feature of the Nation's Library
specialised information by the most capable and
competent authorities, and every subject dealt with is
brought right up to the point of its relationship to modern
Nothing obsolete finds a place in this series ; each
book provides ample material for thought in its particular
direction and presents knowledge in its most modern
SANE TRADE UNIONISM.
the Osborne Judgment).
MODERN VIEWS ON EDUCATION.
Education in the University of Manchester.
THE PRACTICAL SIDE OF SMALL HOLDINGS.
James Long, Member of Departmental
Committee on Small Holdings.
EUGENICS: A SCIENCE AND AN IDEAL.
THE CASE FOR RAILWAY NATIONALISATION.
Emil Davies (Chairman Railway Nationalisation
THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT.
(Mrs Philip Snowden).
Author of The Story of Evolution, Tha
Evolution of Mind, etc.
OIL FUEL. Vivian
B. Lewes, F.I.C., F.C.S., Professor
Royal Naval College, Greenwich.
of Chemistry at the
THE NATION'S LIBRARY— Continued
THE CASE AGAINST RAILWAY NATIONALISAEdwin
Pratt, Author oi
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR.
THE STORY OF TRUSTS.
M. E. Hirst, M.A. (Birm.).
With an Introduction by F. W. Hirst, Editor of
THE LAND PROBLEM AN IMPARTIAL SURVEY.
By 'Home Counties' (J.
A BOOK OF FOLK-LORE.
H. H. Bassett, Editor Financial Review of Reviews.
B.D., F.R.S.E., F.S.A. (Scot.).
TWENTIETH CENTURY INVENTIONS:
THE STAR WORLD.
Charles Robinson, R.N.
CO-OPERATION AND CO-PARTNERSHIP.
Lovell Price, M.A., Reader
History in the University of Oxford.
POVERTY AND THE STATE.
MODERN GERMANIC NOVELISTS AND DRAMATISTS.
Taco H. de Beer.
THE FUTURE OF EGYPT.
W. Basil Worsfold,
THE RELATIONS OF CAPITAL AND LABOUR.
T. Layton, M.A.
THE PANAMA CANAL.
F.R.G.S., Author of The Andes and the Amazon, etc.
Digitized by the Internet Archive
with funding from
the feeling of the corporate unity of the
discussioa of general politics in
striking features of political
or in the Dominions
takes into consideration
the Imperial bearing of the problems under
with the wider diffusion of knowledge of the
n Dominions and
to give the reader
a general idea of the Dominion of Canada
as a factor in the Empire.
After a short
review of the history of the country, the
and material resources are
and the bonds which unite the Dominion
the Empire are examined.
The Author's thanks are due
Obed Smith, and
of the Provinces.
his indebtedness to the authors
are mentioned in the Bibliography.
he would gratefully mention the assistance of
Mr Roland Burrows,
Barrister-at-Law, whose untiring efforts have
enabled him to complete a task which the
busy Parliamentary Session and
would otherwise have pre-
vented him from accomplishing.
4 Crown Office Row,
POPULATION AND IMMIGRATION
THE DOMINION AND THE PROVINCES
WATERWAYS AND RAILWAYS
RELATIONS BETWEEN THE MOTHER
COUNTRY AND THE DOMINION
an inhabitant of the Mother
Country to understand the immensity of
Canada. All his ideas of space and distance
must be readjusted.
Accustomed to the
and the intercourse of
coasts, the journeys,
Europe, he naturally applies the units of the
of England, Scotland,
Germany, and the other
countries of Western Europe.
Instead of a
miles, and journeys
are counted by days
instead of hours.
Everything in Canada
is on a titanic scale
even the climate is
subject to variations possible, only in a
Canada would surround
the world at the Equator, and the waters
shores are of infinite variety.
In the extreme north the icefield
are free from ice in
the British Columbian coast
as that of England.
broken by innumerable inlets, forming splendid
The seas are full of fish a source
employment for 80,000 fishermen.
But to the British visitor the rivers and lakes
are the greatest surprise.
The rivers are
mighty straits running through the land for
of miles; the lakes are inland
and bear upon their bosoms a mighty
Far out of sight of land a vessel may
be storm-tossed upon waters many hundreds
of miles from the ocean.
The mountains may not wholly surprise
has seen the mountains of
him nothing that is
he approaches the West
the stern Rockies and the
Europe, and ours offer
across the prairies,
snow-clad Selkirk Range, succeeding to the
immensity of the plains, cannot fail to impress
him with their grandeur.
If he has come with the idea that Canada
is a new country devoid of luxuries and even
comforts, he is surprised to find a land whose
history stretches back over 300 years, where
quiet country life can be enjoyed and men can
in the pursuit of learning.
on the other hand he has not given thought to
Canada, but comes with European ideas
astounded at the vigour of
the ease with which the people
what to him are indispensable necesof life, a sign of vigorous growth which
from complete development.
he thinks that there are no classes
But he soon realises that, while
known in Europe do not exist,
has social distinctions, though the
not drawn as in the Old World.
he be worthy of
no matter what his
family, he cannot maintain his position unless
like his father before
him he can make
Canada has neither time, opportunity, nor
desire for the ultra-niceties of the smart set,
nor would the
Canada permit them.
