Gender roles theory- here we see a predisposition to socialisation in females and wether they have what it takes to commite crime. As a society we have higher moral expectations of female, and higher social controls, gender approt expectations. Girls are encouraged to live up to that. Masculinisation theory- Freeda Adler: a convergence of gender controls expectations was brought about by feminist movement. Women are able to achieve what they want to achieve. Equal rights between men and women. She said she believes that this had contributed to a rise in female crimes. The phenomenon of female assertiveness was a rise in tide in our society and that it was a wave that had not yet crested and the assertiveness that could be an aggressiveness that could be crime that was reaching a level close to that set by males. Teenage females in theory could be as violent as males. The theories that had been there to this date, they were males based and this was the first in your face female one. Just because females are females, doesn’t mean crime is beyond them. She did a study and she studied school girls to see if they were involved in violence and at what level.
Novack’s Decleration of faith- All of us act in certain ways because we see the world in certain ways. the way we act is largly defined on the way we see the world. Artz- Canadian women’s violence is alive and well in women. Aggravated assault climbed three times higher since 1960, robbery 4 times, homicide increased by a third. Female crime grew at twice the rate as the males. These females are part of a cultural shift that are becoming more assertive, fastest growing group of violent offenders on the planet. Girls murder or arson jumped 120% between 1986-95. Canadian girls are more violent than US. As these rates increased, at the same time, their suicide rates dropped 50% since 1970. Because young women had been self directing anger, when life got hard they would self inflict. When girls can other direct their anger than their feel more liberated. Army women, are expected to fight alongside men. Business women are aggressive. Women’s sports. Never does it mean harming someone. Times are changing and we must see females as who they are. Accept that women are becoming greater in crime. Glazer- looks at the ways in which women could be aggressive. Women of higher status used gossip and higher knowledge to keep other women out. Women can manipulate. She goes to palstan- women are honour killed. (20-40) these murders, other females acted as instigators by letting loose gossip. Started a rumer that was false and spread and cause men to save the family honour. The men were like a loaded gun in the hand of the women. The shattering of myths:
In modern society we tecch females how to feel socialy. We are told to treat females of a number of self injuring illnesses. Often times their way of venting their rages. Females have been taught to control their rage so they turn it to themselves.
Profiles of the violent school girls
Family- on the surface they appeared normal. Mother and father together and both working. When speacking to the girls, not as important about family life. Ask about mothers... not a positive response. Feared and were physically abused at home. There is a defiance in regards to their families (smoking lying, curfrew after purposely). Very dysfunctional relationship. Damage of personal property. Peer groups- into cliques and gangs and rules for each. There is sexual behaviour going on in these groups and it is not positive experience for them. Metal, bangers, skaters (girls skaters called betties). They try to aphilitate eachothers but there is a price Schools and teachers- negative attitudes. Disrespect for teachers. Attitude, damaging school property Interpersonal social values- violence is okay, moral relativity is very subjective, to hell with the collective rights. Self concept- girls how low self confidence boys have high. Personal and social concerns- nothing is more important than them and their life. They feel hopless and helpless cause they don’t believe that is they work hard they will get somewhere. When they look at them they complain about how they never have enough tie but they always have money. They drug deal. Support systems- parents on the bottom. For every issue.
Abuse- highest level of fear about having sex against their will. Higher rates of physical abuse at home. Highest rates of being talked into sex. Mother was the least valued. These mothers are weak. Parents have same level and occupation as those non violent parents. Family to the violent girl is less important.
All of these girls have their own unique story to tell
These dysfunctional girls want functional things.
Girls lack confidence and don’t know who they are
Survival of the fittest at the expense of the weakest. Experiment. Some asked politely and some used force. Shows us that as a society we are predisposed to use violence to get what we want. Power- violence is anything that deniys human humany integrity and leads to hoplessness and helpless ness.
Pp.22 - Males traditionally have more power and women do not have as much power
Women are more sexually harassed than males. Women suffer more abuse by males that males by female. They face more violence in our society and they have less power to protect themselves.
We are looking at violence at a much higher level. If one feels hopeless and helpless than that is abuse.
Pp.23- when we look at our society and the ways that boys benefit from the entitlement of male dominance in society, they have role models and people they can relate to.
Research shows that as a females studying graduate school, males have diff expectations and we have to work harder.
There are benefits for males, loans at banks, retirement packages better. Men are paid more for comparable work. Men are promoted faster into higher positions. Men are safer at home and on the streets. Males need for sex and sexual fulfillment are known (strip clubs). For women, a strip clubs are not common.
Highing someone for unpaid work, cleaning lady, nanny, women are often hired than men.
its hard to for men to see that they benefit from a more powerful group.
We observe that men do have more benefits. Men believe that is simply the way the life is. The master will not dismantle his own house with his own tools.
There are complex power relationships in our community. Based on race, sex, religion. This means that there are males that are perceived more powerful than other men. For example, white males more powerful than a homosexual male.
He tell us that we need to look at and understand the chart on pp.24. left hand side- those who are more powerful will be adult, men, rich, white, bosses, heterosexuals, Christians, able bodied ppl, formally educated and born in the country. Those who are less powerful- young ppl and seniors, women, the poor, ppl of colour, workers, gays, jews musliums and budisdts, ppl with disabilityies, not formally educated and without an education.
Pp.24- we can see that the ppl on the right have less of an ability to portect themselves. Thay can be targeted and st...