CANADA COUNTRY PROFILE
HISTORIC OF CANADA
Exploring the Atlantic Coast, 16th, 17th Centuries French Exploration, 17th, 18th Centuries
Exploration from Hudson Bay, 17th to 19th Centuries Exploration in the Far West, 18th, 19th Centuries Exploration to the Mid 19th century
Exploration and Assessment to 1944
Summary of Exploration through Four Centuries
Majority and minority governments
Politics parties of British Columbia
BRITISH COLUMBIA CONSERVATIVE PARTY
British Columbia Libertarian Party
Summary of the Social Credit Party Policy
The purposes of DEMOCRATIC REFORM BC
GREEN PARTY OF BC
Role of government in Tourism
Relations with the U.S.
North American Free Trade Agreement
Canada-‐ keeps exploring!
Airlines & Airports
Canada Tourism commission (Where we market Canada ) FRANCE / AUSTRALIA / GERMANY/ CHINA / USA / BRAZIL / SOUTH AFRICA The luxurious Hotel in Canada :
Currency & Money
Customs & Duty Free
Mail, Phone & Internet
Art and Architecture, 19th Century
The Printed Word, 1752-‐1900
The Quest for Universal Schooling, 1851-‐1891 Public Holidays
Hobbies and activities
Skiing Opportunities -‐ From Sea To Sea 2010 winter Olympic Vancover
Religious Adherence, 1891-‐1961
People with different interests: a difficult melting pot
Biotechnology Sector Overview
Research and Development
Difficulty of managing a large territory
Passports & Visas
Health & Medical
Embassies & Consulates
To obtain a complete and very detailed file on the state of Canada, we'll make in the coming pages a macro environmental analysis of the country. We will apply the PESTEL analysis, which give us an overview of the characteristics of the country, namely in the domain of Politic, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal. This method is generally used by companies whose goal is to set up a market analysis and as a result, to use a strategic management. All the factors that the company must take into consideration represent strategic tools and they facilitate the approach of the competition that surrounds it, the strengths and weaknesses of the country, in order to find the target of its action.
First of all, the discovery of the landmass of Canada has taken thousands of years to be discovered. The successive discoveries over time moved from the east to get to the west and north. Indeed, the northern lands were not yet known, even more than a century after the first trip of Columbus in 1492. The Pacific Ocean has remained a mystery for many years. In our first part we will discuss about the long successive discoveries and the three entries that have been established: Davis Strait, Hudson Bay and the St. Lawrence.
In the second part, we will talk about the political situation in Canada, namely the distribution of power between the legislature and the executive, and then it is important to include political groups representing the political spectrum in the country. Moreover, this part contains an analysis with a political view of the role of government in the tourism.
Canada is also a country with many facets and it will be the third paragraph. As regards the economic view, the economics factors which contribute to the good economic situation of Canada are multiple. First, we are able to speak about the close relation that Canada have with the United State and Mexico. Indeed the North America free trade Agreement imposes Canada being in good term with this both countries. This paragraph gives us some information about the activities that Canada produces, such as Manufacturing, Energy, and Agriculture. In 2009, agricultural, energy, forestry and mining exports accounted for about 58% of Canada's total exports. Machinery, equipment, automotive products and other manufactures accounted for a further 38% of exports in 2009. These results prove how these industrial and manufacturing activities are important for the economic growth.
Tourism is a major source of income in Canada. In 2010, tourism in Canada increased by 2.6% over 2007.Tourism is also one of his biggest strength, which is growing ever more over the years. It is an economic factor that plays an important role because it gives a boost to the economy. It is in close relation with the manufacturing of luxurious hostel that we cited in this part. Nevertheless, we spoke about the weaknesses of tourism as regard the transport, the marine and road access, but also the changing demographics.
Thanks to its breathtaking landscapes, from snow-‐capped mountains to the Great Lakes regions, but also from the endless forests to modern cities such as Vancouver, Toronto and Montreal, Yukon, Canada is endowed with numerous resources to attract people. They find here a lot of activities to practice like skiing or hockey, very famous sport in Canada. In this fourth part, we will explain the social aspect of this country, that means the habits of the population in Canada, and their interests, which can be different according the religion.
In a fifth part of our file is based on technological factors in the macroeconomic environment, it will be highlighted the various activities associated with research and development, but also nanotechnologies and biotechnologies, which are the basis of a
development of a critical mass of research infrastructure. Canada is on the cusp of an advanced technology revolution.
