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Canadas Country Profile Essay

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                           CANADA  COUNTRY  PROFILE              




Berteloot  Timothé    
Buscato  Julia    
Payen  Marion  
Village  Gary    



Exploring  the  Atlantic  Coast,  16th,  17th  Centuries   French  Exploration,  17th,  18th  Centuries  
Exploration  from  Hudson  Bay,  17th  to  19th  Centuries   Exploration  in  the  Far  West,  18th,  19th  Centuries   Exploration  to  the  Mid  19th  century  
Exploration  and  Assessment  to  1944  
Summary  of  Exploration  through  Four  Centuries  
Executive  power  
Legislative  power  
Majority  and  minority  governments  
Political  conditions  
Politics  parties  of  British  Columbia    
British  Columbia  Libertarian  Party  
Summary  of  the  Social  Credit  Party  Policy  
The  purposes  of  DEMOCRATIC  REFORM  BC  
Role  of  government  in  Tourism  
Relations  with  the  U.S.  
North  American  Free  Trade  Agreement  
Service  sector  
Canada-­‐  keeps  exploring!  
Airlines  &  Airports  
Canada  Tourism  commission  (Where  we  market  Canada  )   FRANCE  /  AUSTRALIA  /  GERMANY/  CHINA  /  USA  /  BRAZIL  /  SOUTH  AFRICA   The  luxurious  Hotel  in  Canada  :  
Tourism  Strengths  
Tourism  Weaknesses  



Currency  &  Money  
Customs  &  Duty  Free  
Mail,  Phone  &  Internet  
Art  and  Architecture,  19th  Century  
The  Printed  Word,  1752-­‐1900  
The  Quest  for  Universal  Schooling,  1851-­‐1891   Public  Holidays  
Hobbies  and  activities  
Skiing  Opportunities  -­‐  From  Sea  To  Sea     2010  winter  Olympic  Vancover  

Religious  Adherence,  1891-­‐1961  
People  with  different  interests:  a  difficult  melting  pot    
Biotechnology  Sector  Overview  
Research  and  Development  
Industry  Profile  
Protecting  Forests  
Natural  Hazards  
Sea  Ice  
Renewable  Energy  
Difficulty  of  managing  a  large  territory  
Passports  &  Visas  
Health  &  Medical  
Embassies  &  Consulates  



To  obtain  a  complete  and  very  detailed  file  on  the  state  of  Canada,  we'll  make  in  the  coming   pages  a  macro  environmental  analysis  of  the  country.     We   will  apply   the   PESTEL   analysis,   which   give   us   an   overview   of   the   characteristics   of   the     country,   namely   in   the   domain   of   Politic,   Economic,   Social,   Technological,   Environmental     and   Legal.   This   method   is   generally   used   by   companies   whose   goal   is   to   set   up   a   market     analysis   and   as   a   result,   to   use   a   strategic   management.   All   the   factors   that   the   company     must   take   into   consideration   represent   strategic   tools   and   they   facilitate   the   approach   of   the  competition  that  surrounds  it,  the  strengths  and  weaknesses  of  the  country,  in  order  to     find  the  target  of  its  action.  

First   of   all,   the   discovery   of   the   landmass   of   Canada   has   taken   thousands   of   years   to   be   discovered.  The  successive  discoveries  over  time  moved  from  the  east  to  get  to  the  west  and   north.  Indeed,  the  northern  lands  were  not  yet  known,  even  more  than  a  century  after  the   first  trip  of  Columbus  in  1492.  The  Pacific  Ocean  has  remained  a  mystery  for  many  years.  In   our  first  part  we  will  discuss  about  the  long  successive  discoveries  and  the  three  entries  that   have  been  established:  Davis  Strait,  Hudson  Bay  and  the  St.  Lawrence.      

In   the   second   part,   we   will   talk   about   the   political   situation   in   Canada,   namely   the   distribution  of  power  between  the  legislature  and  the  executive,  and  then  it  is  important  to   include   political   groups   representing   the   political   spectrum   in   the   country.   Moreover,   this   part  contains  an  analysis  with  a  political  view  of  the  role  of  government  in  the  tourism.    

Canada  is  also  a  country  with  many  facets  and  it  will  be  the  third  paragraph.   As   regards   the   economic   view,   the   economics   factors   which   contribute   to   the   good   economic   situation   of   Canada   are   multiple.   First,   we   are   able   to   speak   about   the   close   relation  that  Canada  have  with  the  United  State  and  Mexico.  Indeed  the  North  America  free   trade   Agreement   imposes   Canada   being   in   good   term   with   this   both   countries.   This   paragraph   gives   us   some   information   about   the   activities   that   Canada   produces,   such   as   Manufacturing,   Energy,   and   Agriculture.    In   2009,   agricultural,   energy,   forestry   and   mining   exports   accounted   for   about   58%   of   Canada's   total   exports.  Machinery,   equipment,   automotive   products   and   other   manufactures   accounted   for   a   further   38%   of   exports   in   2009.   These   results   prove   how   these   industrial   and   manufacturing   activities   are   important   for  the  economic  growth.    


Tourism  is  a  major  source  of  income  in  Canada.  In  2010,   tourism  in  Canada  increased  by  2.6%  over  2007.Tourism  is  also  one  of  his  biggest  strength,   which  is  growing  ever  more  over  the  years.  It  is  an  economic  factor  that  plays  an  important   role  because  it  gives  a  boost  to  the  economy.    It  is  in  close  relation  with  the  manufacturing  of   luxurious  hostel  that  we  cited  in  this  part.  Nevertheless,  we  spoke  about  the  weaknesses  of   tourism   as   regard   the   transport,   the   marine   and   road   access,   but   also   the   changing   demographics.  



Thanks   to   its   breathtaking   landscapes,   from   snow-­‐capped   mountains   to   the   Great   Lakes   regions,  but  also  from  the  endless  forests  to  modern  cities  such  as  Vancouver,  Toronto  and   Montreal,  Yukon,  Canada  is  endowed  with  numerous  resources  to  attract  people.  They  find   here  a  lot  of  activities  to  practice  like  skiing  or  hockey,  very  famous  sport  in  Canada.  In  this   fourth   part,   we   will   explain   the   social   aspect   of   this   country,   that   means   the   habits   of   the   population  in  Canada,  and  their  interests,  which  can  be  different  according  the  religion.    

