Essays /

The Origins Of American Government Essay

Essay preview

Study Unit

The Origins of
American
Government
By
Robert G. Turner Jr., Ph.D.

About the Author
Robert G. Turner Jr. holds a B.S. in business and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in sociology. He has more than 20 years of teaching
experience, mainly at the college level, and is currently serving as an adjunct professor at Virginia Tech, Blacksburg. Dr. Turner is primarily employed as a professional freelance writer. His literary credits include two stage plays, two novels, and two nonfiction works, along with an array of publications in academic and

educational venues.

All terms mentioned in this text that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Use of a term in this text should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Copyright © 2003 by Education Direct, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. EDUCATION DIRECT is a registered trademark used herein under license. Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to Copyright Permissions, Education Direct, 925 Oak Street, Scranton, Pennsylvania 18515.

Printed in the United States of America

In the final part of this unit, you’ll learn that Americans thought of themselves as British subjects for a long time.
When America was born in 1776, British settlers had been
here since 1607. That’s 169 years. Over that period, the
colonists had developed their own customs and ways of
thinking about things. For example, think of the way that
the British and the Americans use the English language.
They both speak English, but there’s a difference. In a way, the colonists were developing their identity as Americans
long before 1776. Then, in the years leading up to 1776,
Americans began to feel hemmed in by Parliament and the
English king. People began to whisper to each other about
independence. When the British made the colonies pay unfair
taxes, that whispering became shouting. American patriots
formed a Continental Congress and openly challenged King
George III of England.

Preview
Preview

You’ll begin this unit by thinking
about the nature of government
in general. Although this course
is about American government,
you’ll first look at ideas about
government across time. You’ll
see how governments began.
You’ll see what the basic purposes of government are now and what they’ve always been. You’ll see how modern governments differ from one another. With all of these things in mind,
you’ll then begin the study of American government. Well,
almost. You see, America’s form of government owes much
to English history. You’ll come to understand how English
ideas of representative government were brought to
American shores. You’ll see that England and America
were—and still are—political cousins.

iii

When you complete this study unit, you’ll be able to

Describe the different types of government and give
examples of each

Outline the way in which English government affected the
government in America

Identify and explain the different types of government in
the early American colonies

Describe the events that caused unrest in the
American colonies

Explain the events of the First and Second
Continental Congress

Summarize the provisions of the Articles of Confederation

iv

Define government and explain its purpose

Briefly outline the major events and battles of the
American Revolution

Preview

1

What Is Government?
The Purpose of Government
Types of Governments

1
3
8

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
BEFORE INDEPENDENCE
The Early Colonists
Magna Carta: Challenges to the King
Parliament: A Check on the Power of Monarchy
The Prime Minister
Government in the Early American Colonies
Types of Colonies

THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE
Unrest in the American Colonies
First Continental Congress
Second Continental Congress
Articles of Confederation
American Revolution

16
16
18
20
22
22
24

32
32
34
35
39
41

SELF-CHECK ANSWERS

49

APPENDIX:
THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

53

Contents
Contents

THE NATURE OF GOVERNMENT

v

The Origins of American Government

THE NATURE OF GOVERNMENT
What Is Government?
Simply put, government is one or more people who exercise
control over a society. A society is a group of people who live and work in a particular area, such as a state or nation. The people in the society may or may not have a say in how the
government operates.
Human societies have existed for many thousands of years.
The earliest societies were small bands, or groups. They
had no government as we know it today. Even so, a form of
governing did exist. Groups of elders would gather to consider the needs of the band and make decisions on important
matters. For example, the elders would decide where the
people should travel next in search of food.
Later, in tribal societies, government became more formal.
Most often, councils of elders gathered under the guidance
of chiefs. Before Europeans arrived in America, tribal chiefs usually served different purposes. Some would act as
authorities on settling disputes. Others would plan for
war or organize religious ceremonies.
As societies became larger and more complex, so did their
governments. About 7,000 years ago, people in the Middle
East and Africa began systematic farming. This type of
development is called an agricultural revolution. Before this, people simply raised vegetables in local gardens. Now, this
new kind of farming produced surpluses of grains like wheat, rice, and oats, which could be stored for future use. That’s important. Before the agricultural revolution, people were
always in danger of running out of food if a crop failed or if game was scarce.

An agricultural
revolution occurs
whenever there are
significant
discoveries,
technologies, or
inventions that
change agricultural
production.