Canadians are rightly proud of their whole-
Again, regarding Canada as a Dominion
Crown, the English
there are vast districts in which the English,
—where the people
charming French dialect
Europe at the Revolution.
In matters of administration, the universal
application of the rule of self-government
familiar to the new-comer, but he will find
understand the Constitution. In
United Kingdom the omnipotence of
as fixed as the laws of gravity,
but Canada's Parliament is limited in two
Firstly, it can only make laws for
far as the Constitution permits.
subject to and not above the
the only law-making body
of the nine Provinces has its
upon the matters entrusted to it without being controlled by the Dominion Parliament. But every law is not
It can be challenged and
pass through the ordeal of a formal
Constitutional struggles are carried on in the
for the judges to say
Parliament or the Provincial Legislature has
powers or not.
South Africa and Australia are united in
The statesmen of these
a similar way.
Dominions have, therefore, a thorough training in the special difficulties which beset a
training which will be invalu-
which the Empire
closer together but also in the administration
of its affairs.
chafe under the restraint of a rigid Constitu-
and its inability to deal with questions
withdrawn from its competence, however
Moreover, loyalty to the Dominion coexists
with loyalty to one's Province.
vitally affecting the
even on matters
In Canada the framers of the Constitution
foresaw the consequences of provincial feeling
North America Act was passed, the
United States had passed through a terrible
war caused by the fact that Congress could
not legislate upon any question which was
not expressly placed within
The individual States alone could pass laws
upon such questions. When the interests of
the Republic demanded that one answer alone
should be given to the Slavery question, State
prevented that answer being given
war had decided which
America Act declared that powers not
expressly given to the Provinces should be
vested in the Dominion, and also gave to
the Dominion a veto over the Provinces.
In Canada, therefore, the struggle has not
been, as in the United States, to extend the
powers of the Central Government so as to
modern problems, but for
Nevertheless the principles are the same, and
the same problems arise for decision. Hardly
had the Dominion started on its career than
stormy questions arose. Manitoba was for
years at issue with the Dominion over educational matters, and ultimately won. Quebec has always asserted the rights of the Provinces,
in settling its
own problems has
Thus the compensation
awarded to the Jesuit Order in 1888 was
assailed, but upheld; and so late as last year
the Province established
right to settle
the form of marriage in accordance with the
disputes, but with less success.
inhabitants of the East, and as often as these
Acts were passed, so often were they
But the Province obtained its wish
through the treaty making power of the
British Government, and the acute difficulties
as to the Japanese in California
Canada as one of the
the Empire is of great
daughter States of
Nearest to the British
next to them, the largest
has cordially taken part in
the Conferences which have been held since
and which form
so important a factor
in enabling the statesmen of the
consider Imperial questions at large.
Conference, Canada has hitherto
been represented at these Conferences by
Liberal Ministers, who have applied to these
problems the principle that every solution
must be compatible with the rights of selfgovernment.
an alternative view now
should, in London, be a centralisation of the
greater Imperial forces like the Navy, on the
ground that the British Admiralty can do
better than a
of scattered Dominions.
Laurier has apparently disclaimed any right
Canada at the moment to be consulted on
treaties, because adhesion in any
form implies that Canada will be bound to
take action if war broke out, and would thus
lose her free hand.
Thus in the debates on
the Canadian Naval programme of 1910 he
England is at war, we are at war, and liable to
I do not say we shall always be attacked,
neither do I say that we would take part in all the
wars of England. That is a matter that must be
determined by circumstances, upon which the
Canadian Parliament will have to pronounce and will
have to decide in its own best judgment.
debate on 27th February, 1913, he
'The conception of the policy which is occupying
is based upon the supposed
statements of Great Britain; our conception of a
our attention to-day
policy of naval defence
based upon our faith in
the gradual development of the Empire.
the difference between our policy and that of our
proclaim to the world your belief
that Great Britain cannot fight her battles alone.
proclaim the same
belief; but, at the same time,
you want to obtain a true conception of
the grandeur of Great Britain, let the young nations
South Africa prepare their own naval defences,
and throw around their seaports and their towns
line of effective defence,
should an emergency
take their place in the
our policy, and upon
challenge the verdict of the Canadian people.
have said enough to show that
cannot support this measure we have nevertheless
no intention of folding our arms and saying we have
no duty to perform with regard to Great Britain.
On the contrary, we have a duty, but our conception
of it is different.
We must have a policy of some
kind, but what policy
words must not be
far as the great majority
of Canadians are concerned, there
Dominion to the Empire.
The part that she played in Egypt and South
Africa, and the preference granted to British
as to the duty of the
goods manifest the sincerity of the feeling
towards the Mother Country.
are agreed as to the duty
Sir Wilfrid Laurier has expressed
view that the Empire must be drawn
on the 12th
June, 1897, at Liverpool, he said,
'As thoughts of separation disappear thoughts of
union, of a closer union, take their place.
be the future of the British Empire?
present citizenship of the Colonies, satisfied as they
when the sentiments and
a closer union
aspirations in favour of
have to be met, and acknowledged,
estimation, the solution
be found in the old British principle of representation.'