In   a   fifth   part   of   our   file   is   based   on   technological   factors   in   the   macroeconomic   environment,   it   will   be   highlighted   the   various   activities   associated   with   research   and   development,   but   also   nanotechnologies   and   biotechnologies,   which   are   the   basis   of   a  

development   of   a   critical   mass   of   research   infrastructure.   Canada   is   on   the   cusp   of   an   advanced  technology  revolution.  
We  are  going  to  discuss  about  another  strength,  that  are  the  natural  resources  of  Canada.   That   is   the   topic   of   our   6ieme   part.   The   economy   is   also   built   on   significant   natural   resources:  Canada  can  rely  on  safe  and  reliable  energy  sources:  oil,  natural  gas,  uranium  for   nuclear   power   and   coal   for   example.   Canada   has   considerable   natural   resources   spread   across   its   varied   regions.   We   can   find   in   the   first   place   the   forestry   industry   in   British   Columbia;  but  at  the  contrary,  oil  and  gas  industry  are  produced  in  Alberta,  Newfoundland   and  Labrador.    

Finally,  the  legal  factors  are  coming  in  the  next  part  of  our  file.  This  section  includes  all  the   legal  aspects  that  are  applied  to  tourists  and  consumers.  These  are  the  rules  and   laws  that   people  must  respect  and  accept  in  good  agreement  and  in  order  not  to  cause  problems  at   the  border.  Specifically,  this  section  deals  with  passports  and  visas,  but  also  all  the  action  in   terms  of  health  and  medicine.  Furthermore,  it  will  be  highlighted,  the  principle  of  duty  free   at  airports  and  the  procedures  for  telephone  calls  made  from  Canada.    





 American  people,  Inuit  
and  Indian.  Canada  is  the  world's  second  largest  country  and  is  located  in  North  America,  the    
With   an   area   of   10   million   kilometers   and   32   million   people,   Canada   needs   to   bring   the     best   resources   in   order   to   provide   equal   access   for   all   residents.   However,   the     distribution  of  population  across  the  country  is  totally  uneven.      

within  200  kilometers  far  away  from  the  United  States.  This  is  because  the  U.S.  is  a  nation   with  attractive  lifestyle,  but  also  the  opportunity  to  find  a  job.  The  largest  urban  centers  in     Canada  were  also  located  in  the  south,  and  the  population  density  averaged  245  people  per     square   kilometer.  Metropolitan   Areas   where   the   population   density  is   the   highest   are  the     following  

Kitchener   (546),   Hamilton   (505)   and   Victoria   (475)     They   are   located   near   the   United     States.    
Nevertheless,  the  population  density  is  very  low  in  the  north.  Indeed,  nature  is  much  more     present   than   the   people   for   its   setbacks   in   the   countryside   compared   to   urban   areas;     opportunities   to   work,   climate   or   even   trade   and   river   exchanges   are   rarer   than   in     the  Great  Lake,  located  between  the  border  of  Canada  and  the  United  States.    

In   a   context   of   increasing   global   economy,   the   relationships   between   countries   are     undeniable  factors,  because  they  have  to  reach  agreements  to  harmonize  their  economical     policies.  They  also  have  to  find  solutions  to  problems  by  solving  them  in  the  best  conditions,     while   maintaining   and   respecting   the   policies   of   neighboring   states   and   trading   partners.   Indeed,   Canada   is   a   member   of   NAFTA.   That   means   it   has   close   relations   with   the   United   States   and   Mexico.   It   is   obvious   that   this   is   strength   because   it   develops   an   economic   cooperation   of   free   trade   with   preferential   costs   and   tariffs   between   these   countries.   Furthemore,  the  United  States  since  the  1870s  the  world's  largest  economy,  which  can  serve   as  a  basis  to  give  a  boost  to  the  economy.      

On   the   other   hand,   it   is   a   bilingual   country   with   two   official   languages,   namely   French     and   English.   In   this   context,   it   is   clear   that   it   is   not   easy   to   find   some   coherence   in     the   country,   since   all   the   inhabitants   do   not   speak   both   languages   fluently.   To   meet   the     needs   of   all,   it   is   essential   that   services   must   be   guaranteed   in   both   languages   in   all     government   offices   and   agencies.   As   a   service,   it   means   the   official   documents   for     residents,   such   as   papers   on   taxes,   housing,   income   aid,   legal   assistants,   but   also   the     postal   services,   public   transport   services,   customs   services   and   among   others.   Public   authorities   in   Canada   are   doing   their   best   in   order   to   ensure   the   success   of   this     measure   but   it   is   obvious   that   the   difficulties   are   being   felt,   particularly   in   terms   of    



ts  claiming  the  use  of  French-­‐speaking  in  the  province     of  Quebec  as  unique  language  and  aspire  to  the  political  independence  of  the  province.   The   government   took   steps   to   integrate   all   immigrants   and   people   from   colonization   in   order   to   bring   together   people   from   different   nationalities,   with   different   cultures   and   religions.  It  can  be  compared  to  the  phenomenal  of  melting  pot.  At  the  beginning,  the  term   immigrants   of   various   origins   in   the   United   States.   It   is   a   metaphor   which   reflects   an   environment   in   which   many   ideas   and   races   are   socially   assimilated.   It   is   considered   as   a   strength  tanks  to  the  solidarity  and  the  comprehension  within  the  population.    

Nevertheless,  we  are  able  to  find  some  weaknesses.   The  vast  territory  of  Canada  reflects  difficulties  to  manage  all  resources.   This   is   even   more   difficult   to   draw   boundaries   when   the   country   has   10   provinces   and   3   territories.   Moreover,   Canada   has   a   long   history   of   colonialism,   because   of   the   many   conquering  of  English  and  French;  it  is  not  easy  to  reconstruct  a  state  on  fragile  foundations.   Finally,   as   we   earlier   said,   the   richness   of   cultures   and   religions,   which   is   presented   as   strength,  is  also  the  cause  of  some  obstacles,  mainly  due  to  diverging  interests  and  habits  of   the  population.  

Being  in  daily  contact  with  various  foreign  clients,  people  in  parts  of  Canada  now  are  turning   their   eyes   in   different   directions:     the   Maritimes   looking   towards   the   Atlantic,   Quebec   to   New   England,   Ontario   to   the   Great   Lakes,   the   Prairies   to   their   oil   markets   of   South   and   British  Columbia  to  the  west.  




Exploring  the  Atlantic  Coast,  16th,  17th  Centuries    
During   the   16th   and   17th   centuries   European   discoverers   crossing   the   Atlantic   Ocean   clung   to   the   Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence,  the  Great  Lakes,  and  Hudson  Bay    water  bodies  that  were  reassuringly  familiar   in   appearance   when   compared   with   the   dark   continental   world   of   North   America.   Forests   looked   impenetrable,   contrasting   sharply   with   waterways   suitable   to   sailing   ships.    