We are going to discuss about another strength, that are the natural resources of Canada. That is the topic of our 6ieme part. The economy is also built on significant natural resources: Canada can rely on safe and reliable energy sources: oil, natural gas, uranium for nuclear power and coal for example. Canada has considerable natural resources spread across its varied regions. We can find in the first place the forestry industry in British Columbia; but at the contrary, oil and gas industry are produced in Alberta, Newfoundland and Labrador.
Finally, the legal factors are coming in the next part of our file. This section includes all the legal aspects that are applied to tourists and consumers. These are the rules and laws that people must respect and accept in good agreement and in order not to cause problems at the border. Specifically, this section deals with passports and visas, but also all the action in terms of health and medicine. Furthermore, it will be highlighted, the principle of duty free at airports and the procedures for telephone calls made from Canada.
American people, Inuit
and Indian. Canada is the world's second largest country and is located in North America, the
With an area of 10 million kilometers and 32 million people, Canada needs to bring the best resources in order to provide equal access for all residents. However, the distribution of population across the country is totally uneven.
within 200 kilometers far away from the United States. This is because the U.S. is a nation with attractive lifestyle, but also the opportunity to find a job. The largest urban centers in Canada were also located in the south, and the population density averaged 245 people per square kilometer. Metropolitan Areas where the population density is the highest are the following
Kitchener (546), Hamilton (505) and Victoria (475) They are located near the United States.
Nevertheless, the population density is very low in the north. Indeed, nature is much more present than the people for its setbacks in the countryside compared to urban areas; opportunities to work, climate or even trade and river exchanges are rarer than in the Great Lake, located between the border of Canada and the United States.
In a context of increasing global economy, the relationships between countries are undeniable factors, because they have to reach agreements to harmonize their economical policies. They also have to find solutions to problems by solving them in the best conditions, while maintaining and respecting the policies of neighboring states and trading partners. Indeed, Canada is a member of NAFTA. That means it has close relations with the United States and Mexico. It is obvious that this is strength because it develops an economic cooperation of free trade with preferential costs and tariffs between these countries. Furthemore, the United States since the 1870s the world's largest economy, which can serve as a basis to give a boost to the economy.
On the other hand, it is a bilingual country with two official languages, namely French and English. In this context, it is clear that it is not easy to find some coherence in the country, since all the inhabitants do not speak both languages fluently. To meet the needs of all, it is essential that services must be guaranteed in both languages in all government offices and agencies. As a service, it means the official documents for residents, such as papers on taxes, housing, income aid, legal assistants, but also the postal services, public transport services, customs services and among others. Public authorities in Canada are doing their best in order to ensure the success of this measure but it is obvious that the difficulties are being felt, particularly in terms of
ts claiming the use of French-‐speaking in the province of Quebec as unique language and aspire to the political independence of the province. The government took steps to integrate all immigrants and people from colonization in order to bring together people from different nationalities, with different cultures and religions. It can be compared to the phenomenal of melting pot. At the beginning, the term immigrants of various origins in the United States. It is a metaphor which reflects an environment in which many ideas and races are socially assimilated. It is considered as a strength tanks to the solidarity and the comprehension within the population.
Nevertheless, we are able to find some weaknesses. The vast territory of Canada reflects difficulties to manage all resources. This is even more difficult to draw boundaries when the country has 10 provinces and 3 territories. Moreover, Canada has a long history of colonialism, because of the many conquering of English and French; it is not easy to reconstruct a state on fragile foundations. Finally, as we earlier said, the richness of cultures and religions, which is presented as strength, is also the cause of some obstacles, mainly due to diverging interests and habits of the population.
Being in daily contact with various foreign clients, people in parts of Canada now are turning their eyes in different directions: the Maritimes looking towards the Atlantic, Quebec to New England, Ontario to the Great Lakes, the Prairies to their oil markets of South and British Columbia to the west.
HISTORIC OF CANADA
Exploring the Atlantic Coast, 16th, 17th Centuries
During the 16th and 17th centuries European discoverers crossing the Atlantic Ocean clung to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Great Lakes, and Hudson Bay water bodies that were reassuringly familiar in appearance when compared with the dark continental world of North America. Forests looked impenetrable, contrasting sharply with waterways suitable to sailing ships.
