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Cancer Essay

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Biology of Cancer
Chapter 10

Control of Cellular Growth
Genes and protein growth factors control the proliferation of different cell types within tissues. Genes code for: Growth factors Growth factor receptors Proteins acting as regulators Proteins involved in cell adhesion and communication

Stem Cell Differentiation

Stem Cell Differentiation

Terminology
Neoplasia
New and abnormal development of cells that may be benign or malignant and is unresponsive to normal growth control mechanisms Benign – cells do not invade the surrounding tissue Malignant - grow by invading surrounding tissue and have the ability to travel and proliferate at distant sites (metastasis).

Anaplasia
Loss of cellular differentiation/orientation of cells compared to the parent cell. (Looks less like the parent)

Cancer (“malignant neoplasm”)
A neoplasm characterized by the uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells.

Terminology
Autonomy
The cancer cell’s independence from normal cellular controls Signal transduction, cell cycle control, DNA repair, cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, growth factors, and growth factor receptors.

Dysplasia
Abnormal (atypical) changes in size, shape, and appearance of cells Progresses to neoplasia

Terminology
Proto-oncogenes
Unaltered, normal, healthy alleles of genes that control/regulate cellular growth and differentiation

Oncogene
Potentially cancer causing gene Proto-oncogene that has been altered (mutated) by a carcinogenic agent

Anti-oncogenes (tumor suppressor genes)
Encode for proteins that inhibit cell division

Neoplasm Formation

Naming and Classifying Tumors
Tumors are named according to their tissue of origin with the suffix “-oma.” Names with no additional modifiers (blast, multiple, malignant, carci-, sarc-, etc.) are usually benign. Malignant neoplasms of: Epithelial tissue (carcinomas), connective tissue (sarcomas), lymphatic tissue (lymphosarcomas), glandular tissue (adenocarcinoma)

Examples
Benign
Fibroma (fibrous) Chondroma (cartilage) Osteoma (bone) Lipoma (fatty) Hemangioma (vessel) Papilloma (squamous) Glioma (nerve)

Malignant
Fibrosarcoma Chondrosarcoma Osteosarcoma Liposarcoma Hemangiosarcoma Squ...

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Keywords

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