The Right Hon. R. L. Borden, the present
Pnime Minister of Canada, emphasised in
a recent speech in the House of
Canada the view that Canadians should have
a real voice and vote in Imperial matters.
are to remain an
cannot have five foreign policies and five separate
say that the people of the Overseas
Dominions cannot be indefinitely excluded from such
a voice as may be just in foreign affairs if this Empire
is to be continued.
Our opponents say no voice
and possible neutrality in time of war; we say:
a just voice of all the Dominions in foreign policy
and in the concerns of the Empire, and a united
Empire to face every peril.'
The total absence of wars directly affecting
Canada in 1915 the celebrations of the
Hundred Years' Peace will be held has
resulted in discussions on the subject turning
on general principles of government more
than is possible in England.
Earlier in the speech Mr Borden said,
'We all know that up to the present time the
Mother Country has practically taken entire charge
of our defence upon the high seas, and, if I understand aright the utterances of men, not only in the Mother Country but all over Canada, the time
seems to have come when certain responsibilities
must be undertaken by these great Dominions
'I say that the defence of
be by the
united naval forces of the whole Empire, and I
it would be impossible for
on the Atlantic, or a single fleet
further maintain that
single fleet unit
unit on the Pacific, to defend the shores or coast-
Canada against such an attack as might be
if an attack were to take place.
other hand, if you have the British Navy, the most
powerful navy in the world, if you co-operate with
it, if you assist in maintaining and building it up,
I venture to say that you have arrived, for the
present at least, at the best solution of this problem
that could possibly be devised, and in support of
this I take the clear
that the best
statement of the Admiralty,
which Canada can aid the
Empire at the present time is by the provision of
a certain number of the strongest and most powerful
money can procure
or science can
These utterances are of vital importance.
They show that in Canada, as elsewhere,
not yet informed on the
question of the joint action of the Empire.
We are not yet decided upon the form of
a closer union. We say that it is desirable.
Our statesmen consult and endeavour to
cultivate the closest understanding, but unless
the fundamental principle of self-government
and no part of the
Empire has yet seriously faced the problem
how or in what proportion such representatives are to be chosen or what powers are to be surrendered by the Mother Country and
the Dominions to enable this to be done.
Canadians may be unwilling to sacrifice any
to be superseded closer union can only be
but the people of this
the cataclysmic change
which such a union would involve
The immediate material future
Last year over 400,000 new-
a tendency for
to settle in the towns, which can only
exist as centres for
most of all
a vigorous agricultural
with capital, so
but willing hands are always welcome.
The other countries of Europe have discovered Canada, and thousands of aliens better,
flock there every year.
immigrants from the United States as British,
the percentage of the total population in 1901
must not be
forgotten, however, that this does not include
the French Canadians,
who form more than
of the people.
shown the same power of assimilating foreigners as the Mother Country. In two generations their descendants have merged in the two-sevenths
prevailing English or French population of the
where they have settled.
make good Canadians;
them know not England.
They can never
be made into Englishmen, but they might
become good Imperialists.
no doubt that Canada will, as in
the past, attract labour from other lands.
Capital is also needed.
As in most rapidly
developing countries, Canada suffers from two
opposite evils lack of capital and too abundant capital. Rightly applied, borrowed money consolidates rising industries; but if squandered, the day of reckoning may involve not There
only the delinquents but the whole com-
One must say that no country
history has absorbed in remunerative enterprises as
capital in the
same period as
has Canada during the past thirteen or fourteen years.
In a notable address recently delivered at
the Royal Colonial Institute, Sir
Williams-Taylor, of the
'Acceding to the most
reliable English records,
Great Britain and Ireland have invested more
any other country
only the United States
total being approxi-
mately £430,449,000, made up as follows
Sundries not publicly recorded (estimated) 20,000,000
Frederick Williams -Taylor said in the same
'Though the sum of money invested
Great Britain and Ireland aggregates £430,449,000
and although some £225,043,900 out of that
Canada's requirements are not yet
demands must continue
to be developed.
this great British
It is true there
to her phenomenal progress, but
the nature of a pause.
be a check
be merely in
The development of the
this country and from
Dominion with funds from
other countries will continue beyond peradventure,
under proper advice, there
better field for investment the world over.'
sound business concerns and municipal development, but not for speculation. Urban land has boomed throughout Western Canada,
tribe of speculators has inflated the
to keep land jobbing within reasonable limits.
There is some indisposition among manufac-
and wholesale merchants to extend
Western credits, and there seems no reason
to doubt that any inability to meet payments
is explained partly by general land speculaturers
Douglas, chairman of the
Wholesale Dry-goods Section of the Toronto
of Trade, said, in April, 1918
'The banking pressure exercised
seriously affected settlements there
throughout Canada generally.
People of the highest
standing are unable to obtain banking accommodation, and, as
a consequence, jobbers have to be con-
tent to accept smaller payments than usual and have
that trade conditions generally are healthy, and that
an easing of the money market will make them normal
again, and this may be looked for in the near future.'
Canadian Bank of Commerce, in a statement
to the Toronto News, said
a quite abnormal position.
Canada has not had a depression since 1893 and the
The reason is immigration and the consequent building operations. following three or four years.
I should say that a period of depression
have been saved by an immigration
equalled by no other country in relation to its population.
Completion of the trans-continental railways will mean that men now working as navvies overdue.
