a report of Philip Schuyler, who
had been sent to ascertain the feeling of the
Canadians, they

made

the attempt.

Montreal

was captured on 13th November, 1775, but
an attack on Quebec became a blockade
and was finally abandoned.
After the Peace of Paris in 1783, boundary
disputes arose between the new Republic and
In 1818 the line of the 49th
N. latitude was fixed as the boundary

the Canadians.
parallel

from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky
Mountains. In 1842 the Ashburton Treaty
settled the Maine boundary dispute.
There was little demand for popular government, but the nominated Council failed to satisfy the needs of Canada. Constant friction
arose between the English and French settlers,
and with a view to settle the problem of
administration the Constitutional Act, 1791,

Lower
Canada (Quebec) kept, and still keeps, its
French laws and customs.
Upper Canada
divided Upper from Lower Canada.

HISTORY

41

most of the loyalists
home, became subject
to English law.
Opposition as was natural
came from the British minority in Lower
Canada.
Each had an elected Legislative
Assembly, but the executive power remained
with the Governor and his Council.
In Lower Canada there was little race hatred
and no religious animosity. Until separate
where

(Ontario),

made

had

their

churches were built Protestant services were
held in

the

first

Catholic churches.

In 1793, when

Anglican bishop was appointed, there

was no Anglican church building in Quebec,
and only six clergymen in the Province, but
religious differences arose, especially on educational

matters.

became

forfeited.

In 1773 the Jesuit estates

They were regarded

devoted to education, and, when George

as
III.

proposed to confer them on General Amherst,
such a storm of protest arose that the project

was abandoned.

In 1832 they were definitely

assigned for the purposes of education, and,

on the formation
became the property

consequently,

of

the

Dominion

of

the

Province of Quebec.

gave

a

full

In 1888 the Province

monetary

equivalent

to

the

restored Jesuit Order.

Lower Canada took her share

in the fighting

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

42

with America in the war of 1812.

The

victory

Chateauguay was won by a force of 900
French Canadians and 50 Indians against
overwhelming odds, and Quebec participated in the feelings against the States to which the war gave birth.
of

The

affairs of

the Province did not prosper.

Religious disputes accentuated racial feeling,

and occasioned the founding of a French
newspaper in 1806.
The Executive was
corrupt,

but the suggestion, made in 1814,

that appointments to the Executive Council

should be

made from

adopted.

Later, the

the Assembly was not

Roman

Catholic Bishop

was made a member of the Council. In 1818
a civil list was established.
Quarrels arose with Upper Canada over the
customs dues.

All

imports came to that

Province through Lower Canada, and conse-

quently the customs revenue was divided.
In 1819 the existing arrangement came to an
end,

and no

fresh one could be

come

to.

The

deadlock raised the question of reunion, and
in 1822

a

bill

to bring about this result

was

introduced into the British Parliament, but

was fiercely opposed by the French Canadians,
and supported by very few. Consequently
only the settlement of trade disputes was

HISTORY

43

attempted by the Act, which became law as
the Canada Trade Act, 1822.

It provided

that no fresh duty could be imposed without

the sanction of Upper Canada, and that the
question

of

the proper

proportion due to

Upper Canada should be submitted to arbitraThe award (published 23rd July, 1825)

tion.

fixed that share at one-quarter.

The

Executive,

composed

largely

nominated English

officials, failed

of

to secure

the confidence of the French Canadians, and
ultimately

strained

their

loyalty

to

the

breaking point. The Administration suffered a
crushing defeat in the elections of 1827, and a

complete deadlock arose.
of

Commons appointed a

The
Select

consider the best solution, but

British

House

Committee to
it

occurred to

no one to suggest the grant of responsible
government.
Electoral reform in 1829 raised the
of the
it

Assembly to

forty,

with the Executive.

number

but did not reconcile

In 1832 election riots

occurred at Montreal, and doubts whether the
Constitution was compatible with free govern-

ment were suggested. In February, 1884, the
Assembly passed a series of ninety-two
resolutions which form the French Canadian
Declaration of Rights.

Racial feeling ran

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

44

and the elections of that year were
marked by great bitterness. Lord Gosford
was sent out with a Royal Commission in 1835,
but he utterly failed. Next year the Assembly
high,

directly

claimed

the

right

of

responsible

government, and in 1837 the Administration
did not dare to

call

the Assembly together.

Rebellion was being preached, in spite of

the powerful protests of the

Bishop of Montreal.
city

A

Roman

Catholic

riot occurred in that

on 6th November, 1837.