A surplus is the
amount left over
after a need is
satisfied.

1

With organized farming, however, came the need for organized government. In fact, most historians agree that the agricultural revolution brought about organized governments and civilizations.

A social class is a
group of people
with similar positions in society.
Artisans are people
who make things
that people need,
like pots, weapons,
and bricks for
building.

As civilizations rose and fell, societies changed. Harvest surpluses allowed for larger populations. As populations grew, people were divided into social classes (Figure 1). Farmers
made up the largest social class. But there were also rulers and priests, who were usually the only people who could read and write. Other social classes included traders, soldiers,
and artisans. As societies became larger and more complex,
they began to need written laws. The first written laws were developed in Mesopotamia, which is now Iraq.
The earliest roots of modern European government came
from two great civilizations—Greece and Rome. At first,
Greece was the dominant civilization of Europe and the
Mediterranean area. During this time, something extraordinary happened. We call it democracy. About 350 B.C., Athens was the greatest city in a region called Attica. It was in
Athens that democracy was invented, and that’s why our
word democracy comes from Greek. The first part of the
word, demos, means “the people.” Democracy is government that draws its power from the people. Of course, in Athens,
rule wasn’t by all the people. Only male citizens who owned property could gather to make public policy and pass laws.
Slaves, women, and children weren’t considered citizens.

FIGURE 1—As populations grew, people were
divided into social classes. This diagram illustrates the approximate size and rank of some of
these classes.

High Priest

Military Leader

Priests and Scribes

Officers

Artisans

Soldiers

Rulers

Farmers

Slaves

2

The Origins of American Government

All of the major Greek philosophers thought democracy was a bad form of government. Two of these philosophers were Aristotle and Plato.

Aristotle claimed that the com-

Plato, in his critique of democracy,

peting interests in a democracy

called The Republic, claimed that

made for chaos rather than

democracy allowed people to

purposive and deliberated

follow all their passions and

action.

drives without order or control.

As the power of Rome grew stronger, the power of Greece
grew weaker. Yet, the Greek and Roman ideas about government were mixed. In fact, historians speak of this early period as the Greco-Roman period. They do so to remind us that both societies shared ideas about citizenship and government. The Roman Empire in the western part of Europe ended

around 476 A.D. In the eastern part of Europe, it lasted until about 1100 A.D. But, to this day, the foundations of Roman
roads exist in England and all over Europe. Some modern
roads have been built over them. Those old roads serve as
reminders that European civilization was built on Roman
foundations. European and American ideas about law,
citizenship, and representative government came from
Roman times.

The Purpose of Government
All governments have three basic purposes:
1. To decide how food and other resources are to
be distributed
2. To settle disputes among people in an effort to
maintain order
3. To organize the work of the people to meet
common goals

The Origins of American Government

3

Let’s look more closely at each of these purposes.

Distributing Resources
In tribal societies, harvested food was
often brought to a chief. The chief
would then see that the food was distributed. Everyone received a share of the maize (a kind of corn), fish, and
other kinds of food.
Today, our way of getting the things
we need is much more complicated.
People are paid for their work in money, which they use to
buy what they need. Distributing resources in our society
requires many laws and regulations—laws for printing and
distributing money to banks, laws and regulations for all the kinds of businesses and occupations, and so on.
All types of governments are based on two factors: first, who has power to make decisions and second, the way in which
people make a living. When people think of government, they
often think of the power factor. But the main way in which
people make a living is what determines the way that power
is used. The main way people make a living indicates what
kind of economy a society has. The economy and the use of
power go together.
For example, in ancient Egypt most people were farmers. The
pharaoh (supreme ruler) appointed ministers to take a portion of the farmers’ harvests. You can think of these portions as “harvest taxes.” Other officials had to keep track of who owned parcels of land. To do this, they had to develop a form of writing. So, as you can see, Egyptian pharaohs had to use their power to regulate harvests and the storage of food surpluses.

In modern societies, people have many different kinds of
jobs. Only a few people are farmers. Others work in factories. Others mine coal or run power plants to supply electricity.
Lots of people work to provide telephone service. Still others work in banks or grocery stores. Some people are dentists,
doctors, and lawyers. You could add many more occupations
to this list.

