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Canadian Geography Exam Notes Essay

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CGC-1D1
Exam Notes
Geography
Levels of Geography • Me → personal space
• Local → Oshawa
• Regional → Durham
• Provincial → Ontario
• National → Canada
• Worldwide → Global
Five Focus Areas for Geographers 1) Why things are located where they are. 2)Geographical systems; that shape our world.
3) Interactions between people and the environment within they live. 4) Global Connections; between regions and other countries. 5) Special tools and skills geographers use (like mapping, graphing, and aerial photographing.)

• Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – total value of the goods and services produced within a country, excluding transactions with other countries. • With regards to GDP, Canada fits in the 11th spot out of the whole world.

Maps
• Map – a representation of the earths features on a flat surface. Labeling of a Map
1)Title – states clearly what is on the map, underlined in red 2)Legend – titled, underlined, right-hand side, includes all symbols/colors on map 3)Color/Shading – suits what your trying to show, cities indicated by a red dot, blue for water only 4)Accuracy – be exact

5)Labeling – fine blue or black printing only, horizontal in CAPITAL LETTERS, includes compass rose and black border outline Map Projections
• Mercator Projection - map projection in which compass bearings are more correct - useful for marine charts
- unsuitable for ground level (distorts distances, areas, and shapes of land masses and oceans)
• Winkel Tripel Projection - best map projection for providing a balance between size and shape • Equal-Area Projection - map projection in which the correct sizes of all countries are shown in relation to one another

- used by most nations and international organizations

• Large Scale Map – maps that show a large amount of detail in a small area (used for such things as residential planning, hiking, and military purposes) • Small Scale Map – maps that show a small amount of detail in a large area (used to show general details such as political, physical, and economic information) Three Types of Maps We Use Most Often

• General Purpose Maps - map that contains many different types of information • Thematic Maps - best map projection for providing a balance between size and shape • Topographic Maps – large-scale map showing both natural and human made structures Compass Rose

• compass point – direction on a compass• compass rose – diagram, in the shape of a flower, showing directions and bearings. used to indicate directions on a map• compass bearing – degrees on a compass measured clockwise from 0° (North) to 360° (North)• alpha-numeric grid – grid that uses letters and numbers to identify squares of a grid pattern on a map. • map grid – series of lines on a map that can be used to locate ant place on the map• easting – first three figures in a map reference giving the east-west location• northing – last three figures in a map reference giving the north-south location• la...

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