As a result the foodstuffs
will be put on the land.
which they consumed will be released for export,
and in addition these men will produce something in
Too large a proportion
Canada has not been going on
the land. The consumers of foodstuffs have increased
at a more rapid rate than the producers of foodstuffs.
Branch building will take a considerable number of
excess of their consumption.
of the immigrants to
navvies, but a great
be released and be
able to go on the land. 1
who know her with
H.R.H. the Duke
finely expressed this
his speech, April, 1913, to the
'To those Englishmen who have not been to
Canada I can only say the sooner they go there the
being built up.
learn how, under British
British freedom, the great
a great future before Canada.
to keep pace with the immigration that
know and we
railways that have
admire the magnificent
under such great
and at such great expense, in developing
I do not know where Canada would
be without those lines. But I hope that, as the railways are pushing forward, so also will the roads push forward. I hope that every year the Government may see its way to do all they can to promote the great highways which will have such an impordifficulties
tant future in Canada.
Canada is a great field for all Englishmen who
have a little money and are ready to put their shoulder
to the wheel, and my advice to the young Englishmen is that, if they are prepared to work, and if they are prepared to believe in the country, they will get
Times, 25th April, 1913.
What is the future of Canada.
may say that she will, as in the
to none in loyalty and devotion to the Empire,
unless the indifference or the stupidity of
danger, because Home Ministries are composed of men who, by training and environment, are by no means always sympathetic drives the
out of the Imperial ambit.
Secondly, that the immense development of the
years will continue at an even
when the Dominion has come
session of her agricultural
into full pos-
resources she will be one of the wealthiest
and most populous countries in the world;
and, lastly, and most important of all, her
sons and daughters will form a united people,
second to none in courage, steadfastness, and
an Imperial Factor
to the year 1867 the history of Canada
—that of New
comprises four separate stories
France, including Upper Canada, the Maritime
Provinces, the Fur-traders of the North
Dominion' came into actual being, and the
land started on a new destiny. Hope, which
had brightened into promise, has now
merged into the light of success.
earliest discovery, the strongest claim-
ants hailing from Europe are the Vikings.
a.d., Bjarin Hergulfson, driven
by storms while on the voyage from Iceland
to Greenland, sighted land to the West.
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
taught the Gospel in Greenland, to seek this
in the year 1000
he coasted the
shores of North America, visiting Kelluland
But the voyages of the Norsemen were
mere incidents. They left few tangible proofs
and for a long time before the
Columbus the sagas were the only
of their visits,
records of these voyages to the
Accurate knowledge commences with the
discoveries of the explorers of the Renaissance.
from the trade routes to the East by
the Moslems, they sailed to the West in search
Cathay and the
and found instead
Henry VII. granted
patent to John Cabot,
mariners sighted land on 24th June, 1497, and
Prima Terra Vista' is probably Cape
Bona Vista in Newfoundland. After him
came seamen of all nations, one of whom, the
Baron de Levy, in 1518, made the first
attempt to found a French colony in America.
The real discoverer of Canada was Jacques
Cartier. In 1534 he visited the St Lawrence
where he found the land
and the fairest that could
The following year he
possibly be found.'
sailed up the St Lawrence and visited the
Indian villages of Stadacona (Quebec) and
'hotter than Spain,
His report led the
French king to authorise a settlement under
'to explore, to colonise,
and to convert
on his second
voyage to Canada in 1541, but
Cap Rouge proved a
already on his return
and he was
voyage when de
Roberval sailed in 1542.
Not for many years did the English compete.
Newfoundland, acquired by Sir Humphrey
Gilbert, on 3rd August, 1583, became the
oldest English colony, and its fisheries afforded
a rich return. In the extreme North furs
were to be obtained, but at first the lands
of the New World round the St Lawrence
did not attract the English.
of what is
colonised in separate communities,
and without community
only in face of grave
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
Their possessions extended only so
far as the needs of a growing population
of trade required.
clung to the sea coast, spreading westward
only by degrees.
French colonisation, on the other hand,
was under the direct supervision of the king,
whose agents were quick to see the possibilities
Canadians have always been loyal Catholics.
They spread rapidly along the St Lawrence
and thence southwards
to the Mississippi, and onwards to the Gulf
to the Great Lakes,
The English settlements were shut
thus secured early success.
But the French were few in number, and help
from France was impossible while the English
of the sea.
In 1609, Champlain,
them began the ultimate
who was deputy
his career as the
great coloniser of
France,' as the district round the St
Under him the conthe Indians proceeded apace, and
branch of the Franciscan Order at Quebec,
building a fort there in 1620.
The year 1625
notable for the appearance of the Jesuits.
Associates was formed to carry on the
government and develop the resources of
obtained a grant of
Dominating the chief
the French king
In 1634 the company built a fort at Three
and founded a settlement at Montreal
The company was reorganised in
1645, when the fur trade was thrown open to
the settlers, but it failed in its object, and
formed a new company to carry on the work,
but this also was a failure, and under an
Edict of April, 1663, Canada became a Royal
Province of France.
Meantime, the Scottish settlement of Nova
into conflict with the French.
the 18th July, 1628, three vessels com-
David Kirke gained a victory
near Gasp6 Point, and
captured seventeen out of eighteen ships.
