THE BIRTH OF THE CONSTITUTION
The Articles of Confederation
a. Confederation: When a group of people or nations form an alliance.
b. Constituiton: A system of laws by which a country is governed.
c. Commerce: Buying or selling/ exchanging of goods.
2. What was the first form of our national government? The articles of confederation. 3. For a law to pass, how many states had to agree? 9 states. 4. What were the powers of congress under the Articles of Confederation? Congress could declare war, make peace, make treaties, coin or borrow money, create post offices, admit new states and create an army and navy. 5. What could congress NOT do under the Articles? Congress could not tax or interfere with trade between individual states. 6. Why was there no executive under the Articles? They feared the return of tyranny, because of what happened with England. The Constitutional Convention
a. Convention: A meeting or formal assembly, as of representatives of delegates, for discussion and action on particular matters.
b. Compromise: An agreement to settle a dispute by mutual concession.
c. Delegate: A person sent to represent others.
2. Where did the Constitutional Convention meet in May, 1787? Philadelphia. 3. Who served as president of the convention? George Washington. 4. What was the most serious task that the convention faced? How to achieve a balance between liberty and authority. 5. Name two famous politicians who were absent from the convention. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson. Compromise
a. Bicameral: Having two branches/chambers (Legislative body)
b. Unicameral: Having a single legislative chamber.
2. What question was resolved with the Great Compromise? How should states be represented in the legislative body? and who would have control, the small states or large? 3. What plan was supported by the large states? Why? The Virginia Plan, because they had a larger population and would be able to control the government . They favored a plan based on population. 4. What plan was supported by the small states? Why? The New Jersey Plan, because the small states would be equal to the large. They favored a plan based on equality. 5. Fill in the information:
A. Virginia Plan:
1. How many houses? 2.
2. Number of congressmen determined by: Population of state.
B. New Jersey Plan:
1. How many houses? 1.
2. Number of congressman determined by: Same number of votes. 6. What was the Great Compromise, and how did it establish the legislative body? The Great Compromise combined the best attributes of the Virginia and New Jersey plans. The House of Representatives was established based upon population which made the big states happy and the Senate was established by giving all states 2 Senators which made the small states happy. 7. Representatives in the House of Representatives are chosen by: Elected on population. 8. Senators in the Senate are chosen by: Election, one from each state. Separation of Powers
a. Separation of Powers: an act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
b. Checks and Balances: counterbalancing influences by which an organization of system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups.
c. Legislative: having the power to make laws.
d. Executive: having the power to put plans, actions, or laws into effect.
e. Judicial: of, by, or appropriate to a court or judge.
2. Name three ways in which the powers of the United States are divided. The legislative branch, executive branch and judiciary branch. 3. Why are the powers separated? Each branch has different responsibilites and controls and checks the other branches so one branch doesn't become more powerful. 4. What is the job of the legislative branch? Together, the House of Representatives and Senate make laws to govern our country. 5. What is the job of the executive branch? The executive branch carries out the laws passed by the legislative branch. 6. What is the job of the judicial branch? The judicial branch interprets or defines laws. Organization of the Constitution
a. Ratify: sign or give formal consent to (a treaty, contract, or agreement), making it officially valid.
b. Amend: make minor changes in (a text) in order to make it fairer, more accurate, or more up-to-date.
c. Article: bind by the terms of a contract.
2. What do you think the sun represents in Franklin's quotation? The sun represents America. Franklin wasn't sure if it would work out at first, or not. Then realizes that it will. 3. What is the purpose of the Preamble? The Preamble to the United States Constitution is a brief introductory statement of the Constitution's fundamental purposes and guiding principles. 4. How many Articles are in the Consitution? There are 7 articles in the constitution. 5. What is Article I about?
Article I of the Constitution covers the legislative branch of the Federal Government, which is Congress. Article I establishes how Congress is structured (House of Representatives and Senate), how representation in each house is determined, the qualifications of office for Representatives and Senators, how a bill becomes a law, the rights, powers and immunities of each house and/or its members, that a census must be taken every ten years, the powers of Congress, the powers denied to Congress, and the powers denied to the states.
Article II? Article 2 of the United States Constitution is the section that makes the executive branch of the government. The Executive branch of the government is the branch that has the responsibility and authority for the administration throughout the day of the state. In the United States, the executive branch includes the President, and other executive officers like state governors
Article III? Section 3 of Article III addresses and defines the issue of treason against the United States. Treason is specifically defined in this section, taking an expansion of this crime’s definition out of the hands of Congress. 6. What have certain phrases or sections been italicized? Draw attention to the main ideas. The Preamble
1. By whose power was the co...