Portuguese,  Spanish,  French,  English,  and  Dutch  mariners  each  took  their  turn  cruising  the  Atlantic   seaboard   in   the   16th   century   (interactive   map:  Exploring   the   Atlantic   Coast,   16th,   17th   Centuries).   The  English,  and  one  stray  Dane,  coasted  Hudson  Bay  and  Davis  Strait;  this  activity  marks  the  first  of  a   series   of  attempts,  over  more  than   three   centuries,   to   navigate  a   northwest   passage   to   Asia.   They   were  the  first  explorers  to  be  turned  back  by  ice,  and  it  would  be  two  centuries  until  explorers  again   sought  to  push  beyond  Davis  Strait.  

The   French   appear  to   have   been   the   most   venturesome   inland,   but   they   found   the   waterways   set   other   sorts   of   limits:   rapids   at   Montreal   (Lachine),   south   of   Lake   Champlain,   and   west   along   the   Ottawa  River.  In  the  last  years  before  1632  (map  layer:  Primary  routes,1614-­‐1632),  inland  explorers   for  the  first  time  bridged  gaps  between  places  already  known:  between  modern  Quebec  City  and  the   had  been  to  probe  and  retreat.    

Mapping  at  this  time  was  based  on  conjecture  and  lacked  sophisticated  instruments.  The  static  maps   shown  in  this  chapter  are  related  to  the  modern  world  only  with  difficulty.   Throughout  this  period  of  135  years,  the  coast  of  Labrador  and  northeastern  Newfoundland  were  the   most   heavily   travelled   parts   of   the   future   Canadian   territory.   Early   in   the   21st   century   they   are   among  the  least-­‐known  parts  of  the  country  



French  Exploration,  17th,  18th  Centuries  
For  a  century  and  a  half  the  Great  Lakes  region  and  Mississippi  River  system,  and  all  Native  peoples   who  flourished  there,  were  the  focus  of  French  explorers  and  missionaries.  The  English  on  James  Bay   set  limits  to  the  north,  and  their  trading  posts  on  the  upper  Hudson  River  set  limits  to  the  south.    

Southern  Ontario  is  one  of  the  first  inland  areas  to  be  explored,  lying  beyond  the  bigger  rivers  and   water   bodies   (interactive   map:   French   Exploration   1603-­‐1751   -­‐>   map   layer:   Primary   routes,   1603-­‐ 1626).   The   shortcut   between   Lake   Ontario   and   Georgian   Bay   has,   over   the   years,   attracted   canal   promoters,  railway  builders,  and  highway  planners.  From  the  1630s  to  the  1660s  French  exploration   stalled  against   English  pressure;  Quebec   was  briefly  in  English  hands  in  the  1630s  and  again  in  the   1650s  (map  layer:  Primary  routes,  1627-­‐1656).    

French   exploration   resumed   after   1660,   coinciding   with   a   major   settlement   initiative   in   the   St   Lawrence   Valley.   By   the   1680s   Frenchmen   had   crossed   from   the   western   Great   Lakes   into   the   Mississippi   system   at   two  points:   the   head   of   Green   Bay   on   Lake   Michigan   and   the   western   tip   of   Lake   Superior.   They   had   also   reached   James   Bay   overland   from   three   places   -­‐-­‐   Lac   Saint-­‐Jean,   the   Ottawa  River,  and  Lake  Superior  -­‐-­‐  

on  Hudson  Bay  (map  layers:  Primary  routes,  1657-­‐1680  and  1681-­‐1751).      
Frenchmen  would  encounter  the  English  on  James  Bay,  just  as  they  had  done  half  a  century  earlier  at   Albany,   New   York   (map   layer:   Forts   or   Trading   Posts).   Expansion   funneled   westward,   reaching   the  



Missouri  River  and  Lake  Winnipeg  by  the  middle  of  the  18th  century.  New  Orleans,  at  the  mouth  of   the   Mississippi,   was   established   in   1700,   completing   the   French   Crescent   from   the   Gulf   of   St   Lawrence  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico;  it  surrounded  the  thirteen  English  colonies.  The  static  map:  Delisle   map   of   1752  reminds   us   that   the   Pacific   Ocean   remained   an   underlying   goal,   however,   and   any   cartographic  trick  to  bring  it  nearer  the  east  was  welcomed.    

Acadia  (later-­‐day  Nova  Scotia  and  New  Brunswick)  is  not  recorded  as  being  explored.  It  appears  that   coastal   activity   had   been   sufficient   to   give   a   clear   idea   of   what   lay   inland,   and   exploration   was   an   unheralded  part  of  the  routine  of  Acadian  farmers  on  hunting  or  fishing  expeditions.      


Exploration  from  Hudson  Bay,  17th  to  19th  Centuries    
in   the   commercial   fur   business.   But   it   had   to   determine   where   its   raw   material   was   located,   scattered   throughout   the   river   systems   draining   to   the  Bay,  and  how  to  extract  it.  The  HBC  was  therefore  also  committed  to  exploration.   Within  twenty  years  of  its  i

province  of  Saskatchewan,  and  nearly  to  Great  Slave  Lake  (interactive  map:  Exploration  from  Hudson   Bay,1610-­‐1821   -­‐>   map   layer:   Primary   routes,   1610-­‐1751).   Only   late   in   the   18th   century,   well   after   New  France  had  fallen  to  British  control,  did  HBC  explorers  enter  areas  east  of  Hudson  Bay  which  the   French  had  visited  a  century  earlier  (map  layer:  Primary  routes,  1775-­‐1819  ).  And  it  was  not  until  the   1810s  that   explorers   finally   began   to   penetrate  the  vast   Ungava   region,   crossing   northeastward   to   Ungava   Bay   through   the   last   large   untracked   wilderness   in   the   eastern   part   of   the   continent.    

Rather,  exploring  the  river  systems  westward    the  Saskatchewan,  the  Severn,  the  Coppermine    was   much  more  in  the  interests  of  the  HBC,  and  their  men  pressed  further  and  further  west  through  the   middle   of   the   18th   century   (map   layers:   Primary   routes,   1752-­‐1762,   1763-­‐1774  ).   With   increasing    


-­‐-­‐   French,   and   later   Scots,   under   the   banner   of   the   Northwest   Company     out   of   Montreal.   Their   primary   fur-­‐trading   route   led   to  Lake   Winnipeg,   and   in   the   Red   River   area   (Winnipeg   today)   after   1800   heightened   the   tension,   and   by   1821   the    

As   exploration   and   trade   moved   deeper   into   the   continent,   the   degree   of   recorded   detail   lagged   behind   the   general   awareness   of   the   land.   As   a   result,   large   blank   areas   dominated   many   of   the   maps.    