Portuguese, Spanish, French, English, and Dutch mariners each took their turn cruising the Atlantic seaboard in the 16th century (interactive map: Exploring the Atlantic Coast, 16th, 17th Centuries). The English, and one stray Dane, coasted Hudson Bay and Davis Strait; this activity marks the first of a series of attempts, over more than three centuries, to navigate a northwest passage to Asia. They were the first explorers to be turned back by ice, and it would be two centuries until explorers again sought to push beyond Davis Strait.
The French appear to have been the most venturesome inland, but they found the waterways set other sorts of limits: rapids at Montreal (Lachine), south of Lake Champlain, and west along the Ottawa River. In the last years before 1632 (map layer: Primary routes,1614-‐1632), inland explorers for the first time bridged gaps between places already known: between modern Quebec City and the had been to probe and retreat.
Mapping at this time was based on conjecture and lacked sophisticated instruments. The static maps shown in this chapter are related to the modern world only with difficulty. Throughout this period of 135 years, the coast of Labrador and northeastern Newfoundland were the most heavily travelled parts of the future Canadian territory. Early in the 21st century they are among the least-‐known parts of the country
French Exploration, 17th, 18th Centuries
For a century and a half the Great Lakes region and Mississippi River system, and all Native peoples who flourished there, were the focus of French explorers and missionaries. The English on James Bay set limits to the north, and their trading posts on the upper Hudson River set limits to the south.
Southern Ontario is one of the first inland areas to be explored, lying beyond the bigger rivers and water bodies (interactive map: French Exploration 1603-‐1751 -‐> map layer: Primary routes, 1603-‐ 1626). The shortcut between Lake Ontario and Georgian Bay has, over the years, attracted canal promoters, railway builders, and highway planners. From the 1630s to the 1660s French exploration stalled against English pressure; Quebec was briefly in English hands in the 1630s and again in the 1650s (map layer: Primary routes, 1627-‐1656).
French exploration resumed after 1660, coinciding with a major settlement initiative in the St Lawrence Valley. By the 1680s Frenchmen had crossed from the western Great Lakes into the Mississippi system at two points: the head of Green Bay on Lake Michigan and the western tip of Lake Superior. They had also reached James Bay overland from three places -‐-‐ Lac Saint-‐Jean, the Ottawa River, and Lake Superior -‐-‐
on Hudson Bay (map layers: Primary routes, 1657-‐1680 and 1681-‐1751).
Frenchmen would encounter the English on James Bay, just as they had done half a century earlier at Albany, New York (map layer: Forts or Trading Posts). Expansion funneled westward, reaching the
Missouri River and Lake Winnipeg by the middle of the 18th century. New Orleans, at the mouth of the Mississippi, was established in 1700, completing the French Crescent from the Gulf of St Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico; it surrounded the thirteen English colonies. The static map: Delisle map of 1752 reminds us that the Pacific Ocean remained an underlying goal, however, and any cartographic trick to bring it nearer the east was welcomed.
Acadia (later-‐day Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) is not recorded as being explored. It appears that coastal activity had been sufficient to give a clear idea of what lay inland, and exploration was an unheralded part of the routine of Acadian farmers on hunting or fishing expeditions.
Exploration from Hudson Bay, 17th to 19th Centuries
in the commercial fur business. But it had to determine where its raw material was located, scattered throughout the river systems draining to the Bay, and how to extract it. The HBC was therefore also committed to exploration. Within twenty years of its i
province of Saskatchewan, and nearly to Great Slave Lake (interactive map: Exploration from Hudson Bay,1610-‐1821 -‐> map layer: Primary routes, 1610-‐1751). Only late in the 18th century, well after New France had fallen to British control, did HBC explorers enter areas east of Hudson Bay which the French had visited a century earlier (map layer: Primary routes, 1775-‐1819 ). And it was not until the 1810s that explorers finally began to penetrate the vast Ungava region, crossing northeastward to Ungava Bay through the last large untracked wilderness in the eastern part of the continent.
Rather, exploring the river systems westward the Saskatchewan, the Severn, the Coppermine was much more in the interests of the HBC, and their men pressed further and further west through the middle of the 18th century (map layers: Primary routes, 1752-‐1762, 1763-‐1774 ). With increasing
-‐-‐ French, and later Scots, under the banner of the Northwest Company out of Montreal. Their primary fur-‐trading route led to Lake Winnipeg, and in the Red River area (Winnipeg today) after 1800 heightened the tension, and by 1821 the
As exploration and trade moved deeper into the continent, the degree of recorded detail lagged behind the general awareness of the land. As a result, large blank areas dominated many of the maps.