Warrants were

issued against Papineau, the chief leader, and

twenty-five
arrested,

of

of

his

whom

Nine were
seven escaped and the
associates.

other two were rescued.

broke out.

The

Insurrection at once

insurgents

made a

successful

resistance at St Denis, but were crushed at

St Charles, and the capture of St Eustache on

13th December, 1837, ended the short-lived
struggle for responsible government.

Upper Canada had been passing through
At first nothing seemed less
likely. About 10,000 loyalists and discharged
soldiers settled in Upper Canada between
1783 and 1785
most of these came from
the United States in order to live and die
a similar cycle.

;

under the British

flag.

An

Order in Council

HISTORY

45

of 1789 granted to each child of a loyalist

200 acres of land, and every loyalist and his
children

was to be distinguished by the

'U.E.' (United Empire).

letters

In 1791 the capital

Newark Toronto became the
town in 1794.
Soon after the peace, American citizens
began to cross the border, and fears arose that
annexation to the States would result. In 1798
a steady flow of British immigrants, mostly
from the Highlands of Scotland, commenced.
There was much intercourse with the
States, but the war of 1812 marked a distinct
change. Upper Canada was invaded. The
invaders were met with determined opposition.
was

fixed at

;

chief

General Brock, the Acting Governor, captured
the

invaders

at

Detroit

in

July,

and

in

October an American force which attacked

Queenston on the Niagara River was forced
In 1813 the chief events were

to surrender.

the annihilation of the British lake

fleet

at

the Battle of Lake Erie, and the Battle of

Chateauguay.

In 1814 the hard-fought battle

Lane was claimed by both sides,
but the Americans retreated, and no decisive
fighting ensued. The war had a double result.
of Lundy's

It

gave the Canadians confidence in them-

selves

and roused an antipathy against the

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

46

United States which
salient factors of

still

remains one of the

Canadian

The government

of

political

life.

Upper Canada was

administered by a clique called, somewhat
inaccurately, the 'Family Compact,' because

those in control of the government were very
closely

related

and

marriage.

The

and

colonisation

land

often

population

Company (founded

connected

was

growing,

under the

1824) and

by

Canada

similar con-

The
was proving a great success.
Rideau Canal and the Welland Canal were
completed about this period, but much
'jobbery' had marred these undertakings and

cerns

roused feeling against the governing classes.

Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that discontent was growing, and though Wm. Lyon Mackenzie's paper, The
Colonial Advocate, failed, the feelings which
it

expressed were acute.

was

Popular government

distinctly claimed in 1828.

Much

discontent might have been avoided

if

the Administration had been wisely conducted,

but the Governor and Council disagreed with
Supplies were refused, but the

the Assembly.

only result was the defeat of the discontented
at the election of 1884.
in

this

Matters

still

unsatisfactory condition,

remained

when, on

HISTORY

47

5th December, 1837, without waiting for a
Convention which had been summoned for
the spring of 1838, Mackenzie at the head of

500

men marched on Toronto

—to

meet a

crushing defeat.

With rebellion in both Canadas, the Home
Government for once acted promptly. The
constitution was suspended and the country
placed under martial law. Lord Durham was
sent out to administer the country, but his
chief mission

was to

find a solution of the

problems of government.

He

stayed barely

and resigned righteously indignant at the stupidly lukewarm support he was given in the Imperial Parliament.
He left the French unconciliated, and
the separatist movement in full force. At
five

months,

he failed lamentably, but his
triumph has been complete. He was the first
to state the principle upon which alone this

first

sight

Empire can be based that the government
must be carried on according to the wishes of
the people. In local affairs the Governor must
follow, not his

own

views, not those of the

Home Government, but the advice of those
whom the people of the colony have chosen as
their' leaders.

The Home Government accepted Lord

48

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

Durham's advice and decided to reunite the
Charles Powlett Thomson
two Canadas.
(Lord Sydenham and Toronto) was sent out
as Governor to inaugurate the

new system, but

perceiving that the absence of local govern-

ment was one

of the chief sources of friction,

he carried a scheme through the

Special

Then a Proclamation was issued declaring the Union of Upper
and Lower Canada to come into force on
10th February, 1841. The elections were at
once held, and a French Canadian was
elected Speaker of the first Parliament.
One
of the first Acts was to provide Upper Canada
Council of Lower Canada.

with a system of local government.