Exploration  in  the  Far  West,  18th,  19th  Centuries    
Between   the   1740s   and   1820s   eastern   explorers   reached   the   Cordilleran   mountain   ranges.   About   1800  they  finally  broke  through  to  the  Pacific  Ocean  at  Bentinck  Arm  and  at  the  mouths  of  the  Fraser   and  Columbia  Rivers.  There  they  found  signs  of  decades  of  coasting  activity  by  British,  Spanish  and   Russian  mariners.    

  approaching   the   foothills   of   the   Rocky   Mountains   from   the   east,   mariners   from   Russia,   Spain   and   Great   Britain   were   starting   to   make   coastal   sailings   along   the   Pacific   Ocean   shore,   between   Oregon   and   the   Aleutian   Islands   (map:   Exploration  of  the  Far  West,  1741-­‐1821  -­‐  data  layer:  Primary  routes,  1741-­‐1784).  Exploration  of  the   eighteenth   century   and   in   1793   Alexander   Mackenzie,   a   Montrealer,   reached   the   head   of   one   of   those   fiords   at   Bella   Coola.   (data   layer:   Primary   routes,1785-­‐1794)   He   thus   completed   the   land   crossing  of  America  begun  some  two  centuries  earlier.      

the  time  to  be  a  dead  end;  despite  having  reached  the  open  ocean,  he  had  no  means  of  sailing  upon  



it.  Within  a  generation,  however,  ships  were  heading  for  the  same  place,  the  Beaufort  Sea,  making   their   approach   from   Lancaster   Sound   or   the   north   side   of   Hudson   Bay.   (data   layer:   Primary   routes,1813-­‐1821)   After   nearly   two   centuries,   Great   Britain   once   again   was   actively   seeking   the   Northwest  Passage.  

Meanwhile,  aggressive  activity  by  Montreal  traders  was  leading  to  a  thorough  understanding  of  the   geography  of  the  western  plains  and  intermontane  regions.  (data  layer:  Primary  routes,1795-­‐1812)   By   activating   the   modern   place   names   layer,   readers   may   see   the   irrelevance   of   the   newly   established  border  (in  1818)  with  the  United  States.  American  explorers  and  traders,  passing  up  the   Missouri  River,  added  their  understanding  to  the  Oregon  and  Columbia  River  Country.      


Exploration  to  Mid-­‐19th  Century  
Exploration  of  Canada  between  1821  and  1851  was  concentrated  north  of  Latitude  60  degrees  North   and   in   central   Ungava   and   Labrador.  These   were   the   last   inland   frontiers   in  Canada,   locales   of   the   canoe.   Beyond,   the   Arctic   islands   were   one   more   frontier,   reached   in   sailing   ships   that   could   withstand  year-­‐round  ice  floes.    

el  penetrated  Ungava  and  the  interior  of  Labrador,  including  places   beyond  the  original  company  limits  established  in  1670  (interactive  map:  Exploration  1818-­‐1851  -­‐>   map  layers:  Primary  routes,  1822-­‐1834,   and  1834-­‐1845).  They  also  took   up  new  responsibilities   in   New  Caledonia  (later  British  Columbia)  and  the  Northwestern  area  (later  Northwest  Territories  and   Yukon)   in   the   1820s.   Scots   had   come   to   dominate   the   HBC   operations,   judging   from   the   many   Scottish   names   among   the   explorers.   Their   maps   achieved   new   levels   of   sophistication,   using   the  



rectangular  grid  and  demonstrating  better  and  better  proportions  of  the  land  masses.  (static  maps:   Arrowsmith  1832,  and  1854)    
Exploration   among   the   Arctic   Islands   fell   to   Great   Britain,   and   progress   there   was   fitfully   slow.   By   1851   the   gap   between   navigators   seeking   the   Northwest   passage   westward   from   Davis   Strait   and   those   headed   eastward   from   Beaufort   Sea   (Arctic   Ocean)   was   tantalizingly   close   to   being   closed.   (map   layer:   Primary   routes,   1846-­‐1851).   But   the   circuit   of   the   Russian   Alaska   coast   remained   unfulfilled,   and   a   full   passage   between   Atlantic   and   Pacific   would   await   another   century.    

By  1850  the  Canadian  region  as  a  whole  was  known  continuously  north  to  latitude  55  degrees  (about   half  way  between  the  American  border  and  the  northern  limit  of  the  Prairie  Provinces  and  BC).  The   area   beyond   was   largely   unpenetrated   boreal   forest   and   tundra   criss-­‐crossed   by   established   routeways   repeatedly   travelled.   There   was   a   shift   from   exploration   for   its   own   sake   to   creating   standard   corridors   of   access   for   resource   exploitation,   and   not   just   furs.   Incidental,   opportunistic   exploration  would  continue  and  ultimately  the  full  land  would  be  revealed  through  aerial  surveys  and   photography  in  the  second  quarter  of  the  20th  century.      

Exploration  and  Assessment  to  1944  
replacing   ships   and   canoes   as   the   preferred   means   of   discovery.   Half   a   century   earlier,   scientists   started   questioning   what     rainfall,   soil,   flora   and   fauna,   minerals     lay   in   those   explored   places,   using  specialized  instruments  to  make  further  discoveries.    

ost   out   of   the   exploration  
business   (interactive   map:   Arctic   Exploration   1851-­‐1944   -­‐   map   layer:   Primary   routes,   1851-­‐91).  



Canadians  should  honour  the  HBC  as  the  principal  organization  involved  in  unmasking  the  interior  of   a  continent,  an  undertaking  that  lasted  fully  two  hundred  years.  The  Arctic  was  explored  by  British   ships   coasting   innumerable   islands   in   the   style   that   had   been   established   by   England   in   the   16th   century.  

The   United   States   entered   the   Arctic   late   in   the   19th   century   with   an   entirely   different   mission:   reaching   the   north   pole   (map   layer:   Primary   routes,   1892-­‐1906).   Standing   at   the   North   Pole   finally  reached  by  Peary  in  1909,  offered  no  apparent  value  beyond  the  symbolic.  That  may  change  in   the  21st  century.  