22nd July, 1629, he captured Quebec, and held
until 1632, when all French possessions in
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
North America were restored by the Treaty
Champlain reof St Germaine-en-Laye.
appeared in 1633, and remained in command
until his death on Christmas Day, 1635.
Frontenac, the next great colonist, became
Governor in 1672, and rapidly extended the
power of France to the Great Lakes. His
successes over the Indians shook the friendship of the Five Nations with the English, and a bitter conflict began which continued
almost without a halt until 1760.
The French were gradually
and Marquette discovered
on 17th June, 1673, and thus
showed the way to La
the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico, where
he arrived on 9th April, 1682.
This led to the
French acquisition of Louisiana and the founding of New Orleans by de Bienville in 1718. The New Englanders, on their side, under
Phipps, organised an expedition against Quebec
in 1690, but it miscarried. An English attack
on La Prairie, near Montreal, in 1691, was
successful, and Port Royal (Annapolis) was
reduced by Nicholson in 1710.
succeeded in the sack of York (Maine), Feb-
and on Oyster River, and
captured Fort Pennaquid in 1696, but were
unsuccessful in attacking Wells (Maine), in
were the English in their
expedition to the St Lawrence in 1711.
English on 19th July,
beaver grounds of the Iroquois Indians to
the south of the Great Lakes.
was the spur which drove them to Empire.
The Maritime Provinces, then known as
La Cadie or Acadia, had a separate history.
The first colony was founded by de Mont in
Royal (Annapolis), but his
patent was cancelled in 1607 and the settlement abandoned. It was soon re-established, but was destroyed in 1613 by Samuel Oxgall,
the forces of the Virginia
In 1621, Sir William Alexander
Scottish patent from
Scotia (which then in-
Brunswick), and Gordon obtained
a similar patent as to Cape Breton Island,
which was styled New Galloway.
grants were confirmed by Charles I. in 1625,
but nothing remains of the original Scottish
settlements but the
Nova Scotian baronets founded by
and the memory of the capture of
the Order of
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
in 1629; for the Treaty of St
these lands to the
Cromwell's capture of Acadia in
1654 was undone by the Treaty of Breda in
acquired by the
English in 1713, by the Treaty of Utrecht.
The northern lands fell to the English.
Henry Hudson, who discovered Hudson Bay
in 1610, was followed by Button, 1612, Baffin,
1616, and many others. Foxe completed the
exploration of Hudson Bay in 1668.
French were attempting to reach Hudson Bay
by land, and Albanel succeeded in 1671.
The Hudson Bay Company, formed by
floyal Charter on 2nd May, 1670, established
Fort Rupert, Fort Hayes or Moose Fort, Fort
Albany, and Fort Nelson on the shores of
Hudson Bay. The French in Canada formed
the rival Compagnie du Nord in 1682.
Fighting between these companies immediately followed.
for a period
Several times the French
overcame the English, but
1713 they finally relinquished their claims.
of Utrecht, which came into
marks a stage in the history of
The French possessions were
limited to New France and Cape Breton
Island, with the He de St Jean (Prince Edward
force in 1713,
Newfoundland (except St Pierre and
Miquelon) and all the land north of New France
to the English,
was undefined, and the Treaty clearly
could not end the struggle.
were the scene of never-ending war, even
when there was profound peace in Europe.
Cape Breton Island not only safeguarded
the St Lawrence, but menaced Nova Scotia
and New England. The New Englanders
took up the challenge, and on 17th June, 1745,
captured Louisbourg, the stronghold of the
a siege of forty-seven days, but
was nullified by the Peace of
In 1749 Halifax was founded, and by 1752
possessed 4000 inhabitants. In 1753 German
entered on a
Lutherans were settled at Lunenbourg.
the other hand, the French inhabitants of
could not be expected to be
well affected to England, were not properly
protected against the machinations of the
preaching of a few
they became hope-
and at last were deported
and scattered about the New England colonies.
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
been, their sufferings call for the
theme of Longfellow's
Meanwhile the French had made good their
hold on the country from the Great Lakes to
the Mississippi. The upper reaches of that
unknown when La Salle made his
down to its mouth in 1682,
had been visited in 1700, and the coureurs de
bois had heard of the Lake of the Woods and
of the Lac des Assiniboines (Lake Winnipeg).
who commanded the
post of Nipigon (founded in 1728), on the
north shore of Lake Superior, continued these
1743 he saw in the
de Bienville, who had been sent to
distance a spur of the
French control over the Ohio,
found English traders there. Conflict at once
George Washington, sent to assert the
English claims, found in the spring of 1754
that Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh) had been
built to withstand
under General Braddock against the Fort,
but his disastrous defeat inflicted a heavy
blow on British prestige, which was not
removed by the defeat
under Dieskau later in the year.
not yet been declared when the
Canadians captured Fort Oswego in 1756.
were under the comwhose genius triumphed
and by the end of
over the English
1757 they had to admit failure at all
Pitt changed all this.
After a second
days, in which Wolfe
distinguished himself, Louisbourg was again
captured by the English on 27th July, 1758.
was followed by
Frontenac, and in
repulse at Ticonderoga
November an English
Duquesne only to find that it had been
burnt and abandoned by the French. The
French were beaten at all points. Help from
France was denied them by the English fleet.
who commanded the
now assumed the offensive.