4

The Origins of American Government

Because of the great variety of jobs, modern society is said to have a complex division of labor. That is, people make their living in all kinds of different ways. But, most important, all of the jobs you can think of are connected to other people’s jobs. Mechanics are needed because other people make automobiles. Banks are needed to lend money to people who want to buy new automobiles. You can probably think of

many more examples of this sort of thing. Because our economy is complicated, government must serve many purposes. It must regulate buying and selling. It must make sure that
banks have enough money to make loans. It must pass laws
about how people use automobiles. You’re probably getting
a good idea now of why the economy and the use of power
go together.

Settling Disputes
Tribal societies had customs but no
written laws. After the agricultural
revolution, some civilizations needed
written laws to organize work and settle disputes. Where there are laws, there must be government. And
where there’s government, there must
be people who make laws and enforce
laws. Because people often disagree
about many different things, government must have ways to
manage conflict. As you might guess, this means that governments must establish courts of law and police forces. Later in this course, you’ll learn how laws and the courts are set up in America.

Organizing Work to Meet Common Goals
In tribal societies, elders or chiefs
organized people for hunting buffalo
or for defending the tribe against an
enemy. In modern societies, life isn’t
quite so simple. Most work that people do is regulated by organizations like corporations and small businesses and like the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), which collects taxes.

The Origins of American Government

5

On the other hand, the government in America regulates the
economy. For example, it tries to make sure food is safe for people to eat. It also regulates the economy by controlling
the money supply. But individuals themselves decide how to
make their living. The government doesn’t establish private work organizations. The people are basically free to farm the land, start businesses, go to school to learn to fix computers, or do whatever else they would like.

So how do modern governments organize the work of the
people to meet common goals? They do so in a variety of
ways. Let’s look at just two of them.
The common defense. One of the main goals of governments is to provide for the common defense. This means that the government is responsible for protecting and defending
the people who live within the area controlled by that government. In the United States, the federal government is responsible for maintaining the armed forces, which in turn provide for the common defense. The army, navy, marines, air force,

and coast guard are under the control of the United States
government. National Guard units, on the other hand, are
maintained by the state governments. However, in time of
need, the National Guard can be federalized—that is,
brought under the control of the federal government. When
that happens, National Guard units become part of the overall armed forces as long as they’re needed. Gathering intelligence about other countries is also vital to modern defense. For that reason, the U.S. government has established intelligence agencies. The largest and best known of these is the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

Police and emergency services. The federal government
maintains several organizations dedicated to police and emergency services. Policing agencies include the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the U.S. Secret Service. The Secret Service is part of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (Figure 2). Federal emergency service agencies include the Federal

Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National
Red Cross. According to its Web site, the purpose of FEMA is “responding to, planning for, recovering from, and mitigating against disasters.” The National Red Cross offers disaster services, biomedical services, health and safety services,

community services, youth services, volunteer services,
and others.
6

The Origins of American Government

FIGURE 2—The Department
of the Treasury is housed in
this building in Washington,
D.C.

Under the United States Constitution, police powers are
reserved mainly to the states. Local and state police organizations are maintained within the states and localities. The same is true for fire departments and emergency medical
services. Nearly all localities maintain volunteer fire departments and lifesaving squads (Figure 3). FIGURE 3—Most towns have
a volunteer fire department
manned by residents of that
town.

The Origins of American Government

7

Types of Governments
In the world today are hundreds of sovereign states. A state or nation is called sovereign because it has the right to its own form of government. Although there are many different
kinds of national governments, most can be grouped into two
categories: authoritarian governments and democratic governments. An authoritarian government rules without the consent of the people. By contrast, a democratic government is based on the will of the people.

Authoritarian Governments
There are three basic kinds of authoritarian governments:
absolute monarchies, dictatorships, and totalitarian states. Absolute monarchies. Absolute
monarchies are governments ruled
by emperors, kings, or queens who
have absolute power. In 44 B.C.,
Augustus Caesar became the first
Roman emperor. At that time, a
senate advised the king. But the senate had lost its real power. Augustus actually held absolute power.
Much later, around 1643 A.D., Louis XIV held absolute power
as king of France. He called himself le Roi Soliel (the Sun
King). He used that name to show the French people that he
was the center and the source of power in France. Louis XIV
also said, “L’état, c’est moi,” which means “I am the state.” Statements such as these illustrate the power these monarchs held during that period of history.

Louis XIV became king
of France in 1643 A.D.,
when he was only 5
years old. However, he
wasn’t allowed to rule
until 1651 A.D., when he
was 13.