More  important  for  Canada  was  the  exploration  of  the  last  of  the  unknown  Arctic  region,  the  Queen   Elizabeth   Islands   (map   layer:   Primary   routes,   1907-­‐1939),   followed   by   the   navigation   of   the   Royal   Canadian   Mounted   Police   boat   St   Roch   through   the   Northwest   Passage,   in   both   directions,   in   the   1940s   (map   layer:   Primary   routes,   1939-­‐1944 ability  to  bring  services  to  Inuit  communities  in  the  far  north.    

Land  exploration  gave  way  to  land  assessment  during  the  19th  century  (map:  Scientific  Expeditions   and  Surveys  1857-­‐1892   -­‐>  map  layer:  Primary  routes,  1857-­‐1861).  In  places  like   southern  Ontario,   land  assessment  was  undertaken  by  settlers  who  cleared  forests  to  make  farmland,  try  crops,  drain   wetlands,   and   control   pests;   they   were   scientists   in   all   but   name.   But   elsewhere,   notably  Western   Canada,  scientists  preceded  settlers  and  focused  on  agricultural  limits:  rainfall  and  growing  season,   for   instance   (static   map:   Climate   of   British   North   America   after   Blodget,   1875).   The   definition   of   -­‐area   studies,   sequel   to   the   linear   probes   of   the   explorers  (static  map:  Palliser;  GSC  Reconnaissance  1866-­‐1892).    



Summary  of  Exploration  through  Four  Centuries  

mosquitoes.   From   starting   points   on   the   Atlantic   coast,   each   successive   journal   and   map   provided   the   springboard   for   discovery   ever   further   west   and   north.   Follow   the   process   of   cumulative   knowledge  over  more  than  four  centuries.  

A  century  and  a  half  after  the  first  voyage  of  Columbus  in  1492,  northern  North  America  beyond  the   Atlantic  coastline  was  still  barely  known.  Three  entryways  had  been  established:  Davis  Strait,  Hudson   Bay,  and  the  St  Lawrence  valley  (interactive  map:  Summary  of  Exploration,  1497-­‐1891  -­‐>  map  layer:   Before  1656).  It  took   another  century  and  a  half  of  laborious  probing  across  the   great   plains  (map   layers:  1657-­‐1751,  1752-­‐1774)  and  through  the  western  mountains  to  reach  the  Pacific  coast,  where   explorers   met   other   Europeans   who   were   arriving   there   too,   overseas   from   the   west   (map   layer:   1775-­‐1795).   Through   the   19th   century   Arctic   exploration   resumed   (map   layer:   1796-­‐1821)   after   a   long   hiatus,   along   with   exploration   of   the   remotest   parts   of   Ungava   and   the   far   northwest   (map   layer:  1822-­‐1851).  Scientific  inquiry  gradually  took  hold  throughout  regions  that  would  become  the   Prairie   Provinces,   Northwest   Territories   and   Yukon   (map   layer:   1852-­‐1891).    

Portuguese,  Spanish,  and  Russians  dominated  the  earliest   coastal  reconnaissance   activity,  but   then   retreated   (map   layer:   First   explorers   by   country).   Inland   the   French   uncovered   what   became    the  rest  of  the  land  mass,  all  the  

way   to   the   Arctic   Ocean.   The   rough   outline   of   Canada   was   revealed   as   a   matter   of   curiosity;   the   details   of   coastlines   were   refined   in   lockstep   with   the   refinement   of   instrumentation   during   the   industrial  age  (map  layer:  First  explorers  by  purpose).  The  Canadian  land  mass  was  revealed  largely   because  it  fed  a  craze  for  fur-­‐based  consumer  products  in  Europe.    

Native  CANADA  
At  the  time  of  European  contact  Canada  had  been  inhabited  for  more  than  4  000  years.  The  Native   population  stood  at  about  300  000,  with  the  largest  concentrations  in  the  lower  Great  Lakes  area  and   on  the  West  Coast.  The  population  was  culturally  very  diverse,  and  the  variety  of  languages  spoken   was   far   greater   than   in   Europe.   How   is   all   this   information   reconstructed?   Some   of   the   data   is   ethnohistoric   in   nature,   from   accounts   of   explorers,   missionaries   and   early   settlers.   The   other   available  data  is  archaeological.  Both  sources  are  represented  on  the  maps  in  this  chapter.   Of   course,   contact   took   place   at   different   times   in   different   parts   of   the   country.   In   the   east,   the   French  compiled  much  ethnographic  information  before  European  diseases  spread  through  the  Great   Lakes  basis  in  the  1630s.  This  provides  the  knowledge  base  for  the  interactive  map  of  Eastern  Native   Population,  Early  17th  Century.  

For  most  of  the  rest  of  what  is  now  Canada,  knowledge  is  somewhat  more  speculative.  It  is  known   that   12   major   linguistic   families   existed   in   Native   Canada.   These   are   outlined   on   the  interactive   mapof  Linguistic  Families,  17th  Century.  

Subsistence  for  native  people  in  northern  North  America  was  based  largely  on  hunting,  fishing  and   gathering,  with  agriculture  limited  to  a  few  areas  in  the  east,  as  far  as  is  known.  Two  maps  in  this   chapter   show   contrasting   use   of   data   sources   for   earlier,   and   more   recent   time   periods.   Theinteractive  map  of  Native  Subsistence,  1000  CE  to  European  Contact,  Archeological  Data  shows  



the   types   of   animals   that   were   eaten   based   on   the   objects   and   built   structures   found   in   archaeological   digs.   This   is   obviously   limited   to   those   artifacts   that   could   be   preserved,   and   so   inevitably  is  only  part  of  the  story.  The  interactive  map  of  Native  Subsistence  at  European  Contact,   Ethnohistoric  Data  is  a  more  complete  picture  of  activities  of  the  time,  though  as  always,  subject  to   the  data  limitations  of  its  own  sources.  

An  interesting  contrast  to  these  maps  can  be  found  in  the  later  chapter  in  the  atlas,  Native  Canada,   ca   1820,  which   takes   a   broader   look   at   Native   population   and   how   the   economies   of   native   subsistence  changed  after  contact  

Unlike   most   chapters   in   this   atlas,   this   chapter   consists   of   only   one  interactive   map:  Native   Population,  Economies  and  Movement,  ca  1820.  This  map  takes  a  comprehensive  look  at  the  state   of  native  subsistence  and  commerce  in  the  early  19th  century.  It  largely  paints  a  picture  of  the  results   of  a  couple  of  centuries  of  contact   with  Europeans,  and  the  decimation  that  resulted  in  the  native   way  of  life  in  northern  North  America.  