Exploration in the Far West, 18th, 19th Centuries
Between the 1740s and 1820s eastern explorers reached the Cordilleran mountain ranges. About 1800 they finally broke through to the Pacific Ocean at Bentinck Arm and at the mouths of the Fraser and Columbia Rivers. There they found signs of decades of coasting activity by British, Spanish and Russian mariners.
approaching the foothills of the Rocky Mountains from the east, mariners from Russia, Spain and Great Britain were starting to make coastal sailings along the Pacific Ocean shore, between Oregon and the Aleutian Islands (map: Exploration of the Far West, 1741-‐1821 -‐ data layer: Primary routes, 1741-‐1784). Exploration of the eighteenth century and in 1793 Alexander Mackenzie, a Montrealer, reached the head of one of those fiords at Bella Coola. (data layer: Primary routes,1785-‐1794) He thus completed the land crossing of America begun some two centuries earlier.
the time to be a dead end; despite having reached the open ocean, he had no means of sailing upon
it. Within a generation, however, ships were heading for the same place, the Beaufort Sea, making their approach from Lancaster Sound or the north side of Hudson Bay. (data layer: Primary routes,1813-‐1821) After nearly two centuries, Great Britain once again was actively seeking the Northwest Passage.
Meanwhile, aggressive activity by Montreal traders was leading to a thorough understanding of the geography of the western plains and intermontane regions. (data layer: Primary routes,1795-‐1812) By activating the modern place names layer, readers may see the irrelevance of the newly established border (in 1818) with the United States. American explorers and traders, passing up the Missouri River, added their understanding to the Oregon and Columbia River Country.
Exploration to Mid-‐19th Century
Exploration of Canada between 1821 and 1851 was concentrated north of Latitude 60 degrees North and in central Ungava and Labrador. These were the last inland frontiers in Canada, locales of the canoe. Beyond, the Arctic islands were one more frontier, reached in sailing ships that could withstand year-‐round ice floes.
el penetrated Ungava and the interior of Labrador, including places beyond the original company limits established in 1670 (interactive map: Exploration 1818-‐1851 -‐> map layers: Primary routes, 1822-‐1834, and 1834-‐1845). They also took up new responsibilities in New Caledonia (later British Columbia) and the Northwestern area (later Northwest Territories and Yukon) in the 1820s. Scots had come to dominate the HBC operations, judging from the many Scottish names among the explorers. Their maps achieved new levels of sophistication, using the
rectangular grid and demonstrating better and better proportions of the land masses. (static maps: Arrowsmith 1832, and 1854)
Exploration among the Arctic Islands fell to Great Britain, and progress there was fitfully slow. By 1851 the gap between navigators seeking the Northwest passage westward from Davis Strait and those headed eastward from Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean) was tantalizingly close to being closed. (map layer: Primary routes, 1846-‐1851). But the circuit of the Russian Alaska coast remained unfulfilled, and a full passage between Atlantic and Pacific would await another century.
By 1850 the Canadian region as a whole was known continuously north to latitude 55 degrees (about half way between the American border and the northern limit of the Prairie Provinces and BC). The area beyond was largely unpenetrated boreal forest and tundra criss-‐crossed by established routeways repeatedly travelled. There was a shift from exploration for its own sake to creating standard corridors of access for resource exploitation, and not just furs. Incidental, opportunistic exploration would continue and ultimately the full land would be revealed through aerial surveys and photography in the second quarter of the 20th century.
Exploration and Assessment to 1944
replacing ships and canoes as the preferred means of discovery. Half a century earlier, scientists started questioning what rainfall, soil, flora and fauna, minerals lay in those explored places, using specialized instruments to make further discoveries.
ost out of the exploration
business (interactive map: Arctic Exploration 1851-‐1944 -‐ map layer: Primary routes, 1851-‐91).
Canadians should honour the HBC as the principal organization involved in unmasking the interior of a continent, an undertaking that lasted fully two hundred years. The Arctic was explored by British ships coasting innumerable islands in the style that had been established by England in the 16th century.
The United States entered the Arctic late in the 19th century with an entirely different mission: reaching the north pole (map layer: Primary routes, 1892-‐1906). Standing at the North Pole finally reached by Peary in 1909, offered no apparent value beyond the symbolic. That may change in the 21st century.