8

Some absolute monarchs, like King Solomon in ancient
Israel, have ruled in a just and wise manner. On the other
hand, many absolute monarchs were cruel and unjust.
In Europe, absolute monarchy was justified by a religious
idea called the divine right of kings. In other words, kings ruled by God’s will. Today, that idea is no longer accepted, and few absolute monarchies exist. Present-day monarchs
like Queen Elizabeth of England don’t actually rule.

The Origins of American Government

The British Parliament and the prime minister govern the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Queen Elizabeth is honored as a symbol of the nation, but
she has little real power. (Later in this study unit, you’ll learn more about Parliament and the prime minister of England.)
Note: Another type of monarchy is called a constitutional
monarchy. In such a government, the powers of the ruler are
limited to those granted under the constitution and laws of
the nation. Some nations with this type of government have a written constitution (for example, Denmark and Norway);
others, like Great Britain, have an unwritten constitution.
Dictatorships. Dictatorships take
different forms. There are pure dictatorships in which one person holds all power. For example, the brutal
military leader Idi Amin was the dictator of the African state of Uganda. He ruled by gathering wealth for
himself and his associates. He did so
by using force and fear to control the
people of Uganda. Juan Perón, another military leader, was
the dictator of Argentina in South America from 1946 to
1974. Perón wasn’t as cruel as Idi Amin. He did help the
industrial workers in the form of pay increases and fringe
benefits. But he ruled the country of Argentina with military power, and he eliminated the people’s constitutional rights. Sometimes, dictatorships exist as small groups called
oligarch...