On  this  map,  population  is  shown  by  circles,  colour  coded  by  linguistic  groups,  and  scaled  according   to   estimated   population   size.   This   gives  the   general  picture   of   population   distribution   at   this   time.   These  were  greatly  affected  by  disease  and  migration  resulting  from  European  contact.  Information   on   patterns   of   population   movement   is   also   depicted   -­‐   both   traditional   seasonal   movements,   and   large  scale  migration  due  to  warfare  or  other  disruptive  influences.   Native  economic  zones  are  broadly  characterized  by  how  traditional  economies  had  been  affected  by   European  contact.  These  range  from  those  severely  disrupted  by  European  settlement  and  resource   depletion,   to   traditional   economies   relatively   untouched   by   contact.   Information   on   European   commercial  activity  is  also  shown,  to  put  the  former  into  context:  both  trading  posts,  and  routes  of   maritime  commerce  are  depicted.  

A   useful   cross-­‐reference   is   to   this   map   is   the  interactive   map  of  Eastern   Native   Population,   Early   17th  Century,  and  the  maps  of  subsistence  in  the  earlier  chapter  in  the  atlas:  Native  Population  and   Subsistence,   17th   Century.   This   shows   the   significant   depopulation   of   eastern   Canada   during   this   time   period,   and   the   deep   changes   that   affected   native   life.   Details  of  much  of   this   history   can   be   found  in  the  printed  Historical  Atlas  of  Canada,  Volume  I:  From  the  Beginning  to  1800.    Canada's  First  Nations  used  the  land  without  owning  it  and  without  the  concept  of  real  estate.  The   French  and  British  made  Canadian  land  a  commodity  for  ownership,  to  be  bought  and  sold.  Reserves   are  their  interpretation  of  the  First  Nations'  place  in  this  system.  Discover  patterns  of  land  division   and  occupance  very  different  from  the  familiar  provincial  and  urban  arrangement.   Native  Reserves,  1902  (interactive  map),  tells  us  that  Canada  had,  by  1900,  set  aside  special  retreats   for  some  100,000  Canadians  (static  map:  Native  Population,  1901)  and  not  to  be  intruded  upon  by    Ecozones  map  layer  (Native  

Reserves,   1902)  to   look   at   the   Boreal   Plains   -­‐   Prairie   area,   for   example,   where   shelter-­‐belts   and   reasonable  climate  were  being  occupied  by  immigrants  from  Ontario  and  Europe.  In  the  process  of   assuming  non-­‐

there  mutual  accommodation  here?  What  lessons  may  be  learned?   Magnifying  the  interactive  map:  Native  Reserves,  1902,  and  popping-­‐up  one  of  the  Native  Reserves   tables  reveals   their   great   variety.   Maritimes   reserves   are   tiny   and   scattered,   echoing   the   scant   erosity  of  the  late  18th  century  gave  way  to   re-­‐encroachment  as  new  settlement  occurred  (graph:  Sales  of  Surrendered  Reserve  Lands  in  Eastern   Canada,   1867-­‐1900).   Mere   fragments   remain   of   the   initial   Grand   River   or   Bruce   Peninsula   endowments.  In  the  West  colonial  officials  struck  preemptively  against  the  wide-­‐ranging  lifeways  of  



plains  and  coastal  societies.  And  in  the  North  no  reserves  even  existed,  yet  Native   and  non-­‐Native   both  dwelt  there.  Readers  may  wish  to  explore  why  reserves  were  not  universal.   Magnify   still   more.   Notice   the   fragmented   scatter   of   reserves   around   Lake   of   the   Woods   in   northwestern   Ontario.   That   was   in   1902,   but   how   have   cottagers   reacted   over   the   intervening   century?  A  nation-­‐wide  map  can  hide  interpersonal  relationships  we  all  experience  daily.  And  we  talk   of  reserves  without  proper  thought  for  the  people  associated  with  them,  many  of  whom  lived  in  the   wider  Canadian  community,  far  from  kinfolk,  often  in  cities.  Think  of  Caughnawaga  iron  workers  or   Residential  School  students.  Think  of  vulnerable  sacred  sites  not  on  reserves.  Native  Reserves,  1902   (interactive  map),  is  an  expressive  spring-­‐board  from  which  to  explore  the  many  stories  it  stirs   POPULATION  

By   1800   a   Europe-­‐based   civilization   was   overpowering   Native   lands   and   Native  
civilizations   and   bringing   immigrants   into  
northeastern   North   America.   The  interactive  
map:  Population  and  Economy,  ca  1800shows  
a   necklace   of   outports   in   eastern  
Newfoundland,   narrow   belts   of   settlement   in   the  Maritimes,  and  a  fuller  band  along  the  St.   Lawrence   River   in   Lower   Canada.   Tiny  
impressions  of  settlement  were  evident  in  the   forests   of   Upper   Canada   and   in   the   Eastern   Townships  of  Lower  Canada,  just  north  of  the   American   boundary.   The   swirling   trade  

patterns   of   Native   peoples   and   fur   traders   in   the   vast   northern   country   make   a   striking   contrast  with  the  solidly  occupied  area  of  the   United   States   in   the   south,   where   5.3   million   people  lived  and  sent  population  spurs  edging   northward.   Close   Native   contact   with  

Eurocanadians   was   occurring   at   this   time   not   only   on   the   Canadian   Shield;   in   the   Montreal   district   the   Native   communities   of  
Caughnawaga   and   Lac-­‐des-­‐Deux-­‐Montagnes   were  in  place,  as  were  the  communities  on  the   Grand   River,   north   of   Lake   Erie,   in   Upper   Canada.

Eastern   Canada,   ca   1800   attempts   to  
consolidate  much  of  the  information  found  in  
other  regional  plates  in  the  Historical  Atlas  of   Canada.   It   is   estimated   that   in   1800   the   population  of  what  is  now  Eastern  Canada  was   about   340,000,   and   the   patterns   to   be  

followed  in  the  next  two  centuries  were  being   established.  
The   map   reveals   fundamental   contrasts   in   language.   These   are   represented   as   well   in   the  static   map:Population  and  Language  in  Eastern  Canada,  ca  1800.  Here  the  different  proportions  across  the   colonies   are   shown.   It   must   be   emphasized   that   these   population   numbers   are   fairly   rough   estimates;  see  the  Authors  and  Sources  page  for  details  of  their  calculation.  