Many

A system of
Education was established, and a Board of
other useful Acts were passed.

Public

Works

instituted.

The change

at once

worked an improvement. Immigration had
dropped to 8000 in 1838; it now rose rapidly.
In 1841 over 28,000 new-comers arrived; in
1842 over 44,000.

Lord Sydenham had completed his task
and was about to sail for home when he died
on 19th September, 1841.
His successors became involved in difficulties which showed that they had not taken to heart the secret which Lord Durham had

HISTORY

49

and it was not until the appointment
Lord Elgin that the principles of responsible
governmentwere admitted in all their bearings.
revealed,

of

The

elections of 1847 resulted in the defeat of

the Ministry; he at once sent for the leaders
of the victorious party to form a ministry,
loyally acted

upon the advice

and

of the leaders of

the Parliamentary majority.

The Colony began to pass through

serious

which strained its resources to
the utmost. The potato famine in Ireland led
to the influx of over 100,000 Irish, whose
sufferings called attention to the need of
immigration regulations. The British Corn
Laws were repealed, and this reversal of the

financial crises,

policy of centuries, restated so recently as

1843 in the Canadian Corn Act, caused a great

which was not alleviated
until the repeal of the Navigation Acts in 1849
completed the work of the reformers and threw
the St Lawrence open to the shipping of the
dislocation of trade,

world.
Politics

again came to

Lord

the fore.

Elgin was asked to assent to the Rebellion
Losses Bill of 1849, which indemnified rebels
as well as loyalists.

A storm of protest arose,

but Lord Elgin gave his assent.
to refer
C.I.F.

it

to the

Home

He

refused

Government, nor
6

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

50

would he veto

rightly feeling that, as

it,

no

Imperial question or charge was involved,

the

principles

forced

of

government

responsible

him to accept the

will of

Parliament.

Riots at Montreal only resulted in a change
of the seat of government.
sat alternately at

1857,

Parliament then

Quebec and Toronto

when Bytown was

until

selected as the capital

and renamed Ottawa.
Before Lord Elgin departed the Colony had
entered on a career of prosperity, aided by
the Reciprocity Treaty which he negotiated

with the United States in 1854.
established

trade

free

in

This treaty

certain

natural

products of both countries, gave equal rights

on the St Lawrence, with its
and on the Great Lakes, and in addi-

of navigation
canals,

tion, reciprocal fishing rights in certain of the
territorial

waters

of

both countries.

The

treaty ceased to have force in 1866, having

been denounced by the United States.
Problems of transport also began to attract

Samuel Cunard, in 1839, established
to leave England for America.
In 1849 Joseph Howe of Nova Scotia advocated a railway from Halifax to the St Lawrence, a plan which was eventually

attention.

the

first liners

realised

by the

Intercolonial Railway.

The

HISTORY
Allan Line began to run

51
to Europe from

Halifax in 1852.

The beginnings of protection are visible in
the Budget of 1859, which is remarkable for
the convincing reply of Gait, the Canadian

Finance Minister, to the complaint of the
Colonial Secretary that duties were levied

English manufacturers.

He

on

strongly main-

tained the right of self-governing countries
to settle their

From

1861

experience

ment

own
the

fiscal policy.

colony

difficulties.

implies

party

again

began to

Responsible govern-

government,

but the

were so indecisive that no stable
Government could be formed.
Matters

elections

Governments of Canada
(Quebec and Ontario) seriously took in hand
the negotiations which led to the formation
of the Dominion.
drifted

until

III.

the

—THE

MARITIME PROVINCES

The expulsion of the French settlers in
Acadia lefttheMaritime Provinces very scantily
populated, but efforts were successfully
to attract settlers on a large scale,

and

made
after

the Peace of Paris the influx of loyalists from
the

new American Republic

so increased the

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR

52

population that
stituted

Nova

New

Brunswick was con-

a separate colony in 1784.
Scotia has always been in close touch

with England.

Halifax was until 1909 the

headquarters of the North American squadron,

and was garrisoned by

Many Nova

British troops

till

1905.

have served in the
Royal Navy, and its forests have furnished
many a ship. Agriculture and shipbuilding
were the sole industries until 1798 when
coal was discovered in Pictou County. Education was fostered by the founding of grammar schools in 1811 and of Dalhousie College in
1841.
The feeling of Nova Scotians was
Scotians

manifested

strikingly

in

when war

1840

threatened with the United States over the

Maine boundary; the province called up all
and voted £10,000 in support of
the Mother Country.

its militia,

Constitutional questions
in 1830.

the

came

to the fore

For many years the leading

Colony was the

Joseph Howe.

distinguished

man

of

patriot,

The same Council decided

executive and legislative matters.