Read more

Keywords

000 1 10 100 11 1100 12 1215 1272 1287 13 1307 14 140 15 16 1607 1618 1619 1620 1622 1624 1630 1632 1635 1636 1639 1640s 1643 1649 1650 1651 1662 1679 1680 1685 1688 1689 169 17 1702 1753 1754 1763 1765 1766 1767 1770 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777 1778 1781 1783 1788 18 18515 19 1920 1928 1933 1945 1946 1953 1974 1990s 2 2.5 20 2003 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 270 28 29 3 30 31 32 33 34 35 350 36 37 38 39 4 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 476 48 49 5 50 500 51 52 53 54 55 56 6 60 7 70 8 9 925 a.d abdic abl aboard abolish absolut absolv abus academ accept accommod accord accus accustom acquiesc acr across act action activ actual ad add addit adjunct administr adolph adopt advanc advantag advic advis advisor affair affect afloat afraid africa african age agenc ago agre agreement agricultur ah ah-luh-gar-keez ahead aid aim air alik allegi allen allianc allow almost alon along alreadi also alter although alway ambassador amend america american amin ammunit among amongst amount amsterdam ancestor ancestri ancient anger anglican annihil anoth answer appalachian appeal appear appeas appendix appli appoint appropri approv approxim april arbitrari architect area argentina argument aristocrat aristotl arm armi arnold aros around arous array arriv artema articl artisan ascend ascent ask assembl assent associ assum assur athen atlant attack attempt attend attent attica attitud attract august augustus auschwitz author authoritarian automobil avoid away b.c b.s back background bad baltimor band bank barbar baron base basic batteri battl battle-harden battlefield bay bear becam becom bed befriend began begin begun behav behind belief believ benedict benefit benjamin besid best better beverag beyond big biggest bill biomed bishop bit blacksburg blockad bloodless bodi boost border borderland born boston boundari boy boycot boycott brand break breed brethren brick bridg briefli brillianc bring britain british brittish broke broken brooklyn brother brought brutal buchenwald buffalo build built bunker bureau burgess burgoyn burnt busi buy c caesar call calvert came camp canada candid cannon capit captain captiv captur card care cargo carolina carri carta cartoon case casualti categori cathol catholic caught caus cautious cavali cecilius center central centuri ceremoni certain challeng champlain chanc chang chao charact charg charl charleston charter check chesapeak chief children choos chose christian christma church cia circumst citi citizen citizenship civil claim class clatter cleans clear close cloth coal coast cobbleston cold collect colleg coloni colonist com combin come command comment commerc commit committe common commonwealth communism communist communiti compact compani compet complain compleat complet complex complianc complic comput concentr concept concern conclud conclus concord condemn condit conduct confeder confederaci confid confirm conflict confront congreg congress conjur connect connecticut conquer consanguin consent consequ consid consist constitut constrain contact contend content continent continu contract contrast contribut control convent convert convinc convuls copi copyright corn cornwal corp corpor correspond cotton could couldn council count counti countri coupl courag cours court courtesi courthous cousin creat creation creator credit crept crime critic critiqu crop cross crowd crown cruel cruelti cultur current custom cut d.c daili dam danger day deaf deal death debat debt decent decid decis decision-mak declar declaratori dedic deep defeat defend defens defin delawar deleg deliber demand demo democraci democrat denmark denounc dentist depart depend depositori depriv deriv describ desert deserv design desol despot destroy destruct determin develop diagram dickenson dictat dictatori dictatorship didn die differ difficult difficulti direct director dirt disagre disast disavow disciplin discoveri diseas disembark dislik disloyalti displeasur dispos disput dissolut dissolv distant distribut district divers divid divin divis doctor doctrin document doesn domest domin done dorchest dr draft draw dress drew drive drum dump dutch duti earli earlier earliest earth easi east eastern eat econom economi educ edward effect effort egypt egyptian eight either elder elect electr electron elimin elizabeth els elsewher embank emerg emigr emperor empir employ enact encount encourag end endeavour endow enemi enforc england english engrav enlarg enough enrag enslav enter entir entitl equal equip erect eri erupt est establish ethan ethnic europ european even event eventu everi everyon everyth everywher evid evil evinc exact examin exampl except exchang excit execution exercis exist expand expect expel experi experienc explain explan export expos extend extermin extra extraordinari eye fact factor factori fail faith fall fals famili familiar famous far farm farmer farther fast fatigu favor fbi fear feder feel feet fell fellow felt fema fife fifti fight figur final financ financi fire firm first fish fit five fix flaw fled fleet floor focus follow food forbidden forc forefath foreign form formal former formid fort fortif fortifi fortun fought found foundat founder four franc franklin free freedom freelanc french fresh friend fring frontier fuhrer full full-scal function fund fundament fur futur g gain game gar garden gate gather gave general genocid gentleman gentlemen georg georgia german germani germanoccupi get giant give given glorious go goal god goe good got govern governor gradual grain grandfath grant great greater greatest greco greco-roman greec greek green grew groceri ground group grow guarante guard guess guidanc guilford guilti gulag gypsi hair half hall hampshir hancock hand handwrit hang happen happi harass harbor hard harden harder harlem harvest hath haven head health hear heard heart heat heavi height heir held help hem hemp henc herein hessian high highest highland hill hire histori historian hither hitler hold holi holland holocaust home honor hope horatio horizon hot hour hous howe howev hudson human humbl humid hun hun-tah hundr hunger hunt huron idea ident identifi idi ii iii illustr imag imagin immedi immigr immun impel import impos impress inc incap incid includ incom increas inde independ india indian indic individu industri inestim inevit inferior inflam influenc influenti inform inhabit inherit injuri inland innoc instead institut instrument insult insurrect intact intellig intend intent interest interfer intern interrupt intoler introduc invari invas invent inventor invest investig investor involv ir iraq ireland irish islam island isn israel issu item iv