Just before Christmas, 1758, Pitt named
Wolfe to command an expedition against
and was aided
by expeditions from New
advanced by Lake Champlain.
the conqueror of Dieskau, captured Niagara,
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
In these straits Montcalm remained at
Quebec to withstand Wolfe.
his plans, landed at Wolfe's
of the river, and, after
on the night of 12th September, 1759. Next
morning found him in battle array on the
Plains of Abraham. The attack of the French
failed, but Wolfe fell in the moment of
victory, and his opponent Montcalm was also
mortally wounded. This great and memorable
victory sealed the fate of Quebec.
Montcalm's lieutenant, de Levis, was at Montreal.
He advanced to the aid of the city, rallying
the fugitives on the way, but the city surrendered on the day when he reached its walls. In the following spring he again advanced,
and, after gaining the battle of Ste. Foy,
invested the city, but, failing to effect
capture, he raised the siege in May.
then remained the last stronghold of France
on 6th September, 1760, marks the end of the
French Empire in America.
By the Peace of Paris, signed on 10th February, 1763, the King of France renounced all pretensions to Nova Scotia, and ceded to the
United Kingdom Canada with
dencies, the island of Cape Breton, and
islands in the St Lawrence.
All the territory
to the left of the Mississippi was declared to
be British. The British flag waved over the
whole coast of North America from Florida to
the Arctic seas.
(QUEBEC AND ONTARIO)
During a period of eighty years after the
fall of Montreal, Canada experienced almost
all the constitutional experiments of England.
She had been under the despotic rule of the
representatives of the French king; military
rule followed the events of 1760.
administration in the hands of
nominees of the English kings was substituted,
then the legislature was made elective; but
with curious blindness the Imperial Parlia-
to perceive that representative
government was not the whole secret of the
Only after rebellion
had broken out in 1837 did the genius of one
man solve the problem by pointing out that
representative government could not suffice
so long as the representatives of the people
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
did not bear the responsibility of govern-
France under a
regime which had been set up by an Edict of
The Governor, the Intendant,
and the Council held despotic
power. The basis of the law was the Custom
of Paris, and the Council formed the Supreme
Court, hearing appeals from the three Courts
of Quebec, Three Rivers, and Montreal.
Petty jurisdiction was vested in the seigneurs,
whose lands lying along the river front were
cultivated by the habitants, who held under
Nowhere was there a
vestige of popular
not even a trace of municipal
The Feudal system
military rule established in 1760
the English was to be replaced as soon as
indeed promised by the King's Proclamation
of 7th October, 1763.
The promised plan
impossible to alter the law for
Moreover, as the troubles which led to the
founding of the United States arose and
who then sympathised with
land and as to the
both as to the law of the
settled for the time
impolitic to place
hands of the English
clergy. The former
by an opinion of the
(14th April, 1766), that
as to land
was in 1766 consecrated Bishop of Quebec.
The Quebec Act, 1774, endeavoured to
settle these difficulties for ever.
Canada was declared to apply to all land except
that granted as freehold by the Crown. Wills
could be made in French or English form.
The criminal law was to be English. The
The government was vested in
a nominated Council, whose number was fixed
at a minimum of seventeen and a maximum
of twenty-three, with power to levy such
The American Revolution did not extend
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
The General Congress at
delphia, in October, 1774, sent
the Canadians, and followed
an address to
in May, 1775,
by attacks on Ticonderoga and Crown Point.
But they recognised that Canada could not
be compelled to come in against her will.
Misled by a report of Philip Schuyler, who
had been sent to ascertain the feeling of the
was captured on 13th November, 1775, but
an attack on Quebec became a blockade
and was finally abandoned.
After the Peace of Paris in 1783, boundary
disputes arose between the new Republic and
In 1818 the line of the 49th
N. latitude was fixed as the boundary
from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky
Mountains. In 1842 the Ashburton Treaty
settled the Maine boundary dispute.
There was little demand for popular government, but the nominated Council failed to satisfy the needs of Canada. Constant friction
arose between the English and French settlers,
and with a view to settle the problem of
administration the Constitutional Act, 1791,
Canada (Quebec) kept, and still keeps, its
French laws and customs.
divided Upper from Lower Canada.
most of the loyalists
home, became subject
to English law.
Opposition as was natural
came from the British minority in Lower
Each had an elected Legislative
Assembly, but the executive power remained
with the Governor and his Council.
In Lower Canada there was little race hatred
and no religious animosity. Until separate
churches were built Protestant services were
In 1793, when
Anglican bishop was appointed, there
was no Anglican church building in Quebec,
and only six clergymen in the Province, but
religious differences arose, especially on educational
In 1773 the Jesuit estates
They were regarded
devoted to education, and, when George
proposed to confer them on General Amherst,
such a storm of protest arose that the project
In 1832 they were definitely
assigned for the purposes of education, and,
on the formation
became the property
Province of Quebec.
In 1888 the Province
restored Jesuit Order.
Lower Canada took her share
in the fighting
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
with America in the war of 1812.
Chateauguay was won by a force of 900
French Canadians and 50 Indians against
overwhelming odds, and Quebec participated in the feelings against the States to which the war gave birth.
the Province did not prosper.