Cape Breton Island, which had a different
Nova Scotia, was united to
Immigration
it in 1773, but separated in 1784.
into the districts of Cape Breton Island was
history from that of

HISTORY
discouraged,

and as

it

58

was found impossible

to form any stable council, the district was

again reunited to

Nova

Scotia in 1820.

The full triumph of responsible government
came with the Liberal victory at the poll in
1847.
The full recognition of the principle
dates from 1848, when the Ministry succeeded
in cancelling the

appointment

(in

the Governor's son-in-law to the
Provincial Secretary of

Grey's

despatch of

Nova

1847

1844) of
office

Scotia.

stated

the

of

Lord
true

principles upon which executive as distinct
from administrative office should be held.
The coal mines of Cape Breton Island and
Nova Scotia were ceded to the Duke of York
in 1827,

who

transferred

and thus from that date
Mining

Association

them
till

to his creditors,

1857 the General

controlled

all

Nova

Scotian mines.

New

Brunswick

of the mainland.

the maritime province

from Nova

was due to loyalist immigration.

Scotia in 1784
Its history

is

Its separation

is

summed up

in the fight for

responsible government under the leadership

Lemuel Allan Wilmot. The chief points
on which conflict occurred were the position
of the Church of England and the allied
problem of education.
of

54

CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
Edward

Island (lie de St Jean), so
honour of the Duke of Kent
(father of Queen Victoria), was united to
Nova Scotia in 1763, and separated in 1769.
The administration in the old colonial days
did not trouble overmuch about the advantage of the residents. Thus in 1767 nearly
the whole of the island was alienated by
the Crown to absentees, and all the constitutional questions which have arisen con-

Prince

named

in 1798 in

cerned the relation of the people (to

whom

a Representative Assembly was granted in
1773) and the landowners.

These questions
years, and after a

remained acute for many
Commission had sat in 1860, an Act was
passed in 1864 to remedy the grievances of
the inhabitants.

IV.

—THE

DOMINION

In the autumn of the year 1864 delegates

from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince
Edward Island met at Charlottetown (P.E...