More important for Canada was the exploration of the last of the unknown Arctic region, the Queen Elizabeth Islands (map layer: Primary routes, 1907-‐1939), followed by the navigation of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police boat St Roch through the Northwest Passage, in both directions, in the 1940s (map layer: Primary routes, 1939-‐1944 ability to bring services to Inuit communities in the far north.
Land exploration gave way to land assessment during the 19th century (map: Scientific Expeditions and Surveys 1857-‐1892 -‐> map layer: Primary routes, 1857-‐1861). In places like southern Ontario, land assessment was undertaken by settlers who cleared forests to make farmland, try crops, drain wetlands, and control pests; they were scientists in all but name. But elsewhere, notably Western Canada, scientists preceded settlers and focused on agricultural limits: rainfall and growing season, for instance (static map: Climate of British North America after Blodget, 1875). The definition of -‐area studies, sequel to the linear probes of the explorers (static map: Palliser; GSC Reconnaissance 1866-‐1892).
Summary of Exploration through Four Centuries
mosquitoes. From starting points on the Atlantic coast, each successive journal and map provided the springboard for discovery ever further west and north. Follow the process of cumulative knowledge over more than four centuries.
A century and a half after the first voyage of Columbus in 1492, northern North America beyond the Atlantic coastline was still barely known. Three entryways had been established: Davis Strait, Hudson Bay, and the St Lawrence valley (interactive map: Summary of Exploration, 1497-‐1891 -‐> map layer: Before 1656). It took another century and a half of laborious probing across the great plains (map layers: 1657-‐1751, 1752-‐1774) and through the western mountains to reach the Pacific coast, where explorers met other Europeans who were arriving there too, overseas from the west (map layer: 1775-‐1795). Through the 19th century Arctic exploration resumed (map layer: 1796-‐1821) after a long hiatus, along with exploration of the remotest parts of Ungava and the far northwest (map layer: 1822-‐1851). Scientific inquiry gradually took hold throughout regions that would become the Prairie Provinces, Northwest Territories and Yukon (map layer: 1852-‐1891).
Portuguese, Spanish, and Russians dominated the earliest coastal reconnaissance activity, but then retreated (map layer: First explorers by country). Inland the French uncovered what became the rest of the land mass, all the
way to the Arctic Ocean. The rough outline of Canada was revealed as a matter of curiosity; the details of coastlines were refined in lockstep with the refinement of instrumentation during the industrial age (map layer: First explorers by purpose). The Canadian land mass was revealed largely because it fed a craze for fur-‐based consumer products in Europe.
At the time of European contact Canada had been inhabited for more than 4 000 years. The Native population stood at about 300 000, with the largest concentrations in the lower Great Lakes area and on the West Coast. The population was culturally very diverse, and the variety of languages spoken was far greater than in Europe. How is all this information reconstructed? Some of the data is ethnohistoric in nature, from accounts of explorers, missionaries and early settlers. The other available data is archaeological. Both sources are represented on the maps in this chapter. Of course, contact took place at different times in different parts of the country. In the east, the French compiled much ethnographic information before European diseases spread through the Great Lakes basis in the 1630s. This provides the knowledge base for the interactive map of Eastern Native Population, Early 17th Century.
For most of the rest of what is now Canada, knowledge is somewhat more speculative. It is known that 12 major linguistic families existed in Native Canada. These are outlined on the interactive mapof Linguistic Families, 17th Century.
Subsistence for native people in northern North America was based largely on hunting, fishing and gathering, with agriculture limited to a few areas in the east, as far as is known. Two maps in this chapter show contrasting use of data sources for earlier, and more recent time periods. Theinteractive map of Native Subsistence, 1000 CE to European Contact, Archeological Data shows
the types of animals that were eaten based on the objects and built structures found in archaeological digs. This is obviously limited to those artifacts that could be preserved, and so inevitably is only part of the story. The interactive map of Native Subsistence at European Contact, Ethnohistoric Data is a more complete picture of activities of the time, though as always, subject to the data limitations of its own sources.
An interesting contrast to these maps can be found in the later chapter in the atlas, Native Canada, ca 1820, which takes a broader look at Native population and how the economies of native subsistence changed after contact
Unlike most chapters in this atlas, this chapter consists of only one interactive map: Native Population, Economies and Movement, ca 1820. This map takes a comprehensive look at the state of native subsistence and commerce in the early 19th century. It largely paints a picture of the results of a couple of centuries of contact with Europeans, and the decimation that resulted in the native way of life in northern North America.