Religious disputes accentuated racial feeling,
and occasioned the founding of a French
newspaper in 1806.
The Executive was
but the suggestion, made in 1814,
that appointments to the Executive Council
the Assembly was not
was made a member of the Council. In 1818
a civil list was established.
Quarrels arose with Upper Canada over the
imports came to that
Province through Lower Canada, and conse-
quently the customs revenue was divided.
In 1819 the existing arrangement came to an
fresh one could be
deadlock raised the question of reunion, and
to bring about this result
introduced into the British Parliament, but
was fiercely opposed by the French Canadians,
and supported by very few. Consequently
only the settlement of trade disputes was
attempted by the Act, which became law as
the Canada Trade Act, 1822.
that no fresh duty could be imposed without
the sanction of Upper Canada, and that the
proportion due to
Upper Canada should be submitted to arbitraThe award (published 23rd July, 1825)
fixed that share at one-quarter.
the confidence of the French Canadians, and
breaking point. The Administration suffered a
crushing defeat in the elections of 1827, and a
complete deadlock arose.
Commons appointed a
consider the best solution, but
no one to suggest the grant of responsible
Electoral reform in 1829 raised the
with the Executive.
but did not reconcile
In 1832 election riots
occurred at Montreal, and doubts whether the
Constitution was compatible with free govern-
ment were suggested. In February, 1884, the
Assembly passed a series of ninety-two
resolutions which form the French Canadian
Declaration of Rights.
Racial feeling ran
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
and the elections of that year were
marked by great bitterness. Lord Gosford
was sent out with a Royal Commission in 1835,
but he utterly failed. Next year the Assembly
government, and in 1837 the Administration
did not dare to
the Assembly together.
Rebellion was being preached, in spite of
the powerful protests of the
Bishop of Montreal.
riot occurred in that
on 6th November, 1837.
issued against Papineau, the chief leader, and
seven escaped and the
other two were rescued.
Insurrection at once
resistance at St Denis, but were crushed at
St Charles, and the capture of St Eustache on
13th December, 1837, ended the short-lived
struggle for responsible government.
Upper Canada had been passing through
At first nothing seemed less
likely. About 10,000 loyalists and discharged
soldiers settled in Upper Canada between
1783 and 1785
most of these came from
the United States in order to live and die
a similar cycle.
under the British
Order in Council
of 1789 granted to each child of a loyalist
200 acres of land, and every loyalist and his
was to be distinguished by the
'U.E.' (United Empire).
In 1791 the capital
Newark Toronto became the
town in 1794.
Soon after the peace, American citizens
began to cross the border, and fears arose that
annexation to the States would result. In 1798
a steady flow of British immigrants, mostly
from the Highlands of Scotland, commenced.
There was much intercourse with the
States, but the war of 1812 marked a distinct
change. Upper Canada was invaded. The
invaders were met with determined opposition.
General Brock, the Acting Governor, captured
October an American force which attacked
Queenston on the Niagara River was forced
In 1813 the chief events were
the annihilation of the British lake
the Battle of Lake Erie, and the Battle of
In 1814 the hard-fought battle
Lane was claimed by both sides,
but the Americans retreated, and no decisive
fighting ensued. The war had a double result.
gave the Canadians confidence in them-
and roused an antipathy against the
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
United States which
salient factors of
remains one of the
Upper Canada was
administered by a clique called, somewhat
inaccurately, the 'Family Compact,' because
those in control of the government were very
was proving a great success.
Rideau Canal and the Welland Canal were
completed about this period, but much
'jobbery' had marred these undertakings and
roused feeling against the governing classes.
Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that discontent was growing, and though Wm. Lyon Mackenzie's paper, The
Colonial Advocate, failed, the feelings which
expressed were acute.
distinctly claimed in 1828.
discontent might have been avoided
the Administration had been wisely conducted,
but the Governor and Council disagreed with
Supplies were refused, but the
only result was the defeat of the discontented
at the election of 1884.
5th December, 1837, without waiting for a
Convention which had been summoned for
the spring of 1838, Mackenzie at the head of
men marched on Toronto
With rebellion in both Canadas, the Home
Government for once acted promptly. The
constitution was suspended and the country
placed under martial law. Lord Durham was
sent out to administer the country, but his
find a solution of the
problems of government.
and resigned righteously indignant at the stupidly lukewarm support he was given in the Imperial Parliament.
He left the French unconciliated, and
the separatist movement in full force. At
he failed lamentably, but his
triumph has been complete. He was the first
to state the principle upon which alone this
Empire can be based that the government
must be carried on according to the wishes of
the people. In local affairs the Governor must
follow, not his
views, not those of the
Home Government, but the advice of those
whom the people of the colony have chosen as
The Home Government accepted Lord
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
Durham's advice and decided to reunite the
Charles Powlett Thomson
(Lord Sydenham and Toronto) was sent out
as Governor to inaugurate the
new system, but
perceiving that the absence of local govern-
ment was one
of the chief sources of friction,
he carried a scheme through the
Then a Proclamation was issued declaring the Union of Upper
and Lower Canada to come into force on
10th February, 1841. The elections were at
once held, and a French Canadian was
elected Speaker of the first Parliament.
of the first Acts was to provide Upper Canada
Council of Lower Canada.
with a system of local government.