The  Canadian  Population:  1825,  1851,  1871,  1891    
This   chapter   combines   information   from   the   original   atlases   covering   population   in   the   intensive   growth  period  of  the  19th  century.  In  all  the  colonies  the  first  half  of  the  19th  century  was  a  time  of   clearing  forests  to  make  farmland,  and  expansion  of  population  through  large  migrations.  By  1871  a   transcontinental   Canada   had   been   created,   and   this   chapter   follows   some   of   the   consequent   population  changes,  to  1891.  By  mid-­‐century  urban  development  had  begun  and  every  colony  had  its   leading  urban  centres.  By  1891,  regional  centres  in  different  parts  of  the  country  were  poised  to  fight   for  supremacy  nationally  or  regionally  in  the  next  century.   The  four  main  maps  from  the  original  atlas  plates  are  re-­‐created  as  interactive  maps  of  Population   Distribution   in   1825,   1851,   1871  and  1891.  These   show   rural   population   using   a   dot   distribution   symbolization,  which  simulates  population  density  as  well.  One  can  see  the  ecumene  of  the  country   fill   up   gradually   over   this   time   series.   Simultaneously   on   these   maps,   urban   centres   are   shown   as   proportional  symbols,  so  the  development  of  the  urban  system  is  illustrated.   Supporting  graphs  are   also   included:   the  Growth   of   Provinces,  Growth   of   Cities,  Urban   Populations  andUrban   Centres  during   the   century   are   all   depicted.   Also   included   is   a  graph  of  Population  Pyramids  for  Canada  in  1871  and  1891.  Population  pyramids  are  a  well-­‐known   graphic   form   to   express   a   demographic   profile;   the   atlas   revised   the   usual   method   to   enable   comparisons  between  various  regions  and  censuses  reporting   population  using  different   age   group    


The  Exodus:  Migrations,  1860-­‐1900  
Canada  is  generally  thought  of  as  a  country  to  which  people  came,  but  many  have  also  departed.  This   chapter   charts   how   this   exit   strategy   took   effect   in   the   last   part   of   the   19th   century.   Migration   statistics  were  not  actually  recorded,  so  calculations  based  on  the  differences  between  expected  and   actual  populations  have  been  used  to  estimate  intercensal  net  migrations  (see  Sources.)   The  graph  showing  Migration   Estimates,   1850s-­‐1900s,   illustrates   that   immigration   exceeded   emigration  in  the  1850s,  but  outflow  was  greater  than  inflow  for  every  decade  over  the  rest  of  the   century.   Because   of  a   high   rate   of   natural   increase,  however,   Canada's   population   did   not   actually   fall.  

The  interactive   map:   Migration,   1871-­‐1891,   shows   migration   rates   for   two   different   decades   and   allows   comparison   between   the   two.   A   background   layer   classifies   the   "type"   of   migration   experienced   in   each   area:   Classic   out-­‐migration,   urban/industrial   in-­‐migration,   or   frontier   in-­‐ migration.  

Canadian-­‐Born  in  the  United  States,  1880  looks  at  how  many  born  and  bred  Canadians  were  living  in   the  States  at  this  time,  and  which  provinces  they  came  from.  In  this  interactive  map,  an  additional   layer  shows  which  occupations  many  of  these  immigrant  workers  were  pursuing,  specifically  in  the   Northeastern  states.  

Migration,  1891-­‐1930  
The   last   years   of   the   19th   century   and   the   first   of   the   20th   were   times   of   great   growth   and   substantial  mobility  in  the  Canadian  population.  Newcomers  poured  in  from  overseas  to  settle  across   the  country.  The  prairies  attracted  many  re-­‐settlers  from  the  East,  as  well.  The  maps  and  graphs  in   this  chapter,  look  at  both  these  aspects  of  dynamic  change.    


The  interactive  map  entitled  Immigration  to  Canada,  1896-­‐1914,  gives  an  overview  of  the  advent  of   people  from  around  the  world,  coming  to  Canada  for  all  their  individual  reasons.  Some  came   from   the   traditional   founding   countries,   others   from   novel   sources,   like   Asia.   Many   came   via   the   U.S.   Anotherinteractive  map,  Immigration  to  the  Prairies,  1896-­‐1914,  focuses  on  the  newcomers  to  the   Prairie  provinces,  and  their  origins.  

These   immigration   maps   are   supported   by  graphs  showing   overall   trends   in  Immigrants   to   Canada   1891-­‐1961,  Asian   Immigration   1891-­‐1931.   Another  graph  provides   a   snapshot   of  Distribution   of   Immigrant  Population  in  1921,  as  distributed  in  Rural  or  Urban  areas  of  the  East  and  the  West.   Two  other  maps  depict  trends  in  internal  migration,  rather  than  international  flows.  The  interactive   map  of  The  Move  to  the  West,  1891-­‐1914,  puts  these  interprovincial  migrants  into  context,  with  two   sets  of  pie  graphs  positioned  around  the  country,  one  representing  "where  from",  and  one  showing   "where   to."   The   second  interactive   map,   Ontario   Migration   to   the   Prairies,   1901-­‐1911  specifically   looks  at  those  moving  from  Ontario  counties  to  the  three  Prairie  provinces.  The  source  for  the  origin   of  settlers  is  an  unusual  one:  a  retrospective  sample  of  Prairie  newspaper  obituaries,  giving  places  of   birth  in  Ontario  counties.  

POPULATION  CHANGES,  1941  1961  
"others",   neither   French   nor   English,   often   clustered   into   enclaves:   Scandinavians   in  
Edmundston   (New   Brunswick),   or   Dutch   near  
Georgian   Bay.   Only   in   Québec   is   there   no   dominant   third   group.   The  graph  of  Major  
Ethnic  Groups  1901,  1931,  1961traces  back  to  
1901,   showing   the   emergence   of   these  

without   exception,   honouring   one's   Native,  
French,   or   British   cultural   traditions,  
sometimes  in  combination,  in  a  fresh  spacious   setting.   In   the   21st   century   "being   Canadian"   applies   to   dozens   of   ethnic,   religious,   and   linguistic   groups   associated   with   all   parts   of   the   world,   most   commonly   living   in   a   few   large  cities.  

Consider  the  interactive  map  of  Ethnic  Origin,   1961,   showing   the   first,   second   and   third   largest  groups.  Note  the  small  percentages  of  


(German   and   Native)   with   more   than   1%   in   1901  to  eight  in  1961.  
Bilingualism   refers   to   individuals   who   can   function  in  two  languages    historically  French   and  English    and  also  to  the  idea  of  a  country   in   which   two   languages   dominate.   On  

the  interactive   map:   The   Bilingual   Belt,  
1961  the   pinks   and   light   blues   form   a   belt,   a   long   narrow   strip   from   southeastern   Quebec   through  the  Ottawa  River  valley  into  northern   Ontario,   with   a   branch   westward   to   the   Soo.   Another   piece   runs   along   the   northeastern  

shore  of  New  Brunswick.  In  these  belts  English   and   French   mix   on   city   streets   and   from   one   country   road   to   the   next.   But   the   proportion   of   these   people   who   would,   individually,   be   bilingual  calls  for  a  rather  different  map.  