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imperi imperialist implement impli impolit impordifficulti import importun impos imposs impractic impress improv inabl inaccur inadequ inaugur inc incid incit includ inclus incom incometax incompat inconsist incorpor increas inde indebted indecis indefinit indemnifi independ index indi india indian indiffer indign indirect indispens indisposit individu induc industri inevit inexpens inexplic infanc infantri infecti infinit inflat inflict influenc influx inform infring ing inhabit injuri inland inlet inn innumer insan inscript inshor insid insist inspect inspector inspir instanc instead institut instruc instrucand instruct instructor insuffici insurg insurrect integr intend intens intensifi intent inter inter-coloni inter-department inter-provinci intercoloni intercours interest interfer interior intern internet interpacif interpos intersect inth intim intoler introduc introduct invad invalu invari invas invent inver invest invit involv ireland irish iroji iron iroquoi irregular 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leftthemaritim legal legi legisi legisl legisla legislatur legitim leif leisur lemuel lend length lengthi lennoxvill lenora less lessli let letelli lethargi lethbridg letter level lever levi lew liabil liabl liamentari liber librari licenc lie lieuten lieutenant-gener lieutenant-governor lieutenantgovernor life light like lime limeston limit limita line liner link liovernor lise lisgar lishment list littl live livelihood liverpool ll.d lll loan loathor lobster local locat lock lock-out lock-up locomot lodg lofti lome lomer london long longer longfellow longitud look lord lore los lose loss lost loui louisbourg louisiana loup lovel low lower loyal loyalist loyalti ls.net luke lukewarm lumber lumbermen lundi lunenbourg lunenburg lutheran luxuri lyon lyttleton m m.a m.p macdonald machin machineri mackenzi mackerel maclean macmillan made magishav magistr magnesit magnific magnitud mail main mainland mainspr mainstay maintain majest major make maker malayan malcont male man manag managemont 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molest molybdenum moment monck moncton monetari money monopocanada monopolis monoton mont montana montcalm month montmagni montmor montreal moos moot moral morang moreov mormon morn morrow mortal moslem most mother motion motor motor-car moun mount mountain mouth move movement mr mrs much mud mullet municip muniti murder murray mussel must mutual n n-metal n.b n.s nakush name nanaimo nappan narrow natal nate nation nationalis nationalisaedwin nationalist nativ natur naturalis naval navi navig navvi nc near nearer nearest necesof necess necessari necessarili need neglect neglig negoti neighbour neither nelson net network neutral never never-end nevertheless new new-com newark newfoundland news newspap next niagara niceti nicholson nickel nicola night nine nineteen nineteenth nineti ninety-seven ninety-two niob nion nipigon nomi nomin nomine non non-attend non-christian non-exist non-jew non-met non-metal non-resid nonand none nonlim nootka nord normal norsemen north north-east north-west northeast northern northumberland northward northwest notabl note noth notic nov nova novel novelist novemb nowaday nowher nullifi num number numbrunswick numer o oa oat obe obey object obnoxi observ obsolet obstacl obstruct obtain occas occup occupi occur ocean ochr ockan oct octob odd offal offenc offens offer offic offici ofproduct often ohio oi oil okanagan old old-ag older oldest omiss omnipot one one-half one-quart one-seventh one-third one-twentieth onethird onivefls ont ontario ontariomanitoba onward ooundari ope open open-air oper opinion oppon opporfarm opportun oppos opposit orchard ordeal order ordinari ordnanc ore oregon organis origin orlean osborn oswego ot other otherwis ottawa ouell ought ous out outlet outpost output outsid outstand outweigh overcam overcom overdu overit overlap overmuch oversea overtak overwhelm owe owen own owner ownership oxford oxgal oxon oyster p p.e.i p.q pace pacif pack packag pagan page paid paid-up paign panama pani pap paper paper-mak papineau paradis parallel parbritish pari parish park parkman parlia parliaand parliament parliamentari part parti particip particular partnership pass passag passeng passport past pastur pasturag patent patient patricia patriot patrol pauper paus pay payment pbovinc pea peac peach pear peas pend penetr peninsula pennaquid penni pens pension peopl per peradventur perceiv percentag perfect perform perhap peril period perman permit persever person persuad peter peterborough petit petroleum petti phenomen phila philip phipp phosphat physic physiqu pick pictou pier pierr pig pig-iron pike pilgrimag pine pioneer pit pitman pitt pittsburgh place plain plan plant planter plateau platinum play pleas pleasant pledg plenti pli plough plum plumbago plural pnime pocket point poland polar pole polic polici polit poll pollock poor poorhous pop poplar popu popul popula popular porcupin port portag portanc portfolio portion portland pos posit possess possibl post postal postmast postmaster-gener potato poulett poultri poultry-farm poverti power powlett pp practic prairi pratt pre pre-emin preach precaut preced precious predomin prefac prefer prejud prejudic preliminari prelud premier prepar preparatori prerog presbyterian prescott present presid press pressur prestig preston pretend pretens prevail prevent previous prevost price priest prima prime princ princip principl print prison privat privi privileg pro probabl probat problem procedur proceed process proclaim proclam procur produc product produo profe profess profession professor profici profit profound programm progress prohibit project promis promot prompt pronounc proof proper properti proport propos proposit prosecut prospect prospector prosper prostitut protect protectionist protest protruro proud prove provid provinc provincesl provinci provis provision proxim public publish pulp pulp-mak pulp-wood pulpwood punish pupii pupil pur purchas pure purpos pursuit