A system of
Education was established, and a Board of
other useful Acts were passed.
worked an improvement. Immigration had
dropped to 8000 in 1838; it now rose rapidly.
In 1841 over 28,000 new-comers arrived; in
1842 over 44,000.
Lord Sydenham had completed his task
and was about to sail for home when he died
on 19th September, 1841.
His successors became involved in difficulties which showed that they had not taken to heart the secret which Lord Durham had
and it was not until the appointment
Lord Elgin that the principles of responsible
governmentwere admitted in all their bearings.
elections of 1847 resulted in the defeat of
the Ministry; he at once sent for the leaders
of the victorious party to form a ministry,
upon the advice
of the leaders of
the Parliamentary majority.
The Colony began to pass through
which strained its resources to
the utmost. The potato famine in Ireland led
to the influx of over 100,000 Irish, whose
sufferings called attention to the need of
immigration regulations. The British Corn
Laws were repealed, and this reversal of the
policy of centuries, restated so recently as
1843 in the Canadian Corn Act, caused a great
which was not alleviated
until the repeal of the Navigation Acts in 1849
completed the work of the reformers and threw
the St Lawrence open to the shipping of the
dislocation of trade,
again came to
Elgin was asked to assent to the Rebellion
Losses Bill of 1849, which indemnified rebels
as well as loyalists.
A storm of protest arose,
but Lord Elgin gave his assent.
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
would he veto
rightly feeling that, as
Imperial question or charge was involved,
him to accept the
Riots at Montreal only resulted in a change
of the seat of government.
sat alternately at
Quebec and Toronto
when Bytown was
selected as the capital
and renamed Ottawa.
Before Lord Elgin departed the Colony had
entered on a career of prosperity, aided by
the Reciprocity Treaty which he negotiated
with the United States in 1854.
products of both countries, gave equal rights
on the St Lawrence, with its
and on the Great Lakes, and in addi-
tion, reciprocal fishing rights in certain of the
treaty ceased to have force in 1866, having
been denounced by the United States.
Problems of transport also began to attract
Samuel Cunard, in 1839, established
to leave England for America.
In 1849 Joseph Howe of Nova Scotia advocated a railway from Halifax to the St Lawrence, a plan which was eventually
Allan Line began to run
to Europe from
Halifax in 1852.
The beginnings of protection are visible in
the Budget of 1859, which is remarkable for
the convincing reply of Gait, the Canadian
Finance Minister, to the complaint of the
Colonial Secretary that duties were levied
tained the right of self-governing countries
to settle their
were so indecisive that no stable
Government could be formed.
Governments of Canada
(Quebec and Ontario) seriously took in hand
the negotiations which led to the formation
of the Dominion.
The expulsion of the French settlers in
Acadia lefttheMaritime Provinces very scantily
populated, but efforts were successfully
to attract settlers on a large scale,
the Peace of Paris the influx of loyalists from
new American Republic
so increased the
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
Brunswick was con-
a separate colony in 1784.
Scotia has always been in close touch
Halifax was until 1909 the
headquarters of the North American squadron,
and was garrisoned by
have served in the
Royal Navy, and its forests have furnished
many a ship. Agriculture and shipbuilding
were the sole industries until 1798 when
coal was discovered in Pictou County. Education was fostered by the founding of grammar schools in 1811 and of Dalhousie College in
The feeling of Nova Scotians was
threatened with the United States over the
Maine boundary; the province called up all
and voted £10,000 in support of
the Mother Country.
to the fore
For many years the leading
Colony was the
The same Council decided
executive and legislative matters.
Cape Breton Island, which had a different
Nova Scotia, was united to
it in 1773, but separated in 1784.
into the districts of Cape Breton Island was
history from that of
was found impossible
to form any stable council, the district was
again reunited to
Scotia in 1820.
The full triumph of responsible government
came with the Liberal victory at the poll in
The full recognition of the principle
dates from 1848, when the Ministry succeeded
in cancelling the
the Governor's son-in-law to the
Provincial Secretary of
principles upon which executive as distinct
from administrative office should be held.
The coal mines of Cape Breton Island and
Nova Scotia were ceded to the Duke of York
and thus from that date
to his creditors,
1857 the General
of the mainland.
the maritime province
was due to loyalist immigration.
Scotia in 1784
in the fight for
responsible government under the leadership
Lemuel Allan Wilmot. The chief points
on which conflict occurred were the position
of the Church of England and the allied
problem of education.
CANADA AS AN IMPERIAL FACTOR
Island (lie de St Jean), so
honour of the Duke of Kent
(father of Queen Victoria), was united to
Nova Scotia in 1763, and separated in 1769.
The administration in the old colonial days
did not trouble overmuch about the advantage of the residents. Thus in 1767 nearly
the whole of the island was alienated by
the Crown to absentees, and all the constitutional questions which have arisen con-
in 1798 in
cerned the relation of the people (to
a Representative Assembly was granted in
1773) and the landowners.
years, and after a
remained acute for many
Commission had sat in 1860, an Act was
passed in 1864 to remedy the grievances of
In the autumn of the year 1864 delegates
from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince
Edward Island met at Charlottetown (P.E...