It   is   generally   agreed   that   in   Canada   the   balance   tipped   from   rural   to   urban   in   the   1910s   (graph  ofPopulation   Growth   1891-­‐1961).   With   only   a   slight   setback   during   the   Depression   of   the   1930s,   population   has   moved   steadily   towards   more   than   80   per   cent   urban   today.   The  graph  of  Urban  and  Rural  Population  is  actually  a  cartogram    mixed  map  and  graph    in  which   the   urban   and   rural   extent   is   given   spatial   treatment,   regions   positioned   in   blocks   as   they   occur   across  the  country.  Ontario  reaches  well  south  of  the  49th  parallel,  often  symbolic  of  the  American   boundary.  The  Depression  is  echoed  in  the  Population  Profiles  graphs   -­‐

declined.  The  pinch  in  the  0-­‐4  age  bracket  for  1931  is  repeated  for  the  20-­‐30  age  groups  in  1961.  The   2001  census  will  show  the  same  feature  among  those  in  their  60s.   These  three  maps  all  use  the  same  sets  of  data  compiled  from  the  censuses  of  Canada,  and  for  the   British  colonies  before  confederation,  and  cover  the  same  time  span,  1851  -­‐  1961.  However,  each  of   them   shows   population   growth   in   a   different   way.   Together,   they   are   a   good   illustration   of   how   information  can  be  mapped  in  different  ways,  to  tell  different  stories.   In  all  of  the  maps,  population  is  aggregated  by  census  division,  and  these  are  quite  large  areas.  Much   of  the  variation  between  the  maps  results  from  the  way  these  "data  units"  are  represented  on  the   map.  

In   the  interactive   map  of  Population   Growth,   1851-­‐1961,   each   census   division   is   represented   by   a   circle   proportional   to   its   population   size.   Major   cities   are   also   shown   as   circles,   just   like   any   other   census  division,  so  that  one  gets  a  good  comparative  picture  of  overall  growth  by  region.  However,   these  circles  are  randomly  located  in  the  centre  of  the  census  division.  In  large  rural  divisions,  such  as   in  the  far  north  of  most  provinces,  and  in  the  Territories,  these  do  not  present  a  very  realistic  picture   of  the  location  of  population.  

The   map   of  Population   Density  attempts   to   overcome   this   shortcoming   by   calculating   density   of   population,  i.e.  number  of  people  divided  by  the  area  they  are  spread  through,  in  square  km  -­‐  in  this   case,  the  area  of  the  census  division.  The  values  are  classed,  and  then  the  census  divisions  are  colour-­‐ coded   according   to   their   overall   population   density,   from   high   to   low   values   -­‐   technically,   a   "choropleth"  map.  This  kind  of  map  tells  the  story  of  increasing  rural  population  and  land  utilization   very  well.  In  the  interactive  map,  zooming  in  on  the  Prairies,  and  flipping  through  the  maps  year  by   year   shows   increasingly   dark   colours   in   increasingly   small   census   divisions   over   the   century,   as   agriculture-­‐based  settlement  spreads  through  the  land.  The  setbacks  of  the  Depression  show  up  as  a   reversal  of  this  general  trend  in  parts  of  the  southern  prairies,  in  the  1941  census.  However,  on  this   map,  urban  growth  gets  lost  -­‐  because  the  cities  are  relatively  small  in  area,  they  are  scarcely  visible   despite  growing  urban  population  throughout  the  period.    

The   design   developed   for   the  Population   Distribution   map   series   tries   to   overcome   both   these   drawbacks,  to  some  extent.  A  dot  distribution  map  uses  one  dot  to  represent  every  300  people;  dots   are  plotted  in  a  random  manner  within  the  known  settled  area  (ecumene).  Although  the  settled  area   mapped  at  these  scales  is  very  approximate,  and  population  was  scattered  throughout  the  rest  of  the   country  as  well,  it  does  give  a  better  picture  of  where  people  were  located  than  the  circle  map.  Cities   still  do  not  show  up  very  well  using  the  dot  mapping  method,  so  this  interactive  map  allows  one  to  



turn  on  a  map  layer  of  the  major  cities,  shown  as  sized  squares,  on  top  of  the  dot  base  maps.  By  this   combination  of  methods  the  viewer  can  customize  the  map  to  his  or  her  wishes  -­‐  to  a  limited  degree.   Three  maps  all  made  with  the  same  data  therefore  can  tell  3  very  different  stories.  Like  statistics,  or   descriptive   prose,  they  serve   a  purpose;  two  maps  of  the  same   data  can  be   correct,  without   being   equal.  The   method  of  mapping  and  the  map's  graphic  design  allow   the  cartographer  to  emphasize   certain   information   to   achieve   the   map's   purpose.   For   these   maps,   the   raw   numbers   are   also   available  as  a  data  table,  which  users  can  download  from  the  Legend  Info  pages,  to  create  their  own   view  of  population  growth.  




The  politics  of  Canada  function  within  a  
framework  of  parliamentary  democracy  and  
a  federal  system  of  parliamentary  
government  with  strong  democratic  traditions.  
Canada  is  a  constitutional  monarchy,  in  which   the  Monarch  is  head  of  state.  The  country  has   a  multi-­‐party  system  in  which  many  of  the  its   legislative  practices  derive  from  the  

unwritten  conventions  of  and  precedents  set  
by  Great  Britain's  Westminster  Parliament.    
However,  Canada  has  evolved  variations:  party  
discipline  in  Canada  is  stronger  than  in  the   United  Kingdom  and  more  parliamentary  votes  
are  considered  motions  of  confidence,  which  
tends  to  diminish  the  role  of  non-­‐
Cabinet  Members  of  Parliament  (MPs).  

Such   members,   in   the   government  caucus,   and   junior   or   lower-­‐profile   members   of  opposition  caucuses,   are   known   as  backbenchers.   Backbenchers   can,   however,   exert   their   influence  by  sitting  in  parliamentary  committees,  like  the  Public  Accounts  Committee  or  the  National   Defence   Committee.   The   two   dominant   political   parties   in   Canada   have   historically   been   the  Conservative   Party   of   Canada  (or   its  predecessors)   and   the  Liberal   Party   of   Canada,   and   as   of   the  2011   election  the   social ...

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