On this map, population is shown by circles, colour coded by linguistic groups, and scaled according to estimated population size. This gives the general picture of population distribution at this time. These were greatly affected by disease and migration resulting from European contact. Information on patterns of population movement is also depicted -‐ both traditional seasonal movements, and large scale migration due to warfare or other disruptive influences. Native economic zones are broadly characterized by how traditional economies had been affected by European contact. These range from those severely disrupted by European settlement and resource depletion, to traditional economies relatively untouched by contact. Information on European commercial activity is also shown, to put the former into context: both trading posts, and routes of maritime commerce are depicted.
A useful cross-‐reference is to this map is the interactive map of Eastern Native Population, Early 17th Century, and the maps of subsistence in the earlier chapter in the atlas: Native Population and Subsistence, 17th Century. This shows the significant depopulation of eastern Canada during this time period, and the deep changes that affected native life. Details of much of this history can be found in the printed Historical Atlas of Canada, Volume I: From the Beginning to 1800. Canada's First Nations used the land without owning it and without the concept of real estate. The French and British made Canadian land a commodity for ownership, to be bought and sold. Reserves are their interpretation of the First Nations' place in this system. Discover patterns of land division and occupance very different from the familiar provincial and urban arrangement. Native Reserves, 1902 (interactive map), tells us that Canada had, by 1900, set aside special retreats for some 100,000 Canadians (static map: Native Population, 1901) and not to be intruded upon by Ecozones map layer (Native
Reserves, 1902) to look at the Boreal Plains -‐ Prairie area, for example, where shelter-‐belts and reasonable climate were being occupied by immigrants from Ontario and Europe. In the process of assuming non-‐
there mutual accommodation here? What lessons may be learned? Magnifying the interactive map: Native Reserves, 1902, and popping-‐up one of the Native Reserves tables reveals their great variety. Maritimes reserves are tiny and scattered, echoing the scant erosity of the late 18th century gave way to re-‐encroachment as new settlement occurred (graph: Sales of Surrendered Reserve Lands in Eastern Canada, 1867-‐1900). Mere fragments remain of the initial Grand River or Bruce Peninsula endowments. In the West colonial officials struck preemptively against the wide-‐ranging lifeways of
plains and coastal societies. And in the North no reserves even existed, yet Native and non-‐Native both dwelt there. Readers may wish to explore why reserves were not universal. Magnify still more. Notice the fragmented scatter of reserves around Lake of the Woods in northwestern Ontario. That was in 1902, but how have cottagers reacted over the intervening century? A nation-‐wide map can hide interpersonal relationships we all experience daily. And we talk of reserves without proper thought for the people associated with them, many of whom lived in the wider Canadian community, far from kinfolk, often in cities. Think of Caughnawaga iron workers or Residential School students. Think of vulnerable sacred sites not on reserves. Native Reserves, 1902 (interactive map), is an expressive spring-‐board from which to explore the many stories it stirs POPULATION
By 1800 a Europe-‐based civilization was overpowering Native lands and Native
civilizations and bringing immigrants into
northeastern North America. The interactive
map: Population and Economy, ca 1800shows
a necklace of outports in eastern
Newfoundland, narrow belts of settlement in the Maritimes, and a fuller band along the St. Lawrence River in Lower Canada. Tiny
impressions of settlement were evident in the forests of Upper Canada and in the Eastern Townships of Lower Canada, just north of the American boundary. The swirling trade
patterns of Native peoples and fur traders in the vast northern country make a striking contrast with the solidly occupied area of the United States in the south, where 5.3 million people lived and sent population spurs edging northward. Close Native contact with
Eurocanadians was occurring at this time not only on the Canadian Shield; in the Montreal district the Native communities of
Caughnawaga and Lac-‐des-‐Deux-‐Montagnes were in place, as were the communities on the Grand River, north of Lake Erie, in Upper Canada.
Eastern Canada, ca 1800 attempts to
consolidate much of the information found in
other regional plates in the Historical Atlas of Canada. It is estimated that in 1800 the population of what is now Eastern Canada was about 340,000, and the patterns to be
followed in the next two centuries were being established.
The map reveals fundamental contrasts in language. These are represented as well in the static map:Population and Language in Eastern Canada, ca 1800. Here the different proportions across the colonies are shown. It must be emphasized that these population numbers are fairly rough estimates; see the Authors and Sources page for details of their calculation.