jacqu jame jamestown jean jean-jacqu jefferson jersey jew job john join joseph journey jr juan judg judiciari juli june junta juri jurisdict justic justifi keep keez kept kill kind kindr king kingdom knew know known l labor lack ladi lake land landown languag larg larger largest last late later latin launch lavish law lawyer lay le lead leader learn least led left legal legisl legislatur legitim lend leonard lesser let level levi lexington liberti librari licens lie life lifesav lifestyl lift light like limit line list literari litter littl live ll loan local locat london long longer look lord loss lost lot loui louisiana love low loyal loyalist luh lumber m.s made magistr magna magnanim mail main maintain maiz major make male man manag mani mankind manner manufactur map march mari marin mark maryland mason mass massachusett massacr master materi matter may mayflow mean meant meanwhil measl measur mecca mechan medic mediev mediterranean meet member men mental mention mercenari merciless merg mesopotamia met middl might migrat militari militia million mind mine minist minor minut miser mississippi mitig mix mob mock model modern moi moment monarch monarchi money month montreal moral morn most mountain move much multitud murder music must mutini mutual name nation nativ natur navi nazi nazi-occupi near necess necessari need neglect negoti neighbour neither nervous netherland never new news newspap next night nineteenth nobil nobl noisi none nonetheless nonfict north northern northward norway note notic nova novel novemb number oak oat obey object obstruct obtain obvious occup occupi occur ocean octob odd offenc offend offens offer offic offici often old oligarchi one ontario open oper opinion opportun oppos opposit oppress order organ origin other ought outflank outgun outlin outnumb outpost overal overlook overthrown overwhelm owe own owner ownership pace page paid pain paint pamphlet panick paper parallel parcel pari parliament parliamentari part parti partial particip particular pass passion patient patriot paul paus pay payment peac peer penn pennsylvania peopl perfect perfidi period perman permiss permit persecut person persuad perón pete petit ph.d pharaoh philadelphia philosoph philosophi photo photocopi phrase pictur piec pilgrim pilgrimag pioneer pitch place plain plan plant plantat plato play pleas pledg plot plunder plymouth point poland polic polici polit poor popul popular port portion posit possibl post pot power powerless powhatan practic prais prejudic premier prepar prescott presenc present present-day presid press pretend prevent preview price priest primarili prime princ princeton principl print printer prior prison privat privi probabl problem process proclaim prod produc product profession professor profit promin promis promot pronounc propaganda proper properti propos proprietari prosper protect protest protestant-domin prove proven provid provinc provis prudenc public publish punish pure puritan purpos pursu pursuit push put quaker qualifi quarter quebec queen question quit race racial rag railroad rais ran rank rather ratifi ravag raw re reach read real realiti realm reason receiv recent recogn record recov recruit rectitud red redhead redress reduc refer refug refuge refus regard regim regiment region regist regul regular reich reign reinforc relat relianc religi religion relinquish remain remaind remedi rememb remind remov render repay repeal repeat replac repres represent reprint reproduc republ request requir resent reserv resid resist resolv resourc respect respond respons rest restor result retain retard retreat retriev return revenu rever review revis revok revolt revolut revolutionari rhode rice ride rifl right riot risk river road robert rock roger roi role roman rome root rose rousseau royal ru rule ruler run runnymed ruthless sacr safe safeti sag said sail salari sale saratoga satisfi savag savannah saw say scale scarc scatter scholar school scientist scotch scotch-irish scotia scotland scranton scribe sea seaboard search second secret secretari section secur see seek seem seen seiz self self-check self-evid self-govern sell senat send sens sent sentenc separ serbia seri serv servic set settl settlement settler seven sever sex shall share sharehold shewn ship shore short shoulder shout show shown side sign signatur signific silenc similar simpl simpli sinc site situat six size skill skirmish slave slaveri sleep slept slim slip small smith snake snow sobibor social socialist societi sociolog soldier sole solemn soliel solomon someth sometim son soon sort sought soul sourc south southern sovereign soviet spain spanish speak specif speech spender spi spirit spoke spread squad stage stalin stamp stand start starvat state statement staten station step still stood storag store strang strategi street stretch strict strong stronger strongest struggl studi style subject submit substanc succeed success suffer suffrag summar summer sun superior suppli support suprem sure surplus surpris surrend surround surviv survivor suspend swarm swede sweden swedish symbol sympathet system systemat tah take taken tall tangl task taught tax taxat tea teach tech technolog telephon temporari tens tension tenur term terribl territori terror text theocraci therefor therein thin thing think third thirteen thoma thomas thought thousand three throne throughout throw thus ticonderoga tide tie till time tini titl tobacco tobacco-grow today togeth toler took tool top total totalitarian touch toward town townshend trace track trade trademark trader tradit train traitor transient transport travel treason treasuri treati treblinka tree trenton tri trial tribal tribe troop trudg true trust truth turn turner twentieth two two-third type tyranni tyrant u.s uganda ulster ultim unacknowledg unalien unanim uncertain uncomfort understand understood undistinguish unfair unfit union unit unjust unlaw unless unlik unpaid unpopular unrest unruli unsettl unusu unwarrant unworthi unwritten upris upsid us use ussr usual usurp util utter v valid valley valu valuabl varieti ve veget ventur venu vermont version veteran vice victori villag violenc virginia virginian virtu vital vocal voic volunt vote voter wage wagon wait want war ward warfar warn washington wasn wave way weaker wealth weapon web well well-known went weren west western westminst westward whatev whatsoev wheat wheel whenev wherebi wherev whether whisper white whole wholesal wholesom whose wide wildfir william win winter winthrop wipe wisdom wise wish withdrew within without women won wonder wooden word work worker world wors worship would wound wrap write writer written xiv yard year yet york yorktown young youth yugoslavia état