push put putnam pyrit qu quadrilater qualif qualifi qualiti quantiti quarrel quarri quarter quartz quay que quebec queen queensland queenston quentli question quick quiet quit quorum r r.c r.n r.n.w race racial radial radiat rage raid rail railroad railv railway railwayman railwaymen rainbow rainfal raini rais ralli ran ranch rang rank rapid rare raspberri rat rate rather ratif raw ray re re-elect re-establish re-stock reach reacquir read reader readi readili readjust real realis realli rear reason reassign rebel rebellion rebut recal receipt receiv receiver-gener receivergener recent reciproc reckon recognis recognit recollet recon reconcil record recruit rectangular red redeem redistribut redress reduc ree refer reform reformatori refus refut regal regard regim regiment regina reginald region regist regubi regul regular reign reject relat relationship releas reli reliabl relief reliev religi religion relinquish remain remaind remark remedi remind remot remov remun renaiss renam render renew renounc renown reof reorganis repeal replac repli report repr repres represent representa reproach republ repudi repugn repuls reput request requir rescu research resembl reserv resid residuari resign resist resokit resolut resolv resort resourc respect respons rest restat restor restrain restraint restrict result ret retain retali retard retir retreat return reunion reunit rev reveal revenu revers review revis reviv revolt revolut reward rheumat rhode rich richmond rid rideau riel right righteous rigid rigor rigour riker rimouski riot ripen rise risen risk rival rivalri river riverman rivier road road-mak roadmak roadway robert robertson robertson-scott roberv robinson rocki rod rodger rogat roland roll roman romant rome room root rose rossland rotat roug rough round rous rout routin row royal ruari rule run runic rupert rural rush russia rye s.w sack sackvill sacrific safe safeguard saga saguenay said sail salari sale salient sall salmon salmon-can saloon salt salvat sam samia samuel san sanction sand sandwich sane sardin sari sas saskat saskatchewan saskatoon sat sati satiat satisfact satisfi sault save saw sawmil say scale scantili scarc scatter scene sceneri schedul scheme scholar school schuster schuyler scienc scientif scope scot scotch scotia scotian scotland scotsmen scott scottish sea sea-coast sea-fish seal seamen seaport search searchlight seasid season seat seattl seawe seced secess second secondari secret secretari sect section secur see seed seek seem seen seigneur seiz select self self-def self-govern self-governcommun self-support selfgovern selkirk sell seller selv senat send senil senior sens sent sentat sentiment separ separatist septemb seri serious serv servant servat servic sess session set settl settlement settler seven seventeen seventh seventi seventy-six seventy-two sever sex shall shallow shannon shape share sheep shelburn shelter shelv sherbrook shift shingl shintoist ship shipbuild shipyard shook shoot shop shore short short-liv shot shoulder show shown shuswap shut sicker side sieg sieur sight sign signal signatur signet signific sikh silver similar simpkin simpl simpli sinc sincer sing singl singular sion sioner sir sister sit site sitka situat sive six sixteen sixti sixty-eight sixty-f size skagway skeena sketch skill skinner slate slave slaveri slight slocan sloth slower small smaller smallest smart smelt smile smith smoke smooth snatch snow snow-clad snowden snowfal social socialist societi soil sold soldier sole solemn solemnis solemnisa solicitor solicitor-gener solitari solut solv someth sometim somewhat son son-in-law soon sooner sorel soul sound sourc souri south south-east south-west southampton southern southward sovereign space spain spaniard spare spars speak speaker speci special specialis specialist specif specifi specimen speckl specul speculatur speech spent speriti sphere spindl spiritualist spite splendid spoken sport spot sprang spread spring spruce sprung spur squadron squander squar ss st stabl stadacona staff stage stake stamp stand standard standpoint standstil stanford stanley stapl star start state state-own statement statesmen station statist status statut statutori stay ste steadfast steadi steadili steam steamboat steamer steamship steel steer step stephen sterl stern stewart still stimul stipendiari stipul stirl stitut stock stone stood stop stoppag stopping-plac store stori storm storm-toss stormi stoughton stowaway straight strain strait strang strateg strategi stratford strathcona straw strawberri strawboard stream street strength strengthen stretch strict stride strik strike string strip strive strong stronger strongest stronghold struct struggl student studi stupid sturgeon style subject submit subsequ subsidi subsidiari substanti substitut suburb succeed success successor sudburi suffer suffic suffici suffrag sugar sugar-beet suggest suit suitabl sulphur sult sum summer summersid summon sumption sundri sup superb superhuman superintend superior supersed supervis suppli support suppos suppress suprem sur sure surfac surplus surpris surrend surrog surround surtax survey surveyor surviv suspend sustain suver swarm sway swede sweep swept swift sworn sydenham sydney sympathet sympathi sympathis syndic system tabl taco tage tain take taken tangibl tant tap tari tariff task tasmania tate taught tax taxat taylor teacher technic tection teem telegraph telegraphi telephon temiscam temiscouata templ templat ten tenac tend tendenc tender tennswat tent tenur tercentenari tere term terminus terra terribl territori terror test tete textil th tha thank thefrench theme thenc theoret theosophist therefor thetford thing think third thirteen thirti thirty-nin thirty-six thiselton thoma thompson thomson thorough though thought thousand threaten three threw thrive throng throughout throw thrown thus ticonderoga tie till timber time tinu tion tional titan titl tive to-day to-morrow tobacco togeth toil toler ton took topic toronto tort toss total touch toward town township trace trachoma 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