The Canadian Population: 1825, 1851, 1871, 1891
This chapter combines information from the original atlases covering population in the intensive growth period of the 19th century. In all the colonies the first half of the 19th century was a time of clearing forests to make farmland, and expansion of population through large migrations. By 1871 a transcontinental Canada had been created, and this chapter follows some of the consequent population changes, to 1891. By mid-‐century urban development had begun and every colony had its leading urban centres. By 1891, regional centres in different parts of the country were poised to fight for supremacy nationally or regionally in the next century. The four main maps from the original atlas plates are re-‐created as interactive maps of Population Distribution in 1825, 1851, 1871 and 1891. These show rural population using a dot distribution symbolization, which simulates population density as well. One can see the ecumene of the country fill up gradually over this time series. Simultaneously on these maps, urban centres are shown as proportional symbols, so the development of the urban system is illustrated. Supporting graphs are also included: the Growth of Provinces, Growth of Cities, Urban Populations andUrban Centres during the century are all depicted. Also included is a graph of Population Pyramids for Canada in 1871 and 1891. Population pyramids are a well-‐known graphic form to express a demographic profile; the atlas revised the usual method to enable comparisons between various regions and censuses reporting population using different age group
The Exodus: Migrations, 1860-‐1900
Canada is generally thought of as a country to which people came, but many have also departed. This chapter charts how this exit strategy took effect in the last part of the 19th century. Migration statistics were not actually recorded, so calculations based on the differences between expected and actual populations have been used to estimate intercensal net migrations (see Sources.) The graph showing Migration Estimates, 1850s-‐1900s, illustrates that immigration exceeded emigration in the 1850s, but outflow was greater than inflow for every decade over the rest of the century. Because of a high rate of natural increase, however, Canada's population did not actually fall.
The interactive map: Migration, 1871-‐1891, shows migration rates for two different decades and allows comparison between the two. A background layer classifies the "type" of migration experienced in each area: Classic out-‐migration, urban/industrial in-‐migration, or frontier in-‐ migration.
Canadian-‐Born in the United States, 1880 looks at how many born and bred Canadians were living in the States at this time, and which provinces they came from. In this interactive map, an additional layer shows which occupations many of these immigrant workers were pursuing, specifically in the Northeastern states.
The last years of the 19th century and the first of the 20th were times of great growth and substantial mobility in the Canadian population. Newcomers poured in from overseas to settle across the country. The prairies attracted many re-‐settlers from the East, as well. The maps and graphs in this chapter, look at both these aspects of dynamic change.
The interactive map entitled Immigration to Canada, 1896-‐1914, gives an overview of the advent of people from around the world, coming to Canada for all their individual reasons. Some came from the traditional founding countries, others from novel sources, like Asia. Many came via the U.S. Anotherinteractive map, Immigration to the Prairies, 1896-‐1914, focuses on the newcomers to the Prairie provinces, and their origins.
These immigration maps are supported by graphs showing overall trends in Immigrants to Canada 1891-‐1961, Asian Immigration 1891-‐1931. Another graph provides a snapshot of Distribution of Immigrant Population in 1921, as distributed in Rural or Urban areas of the East and the West. Two other maps depict trends in internal migration, rather than international flows. The interactive map of The Move to the West, 1891-‐1914, puts these interprovincial migrants into context, with two sets of pie graphs positioned around the country, one representing "where from", and one showing "where to." The second interactive map, Ontario Migration to the Prairies, 1901-‐1911 specifically looks at those moving from Ontario counties to the three Prairie provinces. The source for the origin of settlers is an unusual one: a retrospective sample of Prairie newspaper obituaries, giving places of birth in Ontario counties.
POPULATION CHANGES, 1941 1961
"others", neither French nor English, often clustered into enclaves: Scandinavians in
Edmundston (New Brunswick), or Dutch near
Georgian Bay. Only in Québec is there no dominant third group. The graph of Major
Ethnic Groups 1901, 1931, 1961traces back to
1901, showing the emergence of these
without exception, honouring one's Native,
French, or British cultural traditions,
sometimes in combination, in a fresh spacious setting. In the 21st century "being Canadian" applies to dozens of ethnic, religious, and linguistic groups associated with all parts of the world, most commonly living in a few large cities.
Consider the interactive map of Ethnic Origin, 1961, showing the first, second and third largest groups. Note the small percentages of
(German and Native) with more than 1% in 1901 to eight in 1961.
