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Canadian Studies Essay

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Canadian studies
1. Canadian flag: 2 stripes of red, a white stripe in the middle and on the white part a red stylized maple leaf. 3 part of the maple leaf which represent the 3 founding groups: French, British, Natives. 11 points = 10 provinces + 1 point for the 3 territories. Chosen recently in 1965 but internationally known.

2. 33 000 000 inhabitants
3. 10 provinces
4. Ottawa in Ontario
5. Toronto, Québec, Ottawa, vancouvert, lewis, montreal
6. Québec city
7. Confederation: July 1, 1867 (Canada day)
Canada was founded as a federal dominion (federal regime)
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada (Québec and ontario) joined 8. Queen Elizabeth II
10. Beaver
11. Royal Canadian Mounted police
12. Singers: Brian Adams, Justin Bieber, Avril Lavigne, Alanis Morissette, Leonard Cohen, Simple plan (french speaking), Mickael bublé. Cobbie Smulders, Ryan Renolds, Jim Carrey, Jason priestly, Keenu Reeves (né à beyrouth élevé à Toronto) Pamela Anderson, Ryan Gosling, William Shutner. Réalisateur: James Cameron

13. Margaret Atwood, Katy Reich
14. Canadian broadcasting corporation (radio et télé nationales) 15. The globe and mail
16. No one dollar bill -> One dollar coin: canada’s loonie (because there a loonie on it) and there is a two dollar coin called toonie (with a pollar bear).

Canada’s population in 2011 33,4 M
* Most populated provinces
* Ontario 12,8 M
* Québec 7,9 M
* British Columbia 4,4 M
* Least populated province
* Prince edward island 140 000
* Each of the 3 territories has a population inferior to 50 000. The westernmost province (=la province la plus à l’ouest)

NAFTA (north america free trade agreement (ALENA in French) 1994 free trade zone between canada USa and mexico. Border between Canada and USA: longest border without any security forces (opposed to border btw uSA and mexico. 49th parallel.

Atlantic Canada (region)
* Labrador and newfoundland
* 3 Maritime provinces
* PEI (l’ile du prince édouard)
* New Brunswick (nouveau bronswick)
* Nova scotia (nouvelle écosse)
Central Canada
* Ontario
* Québec

Canada’s Head of state
Like 16 commonwealth realms, cananda’s head of state is Queen Elizabeth II * Queen’s representative is: governor-general at the federal level (named by the prime minister and appointed by the queen) * In each province, the queen is represented by lieutenant-governors. * Since October 2010, governor-general: David Johnston

Canada ‘s prime minister: Stephen harper (concervative) elected 2006, reelected 2008 reelected 2011.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Founded 1920
Federal police force + in some provinces


Canada is the world's second largest country (after China) covering nearly 3,9 million square miles. World's reservoir of fresh water
Many lakes: Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario
6 time zones
Assets: more natural resources + living space + tourism (recreational space) Liabilities: pb of transportation, the national feeling is threatened by strong regionalism (quebec has tried several times to become independent).

The shield : very hard rock, many lakes (huge hydro electric projects) and marshlands (many mosquitoes) very few vegetation -> inhospitable region but very rich in minerals and metals (uranium). Lots of trees in the south: pulp and paper industry nowdays challenged by china.

The low lands: many lakes and rivers

-st Lawrence low lands
Manitoba low lands: corn, cereals -> "the prairies"
Arctic low lands: oil and gas were discovered

The mountains: farming, mining, lambering, fishing (cod until 1922) Appalachians
Rockies: why it is s cold in the center of Canada -> obstacle to warm air coming to Canada Only 6,6 % of the land is actually suitable for agriculture.

Program: the land and the people
Northern climate: until -50C°, long winter nights, tundra, cool summer (10°C) Continental climate: very cold winters (Atlanta, Manitoba…) very hot summer (30-35°C) -> the prairies and very low rainfall Specific climate in Southern Ontario: very cold in winter...

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