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For serial dilutions, you want to start at 0 concentration to autozero the machine. Even if you’re not using the first tube to autozero the machine, you want to know your background reading. For the upper limit, if you suspect one, you might go slightly above that by a few percentage point. For how you pick the values in the middle, you want a “reasonable spread.” If you’re going from 0 to 12, and you want 3 or 4 points in between to get a nice trendline. 5 to 6 points for a good trendline. Gel system in topic 11 doesn’t require denaturing. The buffer system has no reagent to denature the protein, so the separation is based on the net charge. The protein doesn’t change its shape while moving through the cell, it stays in its “native” state. Because we are under native conditions, the separation is based on charge. If we were denaturing the protein, then we would be concerned about molecular weight. What’s the diff. between normal hemoglobin and mutated hemoglobin in sickle cell patients? Normal hemoglobin has two more acidic residues, and in mutat...

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