Bilingualism refers to individuals who can function in two languages historically French and English and also to the idea of a country in which two languages dominate. On
the interactive map: The Bilingual Belt,
1961 the pinks and light blues form a belt, a long narrow strip from southeastern Quebec through the Ottawa River valley into northern Ontario, with a branch westward to the Soo. Another piece runs along the northeastern
shore of New Brunswick. In these belts English and French mix on city streets and from one country road to the next. But the proportion of these people who would, individually, be bilingual calls for a rather different map.
It is generally agreed that in Canada the balance tipped from rural to urban in the 1910s (graph ofPopulation Growth 1891-‐1961). With only a slight setback during the Depression of the 1930s, population has moved steadily towards more than 80 per cent urban today. The graph of Urban and Rural Population is actually a cartogram mixed map and graph in which the urban and rural extent is given spatial treatment, regions positioned in blocks as they occur across the country. Ontario reaches well south of the 49th parallel, often symbolic of the American boundary. The Depression is echoed in the Population Profiles graphs -‐
declined. The pinch in the 0-‐4 age bracket for 1931 is repeated for the 20-‐30 age groups in 1961. The 2001 census will show the same feature among those in their 60s. These three maps all use the same sets of data compiled from the censuses of Canada, and for the British colonies before confederation, and cover the same time span, 1851 -‐ 1961. However, each of them shows population growth in a different way. Together, they are a good illustration of how information can be mapped in different ways, to tell different stories. In all of the maps, population is aggregated by census division, and these are quite large areas. Much of the variation between the maps results from the way these "data units" are represented on the map.
In the interactive map of Population Growth, 1851-‐1961, each census division is represented by a circle proportional to its population size. Major cities are also shown as circles, just like any other census division, so that one gets a good comparative picture of overall growth by region. However, these circles are randomly located in the centre of the census division. In large rural divisions, such as in the far north of most provinces, and in the Territories, these do not present a very realistic picture of the location of population.
The map of Population Density attempts to overcome this shortcoming by calculating density of population, i.e. number of people divided by the area they are spread through, in square km -‐ in this case, the area of the census division. The values are classed, and then the census divisions are colour-‐ coded according to their overall population density, from high to low values -‐ technically, a "choropleth" map. This kind of map tells the story of increasing rural population and land utilization very well. In the interactive map, zooming in on the Prairies, and flipping through the maps year by year shows increasingly dark colours in increasingly small census divisions over the century, as agriculture-‐based settlement spreads through the land. The setbacks of the Depression show up as a reversal of this general trend in parts of the southern prairies, in the 1941 census. However, on this map, urban growth gets lost -‐ because the cities are relatively small in area, they are scarcely visible despite growing urban population throughout the period.
The design developed for the Population Distribution map series tries to overcome both these drawbacks, to some extent. A dot distribution map uses one dot to represent every 300 people; dots are plotted in a random manner within the known settled area (ecumene). Although the settled area mapped at these scales is very approximate, and population was scattered throughout the rest of the country as well, it does give a better picture of where people were located than the circle map. Cities still do not show up very well using the dot mapping method, so this interactive map allows one to
turn on a map layer of the major cities, shown as sized squares, on top of the dot base maps. By this combination of methods the viewer can customize the map to his or her wishes -‐ to a limited degree. Three maps all made with the same data therefore can tell 3 very different stories. Like statistics, or descriptive prose, they serve a purpose; two maps of the same data can be correct, without being equal. The method of mapping and the map's graphic design allow the cartographer to emphasize certain information to achieve the map's purpose. For these maps, the raw numbers are also available as a data table, which users can download from the Legend Info pages, to create their own view of population growth.
POLITIC IN CANADA
The politics of Canada function within a
framework of parliamentary democracy and
a federal system of parliamentary
government with strong democratic traditions.
Canada is a constitutional monarchy, in which the Monarch is head of state. The country has a multi-‐party system in which many of the its legislative practices derive from the
unwritten conventions of and precedents set
by Great Britain's Westminster Parliament.
However, Canada has evolved variations: party
discipline in Canada is stronger than in the United Kingdom and more parliamentary votes
are considered motions of confidence, which
tends to diminish the role of non-‐
Cabinet Members of Parliament (MPs).
Such members, in the government caucus, and junior or lower-‐profile members of opposition caucuses, are known as backbenchers. Backbenchers can, however, exert their influence by sitting in parliamentary committees, like the Public Accounts Committee or the National Defence Committee. The two dominant political parties in Canada have historically been the Conservative Party of Canada (or its predecessors) and the Liberal Party of Canada, and as of the 2011 election the social ...