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Cancer Essay

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Vaccarella 1
Julia Vaccarella
Mr. Stout
5 June 2013
Cancer
Cancer is a disease that causes irregular, abnormal cells that enter other tissues to divide uncontrollably. There are more than one hundred different types of these diseases. Most are named based on the place in the body that they begin. Since there are many different types of cancer, it is broken down into five general categories. Carcinoma is a branch of cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. Sarcoma is another type of cancer. It begins in bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia is type of cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and myeloma begin in the immune system’s cells. Lastly, are central nervous system cancers, which start in the tissue of the brain and spinal cord. Cancer cells continue to grow and form new, abnormal cells and can also become other tissues, which normal cells can not do. Growing out of control and invading other tissues are what makes a cell a cancer cell. Cells become cancer cells because of DNA. DNA is in every cell and it directs all the cell’s actions. In a normal cell, the cell either repairs the damage or the cell dies when DNA gets damaged. In cancer cells, the damaged DNA is not repaired, and the cell does not die like it should. Vaccarella 2

Rather than dying, the cell makes new cells that the body doesn’t need. These new cells all have the same abnormal DNA as the first cell does. People can inherit abnormal DNA, but most DNA damage is caused by mutations. It is uncommon to know exactly what causes any one person’s cancer. In